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BINDING Lir DEC 1 1922 


Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2013 







Volume XLVIII 
April, 1922 — September, 1922 

New York 


ll2 East 19 street 



Volume XLVIII 

April, 1922 — September, 1922 

The material in this index is arranged under authors and subjects and in a few case? 
under titles. Anonymous articles and paragraphs are entered under their subjects. 
The precise wording of titles has not been retained where abbreviation or paraphrase 

has seemed more desirable. 

Abbott, Edith, Schools of social 

work (letter), 222. 
Abortion, 105. 
Abyssinia, slave raids, 28. 
Ackerman, F. L. 

Designer, The, 393. 

Limitation of output (Architect's 
diary III), 14. 

Workmanship and unions (Archi- 
tect's diary IV), 272. 
Avarus, Thomas, 399. 
Adamson, Sidney, 476. 
Adler, Philip, The Daugherty injunc- 
tion, 702. 
Adult education movement, 28. 

Psychoanalysis, 526. 

Survey of appeals received, 709. 
Age and youth, 677. 
Agricultural Almanac, 612. 
Akron, zoning, 116, 636. 
Alaska, 666. 
Albania, 61. 
Allinson, B. D., 611. 
Allmenroeder, K., 117. 

Agricultural, 612. 

Amalgamated Clothing Workers, 
Almy, Frederic. 

On annual reports (letter), 415. 

Red Cross at the crossroads (let- 
ter), 281. 

Verses, 737. 
Altmann-Gottheimer^ Elisabeth, The 

new poor in Germany, 48. 
Amalgamated Clothing Workers, 141, 
201, 645. 

Almanac, 620. 

Chicago convention, 268. 
America, Christianizing, 666. 
America and the Balance Sheet of 

Europe (Bass and Moulton), 90. 
Amer. Ass'n. for org. Family So- 
cial Work, 520. 
Amer. Ass'n. of Hospital Social 

Workers, 523. 
Amer. Ass'n. of Social Service Ex- 
changes, 520. 
Amer. Ass'n. of Social Workers, an- 
nual meeting, report, 518. 
Amer. Birth Control League, 126. 
Amer. Educational Ass'n., 18. 
Amer. Engineering Council, findings 
of committee on elimination of 
waste in industry, 213. 
Amer. Federation of Labor, conven- 
tion, retro-progress, 500. 
Amer. Friends' Service Committee, 

Amer. Fund for Public Service, 498. 
American ideals, makers, 580-581. 
American Philosophy of Government, 

The (Snow), 86. 
Amer. Rolling Mill Co., 408, 410. 
Americanism in Iowa, 712. 
Americanization, 116. 

Carnegie Cooperation Study, 157. 

Johnson bill for fees from aliens, 
Amey, Ellen. 

Music hath power, 109. 
Araoskeag Mills, 6, 555. 

Correction, 61. 

Letter, 59. 
Analysis of the Electric Railway 

Problem (Wilcox), 123. 
Anderson, W. H., 9. 
Annual reports, 415. 
Anthony, S. B., 580. 
Anti-Americanization bill, 382. 
Anti-Saloon League, 9. 
Appalachia (letters), 253. 

Mail and other methods, 384. 

Survey of appeals received by mail, 
Appel, M. H., 623. 
Appleton, Wis., continuation school 

(ills.), 319-320. 
Arbeitersckaft, Die. der Cherricschen 

Grossindustrie (Duisberg), 249. 

Industrial, 618. 

Industrial justice and. 44. 

New tribunal, 266. 
Arbor Day, 126. 
Architect's diary, 14, 272, 393. 
Architecture, 61. 


Coronado decision, 381, 385. 

Social work, 537. , 

Armstrong, D. B., Health — Natl. 

Conf. division report, 515. 
Armstrong, S. C, 581. 

Education, 61. 

People's Art Assembly, 466. 
Art and Religion (Vogt), 250. 
Asheville, N. C, 50. 
Associated Out-Patient clinics, 402. 
Athletics, 279. 

Zoning, 114. 

Zoning, social aspect (letter), 418. 
Atwood, W. W., 18. 
Australia, 257. 

Health poster, 402. 

Hand settlements about Vienna, 

Subscription to the Survey, 126. 
Automobile accidents,. 636. 
Ayres, L. P., on savings, 235. 


Babcock, R. W., 295. 

Bring on the freshmen, 613. 
We are the English soldiers, 305. 
Babcock Galleries, 543, 544, 554. 
Babies, southern sanitarium adver- 
tisement, 623. 
Babsoru R. W., 699. 
Bach Choir of Bethlehem, Pa., 346. 
Back to Methuselah, 213. 
Badge, name instead of number, 700. 
Baer, Gertrude, 224. 
Bagger, E. S., 131, Himler of Him- 

lerville, 146. 
Baker, F. S., Life insurance for 

women, 615. 
Baker, K. W., Pronouns (verse), 155. 
Baker, S. Josephine, 108, 291. 
Baldy, J. M., 28. 
Baltic shipyards, 469. 
Baltimore, Pan-American Conf. of 

Women, 253. 
Banio-players, 651. 
Bank as a social agency, 715. 
Barbour, Violet, Girls club — conven- 
tion, 532. 
Barmore, Jennie, 737. 
Barnes, C. E., Episcopal social work, 

Barnes, Paul, 421. 
Barrie, J. M., 677. 
Barrows, F. M., See Rickman, L. L., 

and F. M. Barrows. 
Bartlett, F. C, 295. Seven paintings 

of China (ills.), 331 334. 
Bastille, key of (letter). 535. 
Baylor, E. M. H., Illegitimacy conf. 

at Providence, 524. 
Beal, A. N., 224. 
Bedford Reformatory, music hath 

power, 109. 
Beggars, ex-soldiers, 104. 
Beisser, P. T., 246. 
Bell, tragedy of a, 119. 
Bell, G. L., A balance wheel, 41. 
Bellevue Hospital conf., 718. 
Bellows, George, 467. 
Belmont, E. R., on H. P. Davison, 

Benjamin, P. L., 427. 

Carolina Playmakers, 436. 

City of Seven Hills (report of the 

Providence Social Workers 

Conf.), 507. 
North Carolina plan, 705. 
One span of 50 years, 236. 
Pirates' Den, 277. 
Progress in North Carolina, 92. 
Red Cross at the cross roads, 208. 
Section hands or engineers? 394. 
Bentley, Henry, 59. 
Berg, H. O., 420. 
Berlin, begging soldiers, 104. 
Bethlehem, Pa., 346. 
Better times, 237. 
Biclcville, E. P., portrait and note, 

Billings, E. C, The follow-up, 709. 
Birch, J. J., Traveling carnivals, 609. 
Birth Control League, 126 
Birthright (Stribling), 628. 
Bismarck, Ott* von, 184. 
Blackfeet and Pueblos— portraits, 

Blacksmith (ill.), 679, 

Blackwell, A. S., plea for release of 

Magon (letter), 124. 
Blake, Mabelle B., 291. 
Blake, William, eight plates for the 

Book of Job, (ills.), 338-339. 
Bland bill, 233. 
Blankenhorn, Heber, After West 

Virginia — Somerset, 238. 
Blazing the trail, 666. 
Blease, C. L., 175. 
Bloch. Louis, 181. 
Bok, Edward, gold medal, 29. 
Bombay Labor Office, 61. 
Bondv, R. E. , Amer. Red Cross at 
Nat'l. Conf. of Social Work, 523. 
Book of American Negro Poetry, 

The (Johnson), 89. 

Child welfare, 83. 

Color line and, 75. 

Education, 83. 

Fair and sale, 72. 

For children, on recreation, etc., 

Latest, 24, 56, 123, 220, 250, 280, 
412, 531, 629, 732. 

Penology, 82. 

Politics, 86. 

Race assimilation, 88. 

Social agencies, list for, 104. 

Sociology, 86. 

Monday Evening Club on social 
workers, 38. 

Zoning, 726. 
Bourdelle, Antoine, 679. 
Bowerman, G. F., 93. 

Librarians (letter), 252. 
Bradley, O. F., 28. 
Bradley, R. M., Naturalization fetish 

(letter), 419. 
Brangwyn, Frank, The mowers 

(woodcuts), 428. 
Brenner, Victor, 507. 
Bridgeman, C. T., Literature on im- 
migration, 79. 
Brief cases, 5. 
British, minimum wage legislation, 

Bromberg, Louis, 466, 467. 
Brooks, W. E., 346. 
Brown, " Louise F., Moliere : social 

reformer, 76. 
Bruiter, 183. 
Bruno, F. J. 

Family, The,— Nat'l. Conf. division 
report, 517. 

Red Cross at the crossroads (let- 
ter), 284. 
Brussels, International University 

(letters), 58. 
Bryn Mawr summer school for 

women workers, 614. 
Bryson, Lyman, 257. 

Red Cross League, 255. 

Mothers', 247. 

National, 604. 

Nebraska, 257. 
Buell, J. B. 

On "bettering" oneself (letter), 59. 

Varieties of case work, 246. 

Calvary Church, 726. 

Charity Org. Society, 737. 

Council of Social Agencies, 617. 

Hospitals vindicated, 597. 

School superintendency, 420. 

Social welfare conf. succeeded by 
a council, 224. 
Building industry. 

Chicago war, 267. 

Costs, 116. 
Bureau of Child Hygiene, 108. 
Burns, A. T., 233, 234. 
Burnside, Clara, Policewomen's conf., 


Not always business, 714. 

Without mvsterv, 408. 
Butler, Josephine, 126. 
Butler, N. M., 69. 
Butte, Mont., 291. 
Butterfield, K. L, 295. 

The units of Chinese civilization, 

Cable bill 
Alien Land 


Law, 257. 

Minimum wages, 420. 
Prohibition, 700. 
California Indians. See Indians. 
Calkins, M. C, 427. 

Prodigal Schooling of Pincus, 473. 
Calvert, H. S., 8. 
Cambridge Rubber case, 170. 
Campbell, Dorcas, Social service ex- 
change, 520. 
Camps, 575. 

Detroit, children, 621, 622. 
Municipal, California, 279. 
National parks (ills.), 548, 552. 
Public, in national parks, 583. 
Canada, unemployment, 244. 
Canfield, Dorothy, 131. 

Inheritance, 173. 
Canning industry. , 

Columbia Conserve Co., 643, 654, 

Disease, study of, 93. 
Cannon, C. J., criticism of her views 

on social work, 429. 
Cannon, T. M., Hospital Social 

Workers, annual meeting, 523. 
Capitalism, Change from feudalism, 

in the Pawtuxet Valley, 441. 
Carlton, F. T., Principles of wage 

determination (letter), 732. 
Carnegie Americanization Study, 157. 

Answers to questionnaire, 158. 
Carolina Folk Plays, 437. 
Carolina Playmakers, 436. 
Carris, L. H^ 29. 
Carstens, C. C, 636. 

Child Welfare League, joint meet- 
ings at Providence, 524. 
Carte, Anto, 78. 
Case Work. 

Constantinople, 622. 
Varieties, 246. 
Vindication, 715. 
Cash and carry systems, 73. 
Cass, E. R., Parole laws and meth- 
ods, 273. 
Catholic charities, 636, 716. 
Catholic Welfare Council, 498. 
Cesare, American Laocoon (cartoon), 

Chamberlain, J. P., New weapons in 

the war against narcotics, 400. 
Chapin, F. S., 636. 

Conference crowd-mindedness (let- 
ter), 415. 
Chaplin, Charlie, quoted, 84. 
Chaplin, Ralph, Prison nocturne 

(verse), 212. 

New York State Charities Aid 

Assn., 236. 
See also Philanthropy: Social 
Charlestown, W. Va., court house, 

Charlotte, N. C, 73. 
Chase, J. H, A circuit for churche» 

(letter), 27. 
Chautauqua, vitalized, 699. 
Chenery, W. L., 543. 

For the least of these, 558. 
Chengtu, 611. 

Boys' club, 120. 

Building war, 267. 

Clogged jails, 707. 

Clothing industry, 73. 

Clothing industry — organized, 

Cook County Jail, 606. 

Cost of living, 28. 

Italian women in clothing indi 

in former days (ill.). 140. 
School of Civics and Philanthi 

(letter), 222. 
Trade government, 233. 
Child, The, and His School (H 
man), 83. 

Child. The, and The Home (Libe 

Child Health Or.?., 215, 729. 
Child Hygiene, Bureau of, 108. 
Child Labor. 

Federal law and other work 

children. 381. 
T^ght against. 497. 
Fourteenth census statistics, 72J 
Law of 1919 declared uncons! 

tional, 266. 
Massachusetts, 126. 
New York law, 257 
Oyster sheds, 621. 


Child Welfare. 117, 277, 403, 621 
Books, 83. 
Danish bill, 118. 
France, S37. 
Germany, 603. 
Internatl. coni., 632. 
Notes and news, 623. 
Wisconsin, 40S. 
Zurich, 713. 
Child Welfare League, joint meet- 
ings at Providence, 524. 

Books for, 279. 

Delinquent, 571. 

German, youth movement and, 2/6. 

Habit training, 22. 

Ideas about play, 279. 

Industrial home work in Rhode 

Island, 404. 
Nat'l. Conf. division meetings re- 
port, 516. 
Suffering, 119. 
Virginia, placement (letter), 634. 
Working, percentage reached by 
federal law, 381. . ,,, 

Children Born out of Wedlock (Man- 
gold), SS. 
Children's Bureau. 

Mentality handbook, 120. 
Mississippi study, 120. 
Children's courts in Westchester 

County, 598. 
Childs, Mrs. R. S., 50. 
Exporting recreation to, 611. 
Hair net making, 663. 
Seven paintings by Bartlett (ills.), 

Textile center, 600. 
Units of civilization, 330. 
Christian economics, conf., 532. 

Circuit for (letter), 27. 
Membership statistics, 93. 
Parks, Leighton, on, 83. 
Surveys of churches in rural set- 
tings, 399. 
Chute, C. L. . „. 

Protection Ass'n., annual conf., 52J. 
Use of probation (letter), 635. 

Industrial Health Conservancy 

Laboratories, 53. 
Tuvenile court test, 701. 
Social unit, 105. 
Cincinnati Social Hygiene Society, 


Org. in development, Germany, 28. 
Vacation in the great city (ills.), 
Cities of peace, 611. 
Citizenship of married women, 497. 
City clubs, 398. 
City Government League, 420. 
Citv planning, 291. 
Cartoon, 264. 
East Orange, 398. 
Milwaukee, 116. 
Massachusetts cities, 726. 
National conf. on, 414. 
New York, 270. 
Civics, 112, 273, 609, 723. 
Germany, 529. 
News, 398. 
Civil Service Reform, 420. 
Civilization and the almanac, 612. 
Clark University, 18. 
Class hatred and the Friends So- 
ciety, 383. 
Cleaves, C. P., The strike (veise) 


Bank as a social agency, 715. 
Children's work, 623. 
Community Welfare Conf., 532. 
Families cared for, 716. 
Cleveland, F. A., National budget, 

'linics, clinic for, 402. 
thing industry. 

malgamated workers, convention 
at Chicago, 268. 
hicago, 73. 

hicago — organized, 141. 
.ducation during a strike, 626. 
talian woman taking garments 
home (ill.), 140. 

few York workroom (ill.), 448-449. 
tochester agreement, 201. 
itrike of 1919-20— real story, 171. 
ibs, 5. 

ll barge workers, 651. 
al industry. 
Coal commission, 207. 
Coal commission bill, 233. 
Coal fields (map), 40. 
Compulsory inquiry, 206. 
Contribution toward a solution of 

the problem, 181. 
Himler mine, 146. 
Lay of the land in the strike. 40. 
„ocomotive engineers' mine, 722. 
Negotiations, progress, 601. 
T egToes in, 28. 
| n -union field, 74. 
die interest in the strike, 208. 

Situation, investigating (cartoon), 

Somerset, Pa., 238. 
Strike situation, 383. 
Week end at Connellsville, 106. 
West Virginia miners, 6. 
Coal mine fatalities, 54, 737. 
Coleman, G. W., 699. 
Coles, Mr., 12. 

Collective bargaining, 99, 645. 

Drinking among students, 598. 
Freshman flood, 299. 
Increase in students, 613. 
Negro girl's position, 713. 
Student self-determination, 217. 

Teaching we deserve? 218. 
Vacation jobs for women, 620. 
See also Universities. 
Collegiates, social work month, 396. 
Collett, F. G, 131. 

Undelivered pottage, 135. 
Columbia Conserve Co., 643, 654, 

Columbia University : 526. 
Commencement orations, 526. 
Communist drawings, 470, 471. 
Communist Labor Party and C. A. 

Whitney, 224. 

Delinquent girls and, 371. 
Farmers, census, 609. 
Singing, 109. 
Community buildings, rural, 724. 
Community chests. 
Asheville, 50. 

Results of inquiry in 41 cities, 70. 
Community church workers, confer- 
ence, 414. 
Community cow, 233. 
Community org., two examples, 726. 
Compromise, 677. 

Conferences, 57, 92, 221, 253, 413, 
532, 633. 
Conference idea in democracy (so- 
cial studies), 199. 
Criticized as crowd-minded (let- 
ter), 415. 
Three great international, 630. 
Congress and social hygiene, 497. 
Connecticut, Conf. of Social Work, 

Connellsville, week end at, 106. 
Constantinople, case work, 622. 
Continuation school (ills.), 319-320- 
Cook, H. N., drawings, 427. 447, 
448, 449, 451, 644, 646, 647, 649, 
Cook County Jail, 606, 707. 
Coolidge, Ellen, Settlements in 

France (letter), 635. 
Cooper, F. S., drawings, 666-667. 
Cooper, Peter, 580. 
Cooperation, Italian movements. 257. 
Copper and Brass Research Assn., 

Cornel! Univ. Medical School's pay 

clinic, 61. 
Coronado decision, 381, 385. 

Montague and Sayre letters. 633. 
Correctional schools for girls, 361- 

Corvallis, Ore., 72. 
Cost of living, Ohio, 620. 
Councils, two new — Newark and Buf- 
falo, 617. 
Country. See Rural life. 
Courage and youth, 677. 
Courts, 503. 

Cramp shipvard strike, 241. 
Crawford, Ruth, 291. 

The Immigrant — Natl. Conf. divi- 
sion report, 516. 
Credit and delivery svstems, cost. 73 
Crisis, The, of the Churches (Parks). 

extracts, 83. 
Crocker, M. E., 643. 

In court (verse), 668. 
Crowd-mindedness. 415. 
Crnxton. F. C, 291, 420. 
Crum. Parnell, Rays to the rescue 

(letter), 124. 
Current problems. 697. 
Cutler, J. E., 715. 
Czecho-Slovakia, 105. 
Drink traffic. 701. 
Education. 614. 
Prison reform, 11. 

Dairy products campaigns, 22. 
Dalton Laboratory Plan, The 

(Dewey). 83. 
dangerous knowledge. 235. 
Dare, Helen, Justice or jujubes?, 269. 
Darwin, Charles. 560. 
Daugherty injunction. 702. 
Daumier. Honore 470. 471. 
Darella Community, 124. 
Davenport, Eugene, 661. 
Davenport, W. P.. 201. 
David, C. A.. 175. 
Davis. M. M., Tr.. 499. 
Davis. O. W.. 395. 
Davison, H. P. 

Portrait, 232. 

Red Cross work, 237. 
Dayton, Kiwanis Club, 714. 

Deacon, J. B., Red Cross at the 

crossroads (letter), 282. 
Death rate, decline, 213. 
Declaration of Independence, 18. 
Deering, Tom, Through rebote to 

civic rights, 725. 
Delaware, social workers, 6. 
Deliberation and discussion, 415, 416. 
Deliberative groups (social studies), 

Juvenile, scientific study, 403. 
Recreation and, 277. 
Democracy, 561. 

Deliberative groups (social stud- 
ies), 199. 
Indifference of the people, 105. 

Child welfare bill, 118. 
Divorce, 49. 

International People's College, 216. 
Dennison, H. S., 61. 
Dental service, 499. 
Denver Music Week, 420. 
Dependency and prohibition, 598. 
Designer, 393. 
Derieux, J. C, 131. 

Crawling toward the promised 
land, 175. 
Des Moines. 

Americanism, 712. 
Most useful citizen, 185. 

Camp for children, 621, 622. 
Chart of city enterprises, 399. 
Kite Day, 279. 
Unemployment ended, 204. 
Unemployment relief, 47. 
Devine, E. T. 

Ku Klux Klan in Texas, 10. 
Ku Klux Klan (letter), 2S1. 
More about the Klan, 42. 
Teaching we deserve? 218. 
Turn in Iowa, 388. 
Dewey, Tohn, 563. 
Dexter, E. K., 463. 
Dexter Asylum, 463. 
"Diet and Race" (Armitage), 88. 
Differences in people (social stud- 
ies), 697. 
Dinwiddie, Courtenay, 106. 
Discipline for delinquent girls, 374. 
District of Columbia, 537. 
Divorce in Denmark, 49. 
Dog funeral (letter), 58. 
Douglas, P. H., 682. 
Dowd, Q. L., Canine funeral (let- 
ter), 58. 
Drama, Carolina Playmakers, 436. 
Dramatic music (ill.), 298. 
Drugs. See Narcotics. 
Drury, H. B., on the twelve-hour 

day, 703. 
Dublin, L. I., on nursing records, 

Duggan, S. P., International Uni- 
versity (letter). 58. 
Dummer, Mrs. W. F., 362. 
Dust phthisis, 722. 
Dutcher, Elizabeth, 104. 

East Orange, 398. 

Easter message (poster), 71. 

Eastman, Fred, 643. 

Blazing the trail, 666. 
Eberstadt, Rudolf, 291. 

Death. 636. 
Economic Basis, the, of Politics 

(Beard). 87. 
Economic laboratory (cartoon). 100. 
Economics and Evanston Conf. of 

Methodist Federation, etc., 532. 
Economics of British India (Sar- 

kar), 121. 

Academic forced retirements, 218. 

Adult, in England, 316. 

Adult, movement, 28. 

Books, 83. 

Centralization and decentralization, 

Comment from Norway, 17. 
Conditions, 16. 
Czecho-Slovakia, 614. 
Delinquent girls, 368. 
Democracy in, 345. 
Drift, 312. 

England, unified system, 103. 
For what? (letter), 534. 
Limits (digest of G. B. Shaw's lec- 
ture), 219. 
Pioneers — school panels, 581. 
Quantity production in higher edu- 
cation, 659. 
School world and real world, 559. 
Straws in the wind. 526. 
Three leaders (Natorp, Hall and 
Su Hu), 325. 
Education (social studies), 296. 
Education for Social Work (Stein- 

er), 730. 
F.ebert. J. C, 526. 
Elements of Social Justice (Hob- 
house), 628. 
Eliot. T. D., a limbo for cruel words, 

Elizabeth, N. J., League of Neigh- 
bors, 723. 
Ellerbe, P. L, 131. 

Red, white and blue tape, 157. 
Elliott, J. L., 126. 
Elmira Reformatory, 273. 
Elsinore, Denmark, 216. 
Emerson, Haven, Report on Buffalo 

hospitals, 597. 
Energy, 677. 
Engineers and the twelve-hour day, 

Engines of progress, 112. 

Adult education, 316. 

Educational system, 103. 

Minimum wage legislation, 720. 
English, J. N v 72. 
Episcopal social work, 519. 
Erie, Committee of Sixteen and pub- 
lic morals, 202. 
Ethical Culture Society, industrial 

program, 619. 

As the Land of Uz, 337. 

Proletarian youth, 600. 

Students' tours, 93. 
Evans ville, Ind., Newcomers' Club, 5. 
Everyday Civics (Finch), 91. 
Exceptional children, Nat'l Assn., 

etc., 522. 
Ex-service men, disabled, 719. 
Eyesight, defective, 20. 

Fabre, Henri (with portrait and ills.), 

Facing Old Age (Epstein), 412. 

Factories, hours of work in New 
York, 620. 

Fairchild, H. P., Old immigration 
and new (letter), 25. 

Fairs, games of chance at, 609. 

Fall River, Mass., 558. 


Institution versus, 119. 
Natl. conf. division meetings re- 
port, 517. 

Family Social Work, Amer. Assn. 
for org., 520. 

Family welfare, 394, 615, 714. 

Far East and Near East, 414. 

Farm Cities Corp. of America, 116. 

Farm council, 6f>2. 

Farm labor, conditions, 126. 

Farm management, 112. 

Farm tenancy in North Carolina, 

Farmer who was holy man, 574. 

Farmers, why they move to town, 

Father, The, and His Boy (Gallo- 
way), 731. 

Posture and, 52. 
Working conditions and, 54. 

Faulkner, Barry, 298. 

Faust, J. W., 420. 

Federal Hill House, Providence, R. I. 

Feis, Herbert. 

Labor re-united, 602. 

Minimum wage legislation, 720. 

Fellowship, principle and practice. 

Feudalism in the textile industry in 
Rhode Island, 441. 

Fieser, J. L., Statement as to do- 
mestic work of the Red Cross, 

Fifth Avenue Coach Co., badge, 700. 

Finot, Jean, death, 636. 

Fisher, Mrs. D. C., 131. 
Inheritance, 173. 

Fishtown, 241. 

Fitch, J. A. 

Labor's liability (letter), 536. 
Retro-progress of the A. F. of L.. 

Foerster, R. L., 737. 

Folk art at Philadelphia. 116. 

Folklore. Svrian, 572. 652. 

Folks, G. H., Special classes for rural 
children, 405. 

Folks, Homer, message as President 
of Natl. Conf. of Social Work 
(with portrait), 512. 

Follow-up, 709. 

Foods of the Foreign-Born (Woods), 

Force, appeal to (social studies), 3. 

Foreign exchange peddlers. 599. 

Foreign Language Information Ser- 
vice, 105. 
Foreign Press Service. 235. 

Forest Hills Gardens, 257. 

Form of Record. A. for Hospital So- 
cial Work (Farmer), 530. 

Fox, Genevieve, Investing money in 

play. 278. 

Child welfare. 537. 
Civil service, 70. 
Settlements (letter), 635. 
Francke, Ernst, 537. 


Frazee-Bower, Helen, Contentment 

(verse), 607. 
Freedom, pioneers — school panels, 

Free speech. 

Clark University, 18. 
Wisconsin, University of, 17. 
Freeman, F. U., 291. 
Freshmen, 299. 
Western, 305. 
Friends, Society of, 579. 
Class hatred and, 383. 
Newport (R. I.), meeting house, 

Relief work in Russia and Poland, 
Friends Creek, discussion (letters), 

Fruit of the Loom, 441. 
Fuel Administration, 181. 
Fuhlsbiittel, 275. 
Fundamentals, 391. 
Funeral waste, 58. 
Funkhouser, L. W., A study of ve- 
nereal disease cases, 624. 
Furbush, E. M., Mental Hygiene — 
Natl. Conf. division report, 514. 
Furniture guilds, 61. 


Gailliard, Frans, 82. 

Galpin, C. J., 725. 

Gambling devices, 608, 609. 

Games, book of, 279. 

Games of chance, 608, 609. 

Gandhi, M. K., letter from, 184. 

Gandhi (verse), 43. 

Garden cities, internatl. meeting, 

London, 256. 
Garden homes for Germany, 102. 
Garfield, H. A., 181. 

Public interest in the coal strike 
(address, April 21). 205. 
Garment workers, posture and fa- 
tigue. 52. 
Garrett, P. W., 103. 
Garrison, W. L., 580. 
Cartenkunst im Staedlebau (Koch), 

Gary. E. H, 38, 101. 
Gatchell, Earle, 535, 537. 
Gate of heaven, 699. 
Gates, R. P., 28. 
Gavit, J. P., 157. 

Americanization findings, 159. 
Old immigration and new (letter), 
Geier, O. P., Platform for the indus- 
trial physician, 52. 
Geophone, 722. 
Georgia women, working conditions, 

Child care, 603. 
City development org., 28. 
Civic problems. 529. 
Garden homes, 102. 
New poor in, 48. 
Prison reform, 275. 
Why she fights reactionaries — pic- 
tures of W. Krain, 565. 
Youth movement — outgrowth, 276. 
Gessler. C. .F.. 131. 

Villager sings (verse). 162. 
Gilman, Elisabeth, 291. 

Strike relief (letter), 536. 
Ginsberg, Lewis, 678, 680. 
Wayward, and reformatories, 257. 
Where girls go right (correctional 
schools), 361-376. 
Girls' Clubs, Nat'l. League conven- 
tion, 532. 
Glacier National Park, 550 (ill.), 553 

Glucksman, H. L., Jewish Commu- 
nity Center — secretaries conf., 
Going, C. B., 295. 

Henri Fabre. 307. 
Golden Rule Factory (letter), 223. 
Goldmark, Josephine, 500. 

Nursing Education (letter), 634. 
Goodale, W. S., 597. 
Gorgas, W. C, 581. 
Government, fund for improved meth- 
ods, 737. 
Governmental research conference, 

Graham. E. K., 219. 
Grand Junction, Colo., 115. 
Granite-stone industry, 722. 
Gray, J. H., 532. 
Great Unknown (cartoon), 264. 
Green Mountain Club. 575. 
Greene, Paul, 437, 440. 
Greensboro. N. C, 233. 267, 417. 
Grenness, Otto, letter from Norway, 

Gries, J. M., 528. 
Griffith, Sanford, 427. 

Prison reform in Europe — Ger- 
many, 275. 
Russian factory wheels in motion, 

Groceries, credit-and-delivery system, 
cost, 73. 

Grossman, E. M., 425, 427. 

Grouitch, Mrs. Glacko, 291. 

Groups, deliberative. function in 
democracy (social studies), 199. 

Gulf coast, child labor, 621. 

Gulick, Luther, Governmental re- 
search conference, 413. 


Habit clinic, 22. 
Hair nets, 663. 
Haiti, grip of empire, 202. 
Hall, F. O., Golden Rule in indus- 
try (letter), 223. 
Hall, G. Stanley (with portrait), 327. 
Hamilton, Norah, 131, 140, 141. 
Hamilton, W. I.. 22. 
Hampton Institute, anniversary, 265. 
Handicapped, rehabilitation of, 22. 
Hapgood, W. P., 643. 

High adventure of a cannerv, 654, 

Portrait, 682. 
Harmon Foundation, 537, 729. 
Harris, F. R., 543. 

Delinquents in the garden, 571. 
Harris, Muriel, 118. 
Harris. R. J., 131. 

Portrait of a friend (verse), 184. 
Hart, J. K., 295, 543. 

Can fundamentals be changed? 

Educational drift, 312. 

World in the teacher's mind, 559. 
Hart, Schaffner and Marx, 141. 
Hartford, playgrounds, 279. 
Harvard Universitv, 526, 659, 660. 
Haviland. D. C. F., 29. 
Haynes, B. H, 579. 
Haynes, G. E., 28. 

Haynes, Rowland, Cleveland Com- 
munity Welfare Conf., 532. 
Haywood, Bill, 8. 
Health, 19, 213, 624, 717. 

Education in Austria (with pos- 
ter), 402. 

Natl. conf. division meeting's re- 
port, 515. 

News and notes. 22. 215. 718. 

Trade unions and. 21. 

Workers' health bureau in Spain. 
Health Education and the Nutrition 

Class (Hunt and others). 84. 
Health officers in politics, 401. 
Healy, Michael, 557. 
Hearsev, M. C, Central Park (verse), 

Heart diseases, 719. 
Henry, E. G., Medical social ser- 
vice (letter). 60. 
Hieh schools, 660. 
Hillman, Sidney, 268, 645. 
Him'er, Martin. 146. 

Portrait, 147. 
Hinder of Himlerville, 146. 
Hine, R. W., 427, 643. 

Postal service work portraits, 455- 

Truckmen, the new (work por- 
traits), 641, 643, 669. 

American ideals. 580-581. 

Text books in New York City. 614. 

War books and memories. 577. 
History. The, of Public Poor Relief 

in Massachusetts (Kelso), 731. 
Hobart. Ethel, The people decide, 

Hoffman. C. W., 701. 
Hoffman. F. L.. 257. 
WolnVn. Mass.. 725. 
Hollander. F M., Pan-American 

women, 253. 
Hollingsworth. Horace, 185. 
H«me economics. 636. 

Housing and. 610. 
Homo economics (cartoon). 100. 
Home Service in Action (Savles). 23. 
Homeless men in New York, 50. 
Hookworm. 719. 

Virginia. 625. 
Hoover. H. C Some human wastes 

in industrv. 505. 
Wosnital Dav, 126. 
Hospital Information Bureau, 20. 
Hospital Social Workers. Amer. 

Ass'n., annual meeting, 523. 

Buffalo. 597. 

Executives. 719. 

Ohio, management, 718. 

Routine. 597. 
Hours of Work. 

Columbia Conserve Co.. 656. 

New Hampshire forty-eight hour 
bill (letter). 59. 

Output and, 54. 

Weekly, New York, 620. 

Women, 722. 

See also Twelve-hour dav. 
House next door, The, 479. 


Austria, 611. 

Germany, garden homes, 102. 

Government and, 528. 

Home economics and, 610. 

Ferry-built houses, 399. 

Literature, 80. 

Metropolitan Life Insurance Co. 
scheme, 527. 

Room registries (letter), 534. 

Working women, 113. 
How God Took Moses' Soul. 678. 
Hoyer, R. A., 421. 
Hugo Stinnes (Brinckmeyer), "!80. 
Human nature, two books on, 81. 
Hunter, E. B., 718. 
Hilder, John, Government and hous- 
ing, 528 


Illegitimacy. Inter-City Conf., 524. 

Tvphoid carrier, 737. 
Women and children, 120. 
Illiteracy, 318. 

Interpreting America to, 105. 
Labor organization and, 447. 
Natl. conf. division meeting's re- 
port, 516. 
Value and character, 9. 
Immigration, 291. 
Literature on, 79. 
Old and new (letter and reply). 25. 
South Australia, 257. 
Independence, 18. 
Indeterminate sentence, 273. 
India, lenrosy, 257. 
Indian Factories Amendment Act. 61. 
Indiana University (letter), 60. 
Indians, 666. 

California Indians and the Lost 

Treaties, 135. 
California Indians — justice or 

iuiubes, 26". 
Michigan, 103. 
Portraits (by Kihn), 129, 163-168, 

Red man as the white man sees 
him (ill.). 134 
Industrial and Economic Problems, 
Natl. Conf. division meeting's re- 
port. 514. 
Industrial arbitration, some uses, 

Industrial health laboratories, 53. 
Industrial hygiene.. 54. 
Industrial management, 721. 
Industrial music, 721. 
Industrial physician, platform. 52. 
Industrial rehabilitation, 215. 
Industrial relation. 
Arbitration. 44, 618. 
Disputes, 169. 
Ethical program. 619. 
Loading the olive branch. 645. 
Norway, 39. 
San Francisco. 41. 
Industrial Standards. 475. 
Indu«*rial welfare, internatl. conf., 

Industry. 618. 

Invention and labor, 690. 

Notes. 620. 721. 

Reforms and negative reforms of 

the decade. 475. 
Russian organization 468 
Social workers and (lettert. 732. 
Some human waste' in 50"> 
Industrv and Human Welfare (Chen- 

ery), 121. 
Infant mortality, thermometer for 

countries, 21. 
Influenza, immunitv, 21. 
Inheritance laws, 173. 
Injunction aerainst the striking shop- 
men, 702. 
Institutions and girls. 361-376 
Insurance, life, for women, 615 
Intelligence, appeal to (social 

studies'!. 35. 
Tnternat'l. Ass'n. of Policewomen, 524. 
Tnternat'1. conferences. 630. 
Tnternat'l. friendship. 737. 
Internat'l. Garden Cities and Town 

Planning Ass'n., 256. 
Tntemat'l minds. 525. 
Internat'l. People's College, 216. 
Internat'l. University (letters), 58. 
Interstate Park. 575. 

Invention and labor relations. 699. 
Agricultural turn for the better, 

Americanism. 712. 
Child Welfare Research Station, 

Public health nursing. 737. 

Italians in Providence, R. I., 397. 

Child hygiene, 119. 

Cooperative movements, 257. 

Jackson, H. E., 737. 

Jackson, J. F., Red Cross at the cross 

roads (letter), 283. 
Jackson, L. M., 737. 
Jacobs, P. P. 

Fight against tuberculosis, 254. 

Red Cross at the crossroads (let- 
ter), 284. 

Cook County, 606, 707. 

Michigan, 274. 

Y. M. C. A. in, 103. 
James, William, 561. 
Jaundice, 215. 
Java, 643. 
Jazz, 346. 

Jefferson, Thomas, 580. 
Jenness, Mary, 543, 643. 

Syrian stories, 572, 652. 
Jewell, Va., 724. 
Jewish Community Center, 519. 
Jewish folklore, 678. 
Jewish Social Research, 93. 
Jewish Social Service, Natl. Conf., 

Jews, 169. 

Universities and, 659, 660. 

Youth in America, 525. 
Jews, The (Belloc), 628. 
Job, Book of (Blake's pictures), 338- 

John Morrell Packing Co., 722. 
Johnson, Mrs. C. A., 28, 705. 
Johnson, E. M., Massachusetts mini- 
mum wage, 242. 
Johnson, F. R., Public relief of un- 
employment, 47. 
Johnson bill, 382. 
Jones, Cheney C, 257. 
Jordan, E. O, 93. 
Journal of Social Forces, 737. 
Judge Allmenroeder, 117. 
Jump, H. A., 543. 

Six months in a strike city, 555. 
Junior college, 659. 
Junior month, 396. 
Junk business vs. schooling, 473. 

High cost, 504. 

Pioneers — school panels. 580. 
Justice, Dept. of, criticized in Senate 

report, 5. 
Justice or Jujubes, 269. 
Juvenile courts. 

Cincinnati test, 701. 

Great judge, 117. 

Ohio State University institute on, 

Kansas, Free medical attention, t,*. 

Kantor, Morris, 467. 

Kaplan, B. D., Jewish Social Ser- 
vice — Nat'l. Conf., 518. 

Kellogg, P. U. 

Announcement of summer sched- 
ule, 265. 
City gate of the New World, 270. 
Week end at Connellsville, 106. 

Kellv, Kate. 712. 

Kelso, R. W., Red Cross at tne 
crossroads (letter), 281. 

Kelso, R. W., and F. B. Sayre, Depth 
profounder still, 386. 

Kenderdine, J. D., Business is not 
always business, 714. 

Kennard, B. E., Youth movement 
in Y. W. C. A., 221. 

Kennedy, A. J., 479. 
Settlements, conf., 630. 


Locomotive Engineers' coal mine, 

Radiophone (letter), 124. 

Kenyon bill, 45. 

Keren Hayesod, 203. 

Kihn, W. L.. Indian portraits, l^y, 
163-168, 737. . 

King, Anna, Red Cross at the cross- 
roads (letter), 287. 

Kingsbury, J. A., 400. 

Kingsley, S. C, Organization ot 
Social Forces — Natl. Conf. di- 
vision report, 512. 

Kirchwey, G. W., Cook County Jail 
Survey, 606, 708. 

Kite Day. 279. 

Kiwanis Club, 714. 

Knight, S. A., 445. 

Knight (B. B. & R.) Co., 441. 

Knowledge, dangerous, 235. 

Koch, F. H, 436. 

Kose, Dr. Jaroslav, 62. 

Krain, Willibald, 565. 

Kritch, Dr. N, 201. 

Kruse, S. A., Education for what? 
(letter), 534. 

Ku Klux Klan. 
Congressional resolution aimed at, 

Discussion (Ware ; A Texan ; De- 
vine), 251. 
Linderman ease, 267. 





Linderman, E. C, on (letter), 417. 
More about, 42. 
Texas, 10. 


Immigration as a factor in or- 
ganization, 447. 
Legislation in Massachusetts, 701. 
Liability (letter), '536. 
Reunited in Europe, 602. 
Settling disputes, 64S. 
Labor (Desmond), 248. 
Labor and Democracy (Huggins), 

Labor Board. See Railroad Labor 

Labor disputes, Ripley, W. L., on, 

169, 645. 
Labor unions, Supreme Court on 

381, 385. 
Ladies' cloak, suit and skirt industry, 

La Fontaine, H., International Uni- 
versity (letter), 58. 
Laguna, N. M., Indians, 163, 164, 

Lancaster, Pa., 612. 
Landless men, 398. 
Lane, W. D. 

Chicago's clogged jails, 707. 
Punished while awaiting trial, 606. 
Laocoon, American (ill.), 156. 
Latin America, 667. 
Lauderback, J. L., Visiting Teachers, 


Attitude to (social studies), 3. 
Social work and, 503. 
What is law? (social studies), 99. 
Lawmakers, 711. 

Lawrence, G. W., Christian econo- 
mics, conf., 532. 
Laws of Sex ; The (Hooker), 56. 
Lawyers, 5. 
Lay, E. A., 437, 440. 
League of Neighbors, 723. 
Legal Aid Societies, Conf., 92. 
Legien, Carl, 421. 
Legislation, labor, Massachusetts, 

Leigh, W. R., 543. 

Land of his fathers (ill.), 554. 
Leonard, A., 600. 
Leprosy, 737. 
India, 257. 
Levin, Samuel, 143. 

Portrait, 142. 
Lewinski-Corwin, E. H., 20. 
Lewis, J. L., 182. 
Lewis, W. M., 295. 

The nation's need and the schools, 
Librarians, 93, 252. 
A. L. A. annual meeting, 533. 
Building in a self-made town 

(cartoon), 68. 
Charlotte, N. C, 73. 
New York City, colored people, 75. 
Life, longer, 213. 
Life insurance for women, 615. 
Limbo for cruel words, 389. 
Limitation of output in the building 

industry, 14. 
Lincoln House, 579. 
Lindeman, C. E., 267. 

On the Ku Klux Klan (letter), 417. 
Lindsay, S. M., The twelve-hour day 

and the engineers, 703. 
Linville, H. R., Teacher turns critic, 

Loading the olive branch, 645. 
Loans to students, 535, 537. 
Lochinvar (ill.), 676. 
Locomotive engineers, coal mine, 

Lonegren, I. C, Marriage in Sweden, 

Long Trail of the Green Mountain 

Club, 575. 
Longshoremen, 169, 647, 649. 
Looker, S. J, Haunted (verse), 77. 

Quest, The (verse), 111. 
Lord, F. T., 21. 
Los Angeles. 
Camp, 279. 
County planning, 116. 
Industrial music, 721. 
Radiophone, 224. 
Londerback, J. L., Visiting teachers, 

conf., 633. 
Louisiana, child labor, 621. 
Lowell. A. L, 526. 
Loyalty oaths, teachers', 384. 
Lubahn, Johannes, 102. 
Luck, 609. 
Lusk laws. 

Teachers accused under, hearings, 

Teachers and, 384. 
Lynde, E. D., Show the need — then 

meet it, 616. 
Lyon, Mary, 581. 
Lyon, Walter, 72. 

Mac Alpine, James, To the city 

(verse), 665. 
MacArthur (Mary) Memorial com- 
mittee, 722. 
McConn, Max, 295, 643. 
Freshman flood, the, 299. 
Quantity production in higher edu- 
cation, 659. 
McConnell, W. C, 12. 
McCord, C. P., 53. 
McCulloch, O. C, 257. 
McDonald, Lake (ill.), 553. 
McHenry, M. B., 295. 

The city's youngest, 322. 
MacKinnon, Cecilia, 295. 

Lost causes (verse), 324. 
MacLean, A. M., 427. 

Where color lines are drawn, 453. 
McPeak, Ival, Trade unions and 

health, 21. 
McRae, T. C, 537. 
Madison (Wis.) Public Welfare 

Ass'n., 616. 
Magon, R. F., 124. 
Makers of Light (play), 420. 
Malaria control, 625, 626. 
Man Who Shot God, 680. 
Manchester, N. H., textile workers, 

6, 555. 
Mangold, G. B., 396. 
Manly, B. M., 618. 

Arbitration and industrial justice, 
Mann, Horace, 581. 
Manny, F. A., 295. 

An old teacher of the western 
world, 327. 
Mansbridge, Albert, 28, 295. 

Adult education in England, 316. 
Portrait, 317. 
Mariemont, 399. 
Mariposa Grove, 551. 
Market garden truck (ill.), 674. 
Clinic, Vienna, 28. 
Denmark, 49. 
Sweden, 616. 
Youthful, 118. 
Marshall, C. E., Room registries 

(letter), 534. 
Maryland, child labor, 621. 
Masaryk, T. G., 614. 
Child labor, 126. 
Drifting between school and job, 

Labor legislation upheld, 701. 
Minimum wage, 242. 
Savings bank life insurance, 615. 
Masslich, G. B., 279. 
Maternity center of New York, 215. 
Mather, S. T., 547, 553. 
Mathiasen, S. A., Internat'l. People's 

College, 216. 
Matthews, E. N., Child labor at the 

Fourteenth Census, 727. 
May, Stacy, 416. 
Mead, Elwood, 62. 
Meaning of Family Endowment, The 

(Stocks), 121. 
Mechanics (ills.), 670, 671. 
Medical aid, mutual, 625. 
Medical social service, 718. 

Indiana University (letter). 60. 
Mental deficiency bill, New York, 71. 
Mental hygiene. 
Children, 119. 
Early habits, 22. 
Literature, 78. 

Natl. conf. division meeting's re- 
port, 514. 
Mental treatment, 93. 
Merrimack river, 555. 
Merriweather, Dr./ 246. 
Metropolitan Life Insurance Co., 

housing scheme, 527. 
Mexican Mind, The (Thompson), 280 
Mexicans, 666. 
Meyerowitz, William, 466. 

Indians vanishing, 103. 
Tails, 274. 

Registrars and vital statistics, 22. 
Middletown, Ohio, 101. 
Stee! industry, advisory committee 
plan, 408. 
Miles, R. E., 420. 
Milk, 22. 

New Jersey, 719. 
Milk of human kindness. 233. 
Milbank Memorial Fund, 400. 
Miller, F. S., Organizing wives and 

mothers, 241. 
Miller, Spencer, Jr., Mothers' Edu- 
cation. 221. 
Miller di Somma, Dorothy, 93. 

Citv planning, 116. 
Juvenile Protective Ass'n., 120.. 
Mothers' pensions, 716. 
Philanthropies Budget, 28. 
Miner, M. E.. 623. 
Miners, ■ relief for West Virginia 
(letter), 536. 

Minimum wage. 
California, 420. 
Legislation, British, 720. 
Massachusetts, 242. 
Ohio, 235. 
Minimum Wage Conf. of District of 

Columbia, 537. 
Minneapolis, trade unions and health, 

Mississippi, mother and child study, 

Missouri, Univ. of, 597. 
Mitten, T. E., 9. 
Mock, H. E., 215. 
Modern Economic Tendencies 

(Reeve), 23, 416. 
Mogotova, 337. 
Moliere : Social reformer, 76. 
Money-raising, 384. 
Montague, G. H., Coronado decision 

(letter), 633. 
Moonshiners, 438, 440. 
Morality of the Strike, The (Mc- 
Lean), 121. 
Morgan, E. L., 598. 
Morley, F. H., 183. 
Moses, 678, 680. 
Moskofska, Clara, 450. 

Belgian Red Cross appeal, 401. 
Budgets, 247. 
Unmarried, Ontario, 617. 
Mothers' pension procedure, 716. 
Motion pictures. 

Newspaper opinion, 599. 
Prison film, 102. 
Motor truckmen, 641, 643, 669. 
Mount Rainier National Park, 549, 

552 (ills). 
Mountain scenery, 545. 
Mowers, The (woodcuts), 428. 
Moya. Miguel, 579. 
Mud Hollow (Pattern), 627. 
Mueller, Dr. Johannes, 93. 
Municipal rest rooms, 115. 
Murphy, J. P., 120. 

Placement in Virginia (letter), 634. 
Murray, Philip, On a coal commis- 
sion, 207. 

Bach choir of Bethlehem, Pa., 346. 
Dramatic (ill.), 298. 
Industrial, 721. 
Philadelphia, 29. 

Power, at Bedford Reformatory, 


Nanchang, 663. 

Nantucket, Summer School of 

Opinion, 420. 
Narcotics, new weapons against, 400. 
Nash (A.) Company (letter). 223. 
Nat'l. Ass'n. for Exceptional Chil- 
dren, 522. 
Nat'l. Ass'n. of Visiting Teachers, 522. 
Nat'l. Catholic Welfare Council. 498. 
Nat'l. Child Health Org., 215, 729. 
National Child Welfare Association, 
school panels of American ideals, 
Nat'l. Coal Mining Board, 45. 
Nat'l. Committee for Mental Hygiene, 

Nat'l. Conf. of Social Work. 

Addresses and meetings at Provi- 
dence — reports, 505-524. 
Division meetings at Providence, 

Fiftieth anniversary plans, 233. 
Kindred meetings, "518. 
Making it useful to the home folks, 

New officers, 511. 
Preliminary program for Provi- 
dence meeting, 50. 
Providence program, 386. 
Report of Providence convention 

(Benjamin). 507. 
Nat'l. Council for Reduction of Ar- 
maments, Easter m-ssage. 71. 
Nat'l. Hospital Day, 126. 
Nat'l. Indust. Conf. Board, 558. 
Nat'l. League of Women Voters, in- 
dustrial program, 204. 
Nat'l. parks, the people and, 547. 
Nat'l. Personnel Ass'n., 721. 
Nat'l. Probation Ass'n., annual conf., 

Nat'l. Tuberculosis Ass'n.. 254. 
Natorp, Paul (with portrait), 325. 

American Laocoon (ill.), 156. 
Fetish (letter). 419. 
Red, white and blue tape, 157. 
Nature. 575. 

Near East and Far East, 414. 
Near East Relief. 622. 
Nearing, Scott, 18. 
Nebraska budget system, 257. 
Negri, Ada. Disoccupato (verse), 11. 

Books for, 75 

In coal industry, 28. 

Industrial conditions in the North, 

Industrial government, beginnings, 

Negro girl in college, 713. 
New York, social work, 579. 
Summer schools for teachers, 28. 
Neighborhood and Community Life, 
Nat'l. Conf. division meeting's 
report, 513. 
Neighborliness, 183. 
Elizabeth, N. J., 723. 
Middle West, 610. 
Neighbors, 28, 61, 93, L26, 183, 224, 
257, 291, 346, 420, 477, 537, 579, 
636, 737. 
Nelles, Walter, 498. 
New Bedford, 170. 
New Hampshire, forty-eight hour bill 

(letter), 59. 
New Jersey. 

Milk and ice cream, 719. 
Night-work-for-women bill, 37. 
Vice repressive act, 37. 
New situation, a (cartoon), 380. 
New World, The (Bowman), 220. 
New York (city). 

Cash versus delivery in grocery 

trade, 73. 
City Government League, 420. 
English visitor's impression. 699. 
Health condition, 214. 
Homeless men, 50. 
Library for colored people, 75. 
Panhandling, 28. 
Physicians and quarantine, 718. 
Russell Sage Foundation plan, 270. 
Teachers, accused, to be heard, 

Tuberculosis, 717. 
New York (state). 
Child labor law, 257. 
Mental definciency bill, 71. 
Mothers and children, 102. 
Women workers, groups, 243. 
New York State Charities Aid Ass'n., 

New York Times, romance in, 37. 
Newark, N. J., Welfare Federation, 

Newark meadows and motor traffic, 

Newcomers' Club, 5. 
Newport, Ky., 726. 
Newport, R. I., Friends' meeting- 
house, 384. 

Motion pictures and, 599. 
Romantic events, 37. 
Nicoll, Matthias, 401. 
Niles, W. L., 61. 
No More War. 537. 
Nolen, John, 399. 
North Carolina. 
Conf. for Social Service, \)i. 
Farm tenancy, 636. 
Health measures, 718. 
Olvmpic games, 204. 
Plan for Public Welfare, 705. 
Prison reform. 599. 
University, 737. 

University extension work, 219, 
Women in office, 28. 
North Carolina, Univ. of, com- 
munity drama. 436. 
Northwestern Railway, 620. 
Norton, W. J., Red Cross at the 

crossroads (letter), 281. 
Norwalk, Conn., Russian relief ap- 
peals, 384. 
Norwalk, Ohio, 115. 

Industrial relations, 39. 
Letter to Teachers' Union from, 17. 

Education (letter), 634. 
Nursing education report, 500. 
Records, value, 719. 
Nushawg Poultry Farm, 700. 

Obstetrical Nursing (Van Blarcom), 

Occupational therapy. 
Aide, 19. 
State action, 22. 
Odencrantz, L. C., Industrial welfare 

conf., 631. 
Office administration, 718. 
O'Grady, John, 716. 


Hospital management. 718. 
Juvenile court practice, summer 

institute on. 700. 
Manufacturers' Ass'n. and women's 

organizations, 235. 
Residential town planning, 399, 
Wages and cost of living, 620. 
Oil camps, 53. 
O'esen. Mrs. Peter, 93. 
Olympic Games. North Carolina. 204. 
Ontario, unmarried mother-. 
Open forum movement, 537. 
Oregon, industrial hvgiene work 5-1. 
Organization, social (social studies), 

Organization pf Social Forces — nat'l. 
conf. v..rision meetw. 
Osborne. T. M. 102, 103. 201. 
Outdoor life. 575. 
Output and hourt of work, 54. 



Oxlord, conf. for works directors, 

Oxnard, Cal., 725. 
Oyster industry and children. 621. 

Packing industry, trade education, 

Paddock, A. E., 643. 

Hair nets, 663. 
Pageant, scene (ill.), 396. 
Paine, Thomas, 535. 
Palestine, appeal for funds by Jewish 

Foundation Fund, 203. 
Pallen, C. B., 498. 
Pan-American Conf. of Women, 253. 
Panhandling, 28. 
Paradise, V. I., 621. 
Paradise, Ky., 722. 
Paradoxes, 9. 

Paris, war widows' trade school, 600. 
Park, Maybelle, 405. 
Parker, Mrs. Carlton, 23. 
Parks, Leighton, quoted, 83. 
Parks, national, 547, 575. 
Parole laws and methods, 273. 
Patten, S. N. 

Death, 636. 

Portrait and estimate of career, 
477, 478. 
Patter, 246. 
Pawtuxet Valley, 441. 
Pay clinic, 61. 
Payne, J. B., 50. 
Peddlers in foreign exchange, 599. 
Peking, Student Federation resolu- 
tion, 414. 
Penn, William, 580. 

Berks County, 247. 

Bootleggers, 72. 

Child labor, 623. 

Coal industry in Somerset and 
Cambria counties, 238. 

Employment of minors, 126. 

Fund for promotion of improved 
methods of government, 737. 

Prohibition, 151. 

Public Welfare Dep't, 28. 

State prohibition director, 12. 
Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts, 

Pennsylvania School for Social Ser- 
vice, 247. 
Penology in the United States (Rob- 
inson), 82. 
People's Art Assembly, 466. 
People's tribunal, 266. 
Perpetual Record Service, 126. 
Perry, C. A., 112. 
Personal touch, 716. 
Personnel Problems, conference on, 

Personnel Research Federation, Jour- 
nal, 620. 
Personnel work, 632. 
Persons, W. F„ 210. 

Red Cross at the crossroads (let- 
ter), 285. 
Pestalozzi, 325. 
Peter, Saint, 653. 
Petrograd, metal industries, 469. 

Children's Bureau, 120. 

Folk art exhibit, 116. 

Shipyard strike, 241. 

Social workers' seminar, 247. 

Two '* weeks," 201. 

Water supply, 399. 
Philadelphia Orchestra, 29. 
Philadelphia Rapid Transit Co., 9. 
Philanthropic Doubts, 429. 
Philanthropy, term, 429. 
Phillips, A., 467. 
Phillips, E. A., 427. 

A vestige of older Providence, 463. 
Physical education, 537. 

Industrial, platform for, 52. 

See also Health. 
Pierce, Anne, 73. 
Pierce, Waldo (portrait), 467. 
Pilgrim, C. W., 29. 
Pincus and the junk business, 473. 
Pinski, David, 93. 
Pioneers of American ideals, 580, 581. 
Pirates' Den, 277. 

Associated charities, 224. 

Bootleggers, 72. 
Placer County, Cal., 724. 
Play, child's thought, 279. 
Playground and Recreation Ass'n of 

America, 278, 279. 
Playgrounds, 277. 

Harmon Foundation offer, 729. 

See also Recreation. 
Plays. See Drama. 
Plumb, G. E., death, 636. 
Poetry. See Verse. 
Poland, Friends relief work, 337. 
Policewoman on trial, 69, 737. 
Policewomen's conference, 524. 
Political prisoners, 535. 

Appeal to Harding for, 28. 

Children's petitions to the Presi- 
dent (cartoon). 383. 

Plea for relief, (letter), 124. 

Politics, books on, 86. 

Pond, D. H., 715. 

Poole, R. J., 28. 

Poor farms in Providence, R. I., 

Portland, Ore., case work, 715. 
Post office, New York general (ill.), 

Postal service, work portraits (Hine), 

Posture and fatigue, 52. 
Poultry, truck load (ill.), 674. 
Poverty in Germany, 48. 
.Prague, letter from, 502. 
Pray, K. L. M., 420. 
Prejudices (cartoon), 4. 
Presbyterian Board of Home Mis- 
sions, 643. 
Price, G. M., 537. 

Letter from Prague, 502. 
Princeton Univ., 737. 

Books for (letter), 536. 

See also Political prisoners. 

Administration, 273. 

Film, 102. 

Germany, 275. 

North Carolina, reform, 599. 

Reform in Europe, 11. 

Schools in, 204. 

Y. M. C. A. in jail, 103. 

Annual conf. of the Nat'l Ass'n, 

Use (letter), 635. 
Profit-making, 619 
Profit sharing, 682. 
Prohibition, 9. 

After three years, 381. 

Beating about the bush, 151. 

California, 700. 

Czecho-Slovakia, 701. 

Dependency and, 598. 

Enforcement, 28. 

Pennsylvania state director, 12. 
Prohibition in America (Newsholme), 

Proletarian youth, 600. 
Prostitution in the South, 623. 
Providence, R. I. 

Charities and the National Con- 
ference, 420. 

Federal Hill House, 397. 

Poor farm, 463. 

Report of Social Work Conf., 507. 
Psychoanalysis advertisement, 526. 
Psychoanalysis and Sociology 

(Klonai), 86. 
Public Health Nursing. 

Conf. at Seattle, 633. 

Iowa, 737. 
Public Health Surveys (Horwood), 


Public Officials and Administration, 

Natl, conf., division meeting's 

report, 513. 

Public Service Amer. Fund for, 498. 

Publicity, Nat'l Conf. of Social 

Work. 521. 
Prickett, H. W., 295. 

An heir to Pestalozzi. 325. 


Russian peasants, 579. 

See also Friends. 
Quarantine, 718. 
Queen, S. A., 636. 
Question of Aborigines, The, etc. 

(Snow), 86. 
Questions, 391. 

Race question, books, 88. 

Radio broadcasting stations, 700. 

Radiograph, radiophone, 224. 

Radio-telegraphy. See Wireless. 

Rag towns, 53. 

Railey, J. H. and H. H., 427. 

Social certainties, 429. 
Railroad Labor Board, 203, 265. 

Daugherty injunction, 702. 

Outside repairs, 265. 

Safety work — results, 620. 

Wages, 558. 
Ramsdell, Leroy, Friends Creek (let- 
ter), 253. 
Read, T. T., 126. 

Reading, questions of the day — ad- 
vice on, 78. 
Reading (social studies), 67. 
Reoote, 725. 

Appropriating money for, 277, 278. 

Chengtu, 611. 

Juvenile delinquency and, 277. 
Red Cross. 

Albanian nursing, 61. 

At the crossroads, 208. 

At the crossroads — letters on the 
article, 281. 

Bicknell's work with, 476. 

NatT Conf. of Social Work and, 

New division, 617. 

Pageant, 28. 

Pages from secretaries' logs, 210. 

Postage stamps, 39. 
Volunteers wanted, 50. 
Red Cross League, 255. 
Reeve, Peggy, 712. 
Reeve, S. A., Modern economic ten- 
dencies (letter), 416. 
Rehabilitation of the handicapped, 

Reports, annual, 415. 

Are they worth while? 245. 
Rest rooms, municipal, 115. 
Reynolds, A. S., 415. 

Are annual reports worth while? 

Publicity at Nat'l Conf. of Social 
Work, 521. 
Rhode Island. 

Home work but not study for chil- 
dren, 404. 
Textile industry in the Pawtuxet 
Valley, 441. 
Rich, M. E., Family social work, 

Richmond, M. E., 732. 
Rickman, L. L., and F. M. Barrows, 
The Land of Uz, 337. 
Rights of men (social studies), 186. 
Riis, J. A., 581. 
Ripley, W. Z., 131, 427, 643. 
Bones of contention, 169. 
Job at Babels, The, 447. 
Loading the olive branch, 645. 
Rise, The, of Cotton Mills in the 

South (Mitchell), 24. 
Robeson, H. A., Occupational ther- 
apy aid, 19. 
Robins, Margaret Dreier, portrait 

and sketch, 477. 
Robins, Mrs. Raymond, 420. 
Robinson, L. G, A. L. A. annual 

meeting, 533. 
Robinson, W. J., Books for prisoners 

(letter), 536. 

Clothing agreement, 201. 
Trade Board, 233. 
Rockefeller Foundation, report ot 

work, 625. 
Rocky Mountain National Park, 548, 

551 (ill.), 552. 
Romance in the news of the day, 37. 
Room registries (letter), 534. 
Rosella, 403. 
Rosenthal, A. W., 525. 
Rosenstiel, S. S., 61. 
Roslyn, N. Y., 725. 
Ross. Ernestine, Books and the color 

line, 75. 
Round house men (ill.), 644. 
Routine, 597. 
Rowntree, B. S., 9, 722. 
Rowntree & Co., 257. 
Royden, Maude, 224. 
Rural Child Welfare (Clopper), 83. 

Rural life, 667. 

Community buildings, 724. 
Special classes for rural children, 

Transit problem, 112. 
Rural service, 597. 
Russell Sage Foundation, New York 

plan, 270. 

Educational appeal to workers 

(ill.), 472. 
Factory organization, 468. 
Friends relief work, 337. 
Mail appeal in Norwalk, Conn., for 

relief, 384. 
Relief agencies, 636. i 

Russian children and European na- 
tions, 61. 
Russian peasant Quakers, 579. 
Ryan, J. A., 498. 
Ryan, T. J., 61. 


Sabel, A. R., 721. 
St. Louis. 
Citizens' Committee, 399. 
Community chests, results of in- 
quiry in 41 cities, 70. 
Community Council, 50. 
Radio telephone in social service, 
Saint Peter's Mother, 653. 
Salaries of social workers, 268. 
Salisbury, Winifred, Knowing the 

neighbors, 610. 
Salomon, Agnes, Child care in Ger- 
many, 603. 
Samara, 337. 
San Francisco, industrial relations, 

San Leandro Reporter, 497. 
Sandzen, Birger, 543, 544-546. 
Sanitarians, conf. in Washington, 

D. C. 22. 
Satellite Cities (Taylor), 291. 
Savings, why they keep up in times 

of depression, 235. 
Savings bank life insurance, 615. 
Sayre, F. B.. 536. 

Coronado decision, 385. 
Reply to G. H. Montague on 
Coronado decision (letter), 634. 

Schevitz, Jules, 93. 

Schirmer, Anna, 603. 

Schloss, Elman, 93. 

School and community, 15, 216, 525, 

612, 711. 
School of summer, 711. 
School superintendents, 420. 
School world. 559. 
Schooling, what is it doing to us? 


City's youngest (girls), 322. 

Correctional schools for girls, 361- 

Democracy in education, 345. 

More even distribution of work 
through the year, 219. 

Nation's needs and, 318. 
Schools of social work, 61. 

Chicago school (letter), 222. 
Schuster, Willi, 104. 
Schuyler, L. L., 236. 
Schweinitz, Karl de. Red Cross at 

the crossroads (letter), 283. 
Scribner, Grace, 420. 
Second International, 602. 
Sectarian work, 716. 
Section hands or engineers, 394. 
Self-government, delinquent girls, 371. 
Self-made town (cartoon), 36. 
Senescence (Hall), 627. 
Senior, Mary. 

A worker's health bureau in Spain, 
Sentinel Rock, 546 (ill.). 
Serbia, 291. 

Serbian education, 525. 
Service, pioneers — school panels, 581. 
Settlement movement, forthcoming 

standard textbook on, 479. 

Conference in London, program, 

France (letter), 635. 

International conf., 630. 

Middle West, 610. 
Sex education, 713. 
Shantung, 663. 

Shaw, G. B., on the limits of edu- 
cation, 219. 
Shaw, H. A., 385. 
Shaw, L. G., A legend (verse), 478. 
Shaw, S. A., HI, 427, 537. 

Business without mystery, 408. 

Nash factory report, criticism 
(letter and reply), 223. 

Organized stitching, 141. 

Shift from feudalism to capitalism 
in the Pawtuxet Valley, 441. 
Sherman, C. B. 

Municipal rest rooms, 115. 

Rural community buildings, 724. 
Shillady, J. R., 537. 

Industrial and Economic Problems 

— Nat'l conf. division report, 514. 

Shipyard strikers' wives and mothers, 

Shop committee movement, Ameri- 
can, 406. 
Siasconset, School of Opinion, 420. 
Siberian concession, 8. 
Siegrist, Mary, Gandhi (verse), 43. 
Slave raids in Abyssinia, 28. 
Smallpox, 104. 
Smith, Al, portrait, 673. 
Smith, Marshall D. 

Doubting Thomas (letter), 732. 

Key of the Bastille (letter), 535. 
Smith, Reginald H., Social work and 

the law, 503. 
Smith, Stephen, 737. 
Smith College (letter), 535. 
Social agencies. 

Books for, 104. 

Buffalo council, 617. 

Office management, 718. 
Social conventions, 678. 
Social experiment fund, 498. 
Social hygiene. 

Congress and, 497. 

Impasse, 234. 
Social organization, 47, 245, 697. 
Social reform, scrap book, 126. 
Social service. 

Medical, 718. 

Trends, 50, 617. 
Social Service Exchanges, Amer. 

Ass'n, 520. 
Social Service Workers of the Epis- 
copal Church, Second Nat'l Conf., 
Social studies, 3, 35, 67, 99, 186, 199, 

231, 263, 296, 697. 
Social Unit experiment, 105. 
Social uplifters, 126. 
Social work. 

As a profession, 518. 

Definition, 395. 

Fundamentals, 391. 

Law and, 503. 

National budget and, 604. 

Schools, 61. 

Sectarian lines, 716. 

Van Loon's illustrations, 429, 435. 

Views in answer to Mrs. Cannon, 
Social Work (Devine), 122. 
Social Work (pamphlet), 617. 



Social workers. 
Criticisms at Boston Monday Eve- 
ning Club, 38. 
Jargon, 246. 
On "bettering" oneself (letter), 59. 
Personal problems, conference on, 

Salaries, 268. 

Section hands or engineers? 394. 
Seminar, 247. 

Volunteer professional, class for, 30. 
What they read, 385. 
Socialism: An Analysis (Eucken), 87. 
Sociology, books, 86. 

Begging, 104. 
Disabled, problems, 719. 
Somerset, Pa., 238. 
Somerton, Ariz., 724. 
Soul, The, of a Child (Bjorkman), 

84. , .. . 

Soule, George, Some uses of indus- 
trial arbitration, 618. 
South, prostitution in, 623. 
South Australia, 257. 
South Carolina, Blease and Bleas- 

erism, 175. 
Southern Mountain Workers' Conf., 

Southworth, F. C, 598. 
Spain, 579. 

Workers' health bureau, 51. 
Springheld, Mass. 
City planning, 726. 
Factory scenes (ills.), 447, 451. 
Stark, John, 557. 
Starr, James. 556. 

State Medicine a Menace to Dem- 
ocracy (Anderson), 122. 
State parks, conf., 414. 
Statue of Liberty (ill.), 425. 
Steel canyons, 162. 
Steel industry. 

Middletown, Ohio, 408. 
Three -bift system at the annual 
meeting of the U. S. Steel Corp., 
Three shifts versus two shifts, 38. 
Twelve-hour day, 475. 
Twelve-hour day, progress, 384. 
Steele, H. W., Tragedy of a bell, 

Stein, C. S., literature on housing, 

Stern, Leon, The exceptional child, 

Stevens' Glacier (ill.), 549. 
Stillraan, C. C, Red Cross at the 

crossroads (letter), 283. 
Stockyards, 257. 
Stokowski, Leopold, 29. 
Stolberg, Benjamin, The vanguard, 

Stoughton, Bradley, on the twelve- 
hour day, 703, 735. 
Street, Elwood, Annual reports (let- 
ter), 415. 
Street cars, telling time by (car- 
toon), 200. 
Coal, 40. 

Coal— public interest, 205. 
Cost (current problems), 697. 
Cramp shipyard workers, 241. 
Education during, 626. 
Industrial warfare and, 46. 
Six months in a strike city (Man- 
chester, N. H.), 555. 
Supreme Court on labor unions, 

381. 385. 
Textile industry, 441, 636. 
Studensky, Paul, American shop 

committee movement, 406. 
Student self-determination, 217. 
Students, loans to (letter), 535, 537. 
Students tours in Europe, 93. 
Studies in Jewish Nationalism (Si- 
mon), 249. 
Su Hu (with portrait), 328. 
Subway, 183. 
Summer, lessons of, 711. 
Superintendence, 658. 
Supreme Court, decision on strikes 

and the ouija board, 381, 385. 
Survey, The. 

Friday afternoon teas, 497. 
Old home week in the offices, 537. 
Summer schedule announced, 265. 
Survey Associates' luncheon, 537. 
Swartz, Nelle, Women who work, 

Sweden, marriage, 616. 
Swift & Co., wages (letter), 124. 
Swindling devices, 608, 609. 
Syphilis, 402. 
Syrian stories, 572, 652. 

Personnel problems conference, 413. 
Report of annual meeting of 
Amer. Ass'n. of Social Workers 
at Providence, 518. 
Taylor, Ruth, 598. 
Teachers, '345. 

Abolishing female, 335. 

As critics, 16. 

Makers of Light, 420. Social service illustrations, 429- Whitten, Robert,'ll4. 

New York City, hearings to be 435. Social aspect of zoning (letter). 

given, 224. Van Schiefgaarde, P., 643. 418. 

New York State and the Lusk Van Waters, Miriam, Where girls Whittier, Robert, 466 

New situation (cartoon), 380. Wheeler, E. P., Workmen needed 

Petitions not allowed (cartoon), (letter), 733. 

„ 383. Whitcomb, Rachel, The house on tbi 

Prejudices (cartoon), 4. hill, 397. 

School world and real world White, G. S., 537. 

(ills.), 559-563. White, H. C, 636. 

Sketches for The Freshman Flood, Whitney, C. A., and the Communist 

300-305. Labor Party, 224. 

laws, 384. go right, 361-376. 

Visiting, Nat'I. Ass'n. conf., 633. Van Winkle, Mina, 69, 737 
Teachers' Union, New York, 16, 17. Venereal diseases, 402, 497 

Technique (social studies), 231. 
Teeth, care of, 499. 
Tenant farmers, 438, 439. 
Texas and the Ku Klux Klan, 10. 
Texas Children's Home and Aid So- 
ciety, 119. 
Textile industry, 636. 

Fraudulent descriptions, 204. 

Manchester, N. H., strike, 555. 

Pawtuxet Valley, 441. 

Searchlight on Amoskeag, 6. 
Theater of Tomorrow, The (Mac- 

gowan), 56. 
Thorn, D. A., 22. 
Thompson, W. O., 537. 
Thurston, H. W., Children— Nat'I. 

Conf. division report, 516. 
Tillman, B. R., 177. 
Time-telling by street cars (car- 
toon), 200. 
Tobacco workers in Virginia, 7. 

Campaign for purity, 626. 

Case records, study of, 624. 
Vernon, ,H. M., 54. 

Central Park (Hearsey), 702. 

Clock will strike (Wood), 574 

Why Europe Leaves Home (Rob- 
erts), 531. 
Wile, I. S., Scientific study of ju- 
venile delinquents, 403. 
Wilkinson, Margaret, 576. 
Willard, F. E., 581. 
Williams, Roger, 580. 
Williams, W. C., Why farmers move 
to town, 609. 
Contentment (Frazee-Bower), 607. Williamson, Harold, 438, 439 
Disoccupate (Negri), 11. Wilson, D. R., 54. 

Gandhi (Siegrist), 43. Wilson, G. S., Public officials and 

Haunted (Looker), 77. Administration — Nat'I. Conf. di- 

In court (Crocker), 668. vision report, 513. 

Legend, a (Shaw), 478. Winslow, C.-E. A., 634 

Lost causes (Mackinnon), 324. Training of sanitarians, 22. 

Portrait of a friend (Harris), 184. Winsted Hosiery Co, 204. 
Prison nocturne (Chaplin), 212. Wisconsin. 
Pronouns (Baker), 155. Child welfare, 405 

Quest, the (Looker), 111. Education, 18. 

Serene discontent (Almy), 737. Financial aid for private organ- 

izations, 616. 
Wisconsin, Univ. of, freedom of 

speech, 17. 
Wohnungswesen,, Das (Eberstadt). 

Wolfson, Theresa. 

Education during a strike, 626. 
Posture and fatigue, 52. 
Wolle, J. F., 346. 

Abolishing female teachers, 335. 
Citizenship of married, 497. 
Georgia, working conditions, 620. 
Groups in industry. New York 

State, census figures, 243. 
Hours of work, 722. 
Housing for employed, 113. 

Strike, the (Cleaves), 271. 
To the city (MacAlpine), 665. 
Tribute to the Subvdi, 737. 
Villager sings (Gessler), 162. 
Vice, New Jersey repressive act, 37. 

Tolerance prize essays, 737. 

Tousley, C. M., Junior month, 396. 

Toward the Great Peace (Cram), 731. Vienna, 611 

Town pump (cartoon), 36. Health poster, 402. 

Toynbee Hall, 630. Marriage clinic, 28. 

Trade government, 233. Village that wanted rain, 573. 

Trade unions. Villager sings (verse), 162. 

Health and, 21. Virginia. 

Workmanship and, 272. Hookworm, 625. 

Transportation Act, 265. Placement of children (letter), 634. 

Travelers' Aid, 537. Tobacco workers, 7. 

Traveling carnivals, 609. Vision (social studies), 263. 

Treaties with the California In- Visiting Teachers, Nat'I. Ass'n., 522, 

dians, 135. 633. -> 

Truck grower and motor truck (ill.), Vital statistics, 213. 

675. Belgian Red Cross appeal, 401. 

Truckmen, 641, 643, 669. Vitamins, The (Sherman and Smith), 

New type (ill.), 672. 530. 

Tuberculosis. Vitamins and the choice of food 

Dutch organ for combat of, 234. (Plimmer), 530. 

Millbank Fund no experiment to Vocational counsellor's story, 473. 

control, 400. Vocational training. 

Nat'I. Ass'n. annual meeiing, 254. Appleton, Wis. (ills.), 319-320. 

New York City, 717. Delinquent girls, 369. 

Tucker, Katherine, Public Health Voice of Jerusalem, The (Zangwill), Wood, Clement, 543 

Nursing, Seattle conf., 633. 
Tuskegee, 69. 

Tuttle, Emeth, The affair Rosella, 403 
Twelve-hour day. 475. 
Engineers ana, 703. 
Typhoid carrier, 737. 
Typhus germ isolated, 201. 


Ubbelohde, Otto, 577. 
Undelivered pottage, 135. 

Canada, 244. 

Detroit, 204. 




Columbia Conserve Co., 657. 

Determination (letter), 732. 

Literature, 80. 

Ohio, 620. 

Railroads, 558. 

Swift & Co. (letter), 124. 

Industrial program adopted by 
Nat'I. League of Women Voters, 

Life insurance, 615. 

Night work in New Jersey, 37. 

Paris trade school, 600. 

Wives and mothers of shipyard 
strikers, 241. 

See also Girls. 
Women's Trade Union League, 477. 

The clock will strike (verse), 574. 
Wood, Eleanor, 62. 
Wood, I. F., 678, 680. 
Wood, T. D., The right to see 

straight, 20. 
Woods, R. A., 479. 

Neighborhood and Community 
Life — Nat'I. Conf. division report, 
Woolen and worsted, 204. 
Worcester, Mass., city planning, 726. 

Fear of", as factor in industry, 126. Wallace, Sec y., 636. 

Wald, L. D., S. Josephine Baker, Words, new terms for old and cruel. 

M. D.. 108. 389. 

Waldo, Alice, Legal Aid, conf., 92. Workers' Educational Bureau, 221. 

Letter from E. P. Wheeler, 733. 

Public relief, 47. 

Reduction, 237. 

Van Kleeck, Mary, on, 387. 
Unions. See Trade unions. 
United Hospital Fund, 20. 
United Mine Workers. 

Arkansas; Supreme Court on, 381, 

Plan for coal industry, 182. 

Uplifters, 257. 

Upson, L. U., Michigan jails, 274. 

Uz, Land of, 337. 

Workers' Health Bureau, 51. 

Ta Chen, 295. 

A new teacher of the East, 328. 
Taft, Jessie, In the wake of Freud, 

Talmud, 678. 
Tandler. Dr., 28. 
Tannenbaum, Frank, 619. 
Taylor, Elizabeth (ill), 437. 
Taylor, Evaham, 537. 
Taylor, G. R. 

Walling, W. G.. Red Cross at the Workers' representation plan, 722. 

crossroads (letter), 282. Working conditions and fatigue, 54. 

Walnut, T. H., 12, 72, 131. Working with the Working Woman 

Beating about the prohibition (Parker), 23. 

bush, 151. Workmanship and unions, 272. 

War widow's trade school, 600. World, school 559 

Ware, E. T., Ku Klux Klan (letter), World War, books and memoirs, 577. 
„, 251. W. P. G. radio broadcasting ita- 

Washington, D. C, Tuberculosis tion 700 

conf., 254. 
U.~'s7 Pubfic" Health" Service, conf. Washington, B. T., monument to, * 

of sanitarians, 22. ° 9 - Yangtszepoo, 600. 

U. S. Steel Corporation, 38, 101, 106. Washington Irving High School, Yard, R. S., 543, 575. 
Universities, plans for stemming the .„ thumbnail sketches, 502 National parks, the people and, 547. 

flood of students, 659. w , ast * 3 . h " man ' industry, 505. Yellow fever, 625. 

Up Stream (Lewisohn), 90. Watkins, T. H., on compulsory coal Yosemite Falls, 548 .Jill). 

Waugh, Gwyneth, drawings, 572, 573, '^"Isi 653 680 

Weirs, 'Han's, 126. 

Judge Allmenroeder, 117. 
Weld, L. D. H., Wages at Swift's 

(letter). 124. 
Welfare, industrial, conf., 631. 

Welfare Federation of Newark, 617. Youth, 118. 
Welter, C. F., A new league of Courage and, 677. 

neighbors, 723. 
West Virginia. 
After West Virginia — Somerset, 

Miners, destitution, 291. 
Relief for miners, 6. 
Relief for miners (letter), 536. 
Westchester County Children's Ass'n., 

Vacarelli, F. P., 450. 

Columbia Conserve Co., 657. 

In the great city (ills.), 502. 

Women undergraduates' jobs, 620. 
Valor of youth (ill.), 679. 
Van Doren, H. L., 427, 537. 

An appeal to the people, 466. 
Van Kleeck, Mary, Unemployment 
ended? 387, 

Yosemite National Park, 551. 
Y. M. C. A. in jail, 103. 
Young Men's Hebrew Ass'n., 525. 
Y. W. C. A. 

Employers' organization against, 

Youth movement, 221. 

Proletarian, Europe, 600. 
Valor of youth (ill.), 679. 
Y. W. C. A. movement, 221. 

Van Loon, H. W., 93, 427, 543. 598 

Great Unknown (cartoon), 264. Report, 245. 

Homo economicus (cartoon), 100. What is Social Case Work? (Rich- 
How to tell time by the street mond), 411. 

cars (cartoon), 200. Letter on, 732. 

Letters from a self-made town, II What is Socialism? (Le Rossignol), 

(cartoon), 36. 87. 

Library building in a self-made Wheeler, Elizabeth, Loans to stud- Zorach, William," 466. 

town (cartoon), 68. ents, (letter), 535. Zurich child welfare potter, 713 

Zionism and World Politics (Kallen) 

Znaniecki, Floryan, 537. 

Akron, 116, 636. 

Atlanta, 114. 

Boston, 726. 

Progress, 399. 

Social aspect (letter), 418. 

APRIL 1, 1922 

■ITI ' 

High and Wet 

The Indictment of the State Prohibition Director of Pennsylvania 

A Statement by 77 Henry Walnut 


The Klan in Texas 

Prison Reform in Europe 

Disoccupato — A Poem 

Leaves from an Architect's Diary 

- Edward T. Devine 
Czechoslovakia - 

Ada Negri 
Frederick L. Ackerman 




The Twelve Lawyers — A New Kind of Club — A Good Beginning 
in Delaware — Relief in West Virginia — The Searchlight on 
Amoskeag — Virginia's Tobacco Workers — The Siberian Con- 
cession — Paradoxes — The P. R.T. Labor Program — Profit and Loss 

The Teacher Turns Critic ----- Henry R. Linville 

Comment from Norway ----- Otto Grenness 

What Is Schooling Doing to Us? — Straws in the Wind 


The Occupational Therapy Aide - Harriet A. Robeson 

The Right to See Straight - - - - Thomas D. Wood, M.D. 

Trade Unions and Health - - - - - Ival McPeak 

The Training of Sanitarians - - - - C.-E. A. Winslow, M.D. 

A Hospital Information Bureau — Immunity from Influenza — A Habit Clinic 






15 Cents a Copy 

$5.00 a Year 


April I, 1922 


ERS — Miss Ida M. Cannon, pres.; Social Service Department, Massachu- 
setts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts. Miss Ruth V. Emerson, 
sec'y; National Headquarters, American Red Cross, Washington, D. C. 
Organization to promote development of social work in hospitals and dis- 
pensaries. Annual meeting with National Conference of Social Work. 

AMERICA — Constituted by 30 Protestant denominations. Rev. Chas. S. 
Macfarland, Rev. S. M. Cavert, gen'l, sec'ys. ; 105 E. 22 St., New York. 
Commission on the Church and Social Service — Rev. Worth M. Tippy, 
exec, sec'y.; Rev. F. Ernest Johnson, research sec'y.; Agnes H. Camp- 
bell, research ass't; Inez M. Cavert, librarian. 

Andrews, sec'y; 131 E. 23rd St, New York. For adequate public employ- 
ment service; industrial safety and health laws; workmen's compensation; 
unemployment, old age and health insurance; maternity protection; one 
day's rest in seven; efficient law enforcement Publishes "The American 
Labor Legislation Review." Annual membership, $3.00. 

WORK — Mrs. John M. Glenn, chairman; Francis H. McLean, field director ; 
David H. Holbrook, executive director, 130 E. 22d Street, New X ork : 
Advice in organization problems of family social work societies (Associated 
Charities) in the United States and Canada. 

tional Social Workers' Exchange)— Graham Romeyn Taylor, director, 130 
East 22nd Street, New York City. An organization of professional social 
workers devoted to raising social work standards and requirements. Mem- 
bership open to qualified social workers. 

TALITY— Gertrude B. Knipp, sec'y; 1211 Cathedral St., Baltimore. Urges 
prenatal, obstetrical and infant care; birth registration; maternal nursing; 
infant welfare consultations; care of children of pre-school age and school 

dent- A R. Mann, vice president; E. C. Lindeman, executive secretary; 
Nat T. Frame, Morgantown, West Virginia, field secretary. Emphasizes 
the human aspect of country life. Membership $3.00 

Cooper, sec'y; Battle Creek Sanitarium, Battle Creek, Mich. Organized 
for betterment of conditions in home, schools, institutions and community. 
Publishes Journal of Home Economics. 1211 Cathedral St., Baltimore, Md. 

AMERICAN PEACE SOCIETY— Founded 1828 labors for an interna- 
tional peace of justice. Its official organ is the Advowte of Peace, ?^.0U 
a year Arthur Deerin Call, secretory and editor, 612-614 Colorado Build- 
ing, Washington, D. C. 

AMERICAN PRISON ASSOCIATION— Annual Congress of American 
penologists, criminologists, social workers in delinquency. Next Congress 
Detroit, Michigan, October, 1922. E. R. Cass, general secretary, 135 
East 15 Street, New York City. 

J Osborne, exec, sec'y.; 35 W. 45th St.,. New York. To disseminate 
knowledge concerning symptoms, diagnosis, treatment and prevention. 
Publication free on request. Annual membership dues, $5. 

Ave New York. For the conservation of the family, the repression of 
prostitution, the reduction of venereal diseases, and the promotion of sound 
sex education. Information and catalogue of pamphlets upon request 
Annual membership dues, $2. Membership includes quarterly magazine and 
monthly bulletin. William F. Snow, M.D., gen. dir. 

New York Dr. L. Emmett Holt, chairman; Sally Lucas Jean, director. 
To arouse public interest in the health of school children; to encourage 
the systematic teaching of health in the schools ; to develop new methods 
of interesting children in the forming of. health habits; to publish and dis- 
tribute pamphlets for teachers and public health workers and health liter- 
ature for children; to advise in organization of local child health programs. 

CHILD WELFARE LEAGUE OF AMERICA— A league of agencies to 
secure a better understanding of child welfare problems, to improve stand- 
ards and methods in the different fields of work with children and o make 
available in any part of the field the assured results of successful effort. 
The League wifl be glad to consult with any agency, with a view to assist- 
ing it in organizing or reorganizing its children s work. C. C. Carsten s, 
director, 130 E. 22nd St., New York. 

COUNCIL OF JEWISH WOMEN— 305 W. 98th St. New York. Miss 

Rose Brenner, pres.; Mrs. Harry Sternberger ex. sec'y. Promotes civic 

cooperation, education, religion and social welfare in the United States, 
Canada, Cuba, Europe. 

Department of Immigrant Aid— 799 Broadway. Mrs. S. J. Rosensohn 
chairman. For the protection and education of immigrant women mnd 

York City. Joseph Lee, president; H. S. Braucher, secretary. Citizenship 
through right use of leisure. A national civic organization which on request 
helps local communities to work out a leisure time program. 

EUGENICS REGISTRY— Battle Creek Mich. Chancellor David Stan 
Jordan, pres.; Dr. J. H. Kellogg, sec'y.; Prof. O. C. Glaser exec secy. 
A public service for knowledge about human inheritances, hereditary u>- 
TM tory »nd eugenic possibilities. Literature free. 

HAMPTON INSTITUTE— J. E. Gregg, principal; G. P. Phenix, vice- 

£rin. ; F. H. Rogers, treas.: W. H. Scoville, sec'y.; Hampton, Va. Trains 
ndian and Negro youth. Neither a State nor • Government school. Free 
illustrated literature. 

Culbert Faries, dir., 101 E. 23rd St, New York. Maintains free industrial 
training classes and employment bureau; makes artificial limbs and appli- 
ances; publishes literature on work for the handicapped: gives advice on 
suitable means for rehabilitation of disabled persons and cooperates with 
other special agencies in plans to put the disabled man " back on the pay- 

LEAGUE FOR INDUSTRIAL DEMOCRACY (formerly Intercollegiate 
Socialist Society) — Harry W. Laidler, secretary; Room 931, 70 Fifth Avenue, 
New York City. Object — Education for a new social order, based on 
production for use and not for profit. Annual membership, $3.00, $5.00 
and $25.00. Special rates for students. 

ORED PEOPLE — Moorfield Storey, pres.; James Weldon Johnson, sec'y.; 
70 Fifth Ave., New York. To secure to colored Americans the common 
rights of American citizenship. Furnishes information regarding race prob- 
lems, lynchings, etc. Membership 90,000, with 350 branches. Member- 
ship, $1 upward. 

SOCIATIONS — 600 Lexington Ave., New York. To advance physical, 
social, intellectual, moral and spiritual interests of young women. Main- 
tains National Training School which offers through its nine months' 
graduate course professional training to women wishing to fit themselves 
for executive positions within the movement. Recommendation to posi- 
tions made through Personnel Division, Placement Section. 

Body of the Catholic Organizations of the country. 

National Executive Offices, 1312 Massachusetts Avenue, N.W., Wash- 
ington, D. C. 

General Secretory, Rev. John J. Burke, C.S.P. 

Department of Education — Rev. James H. Ryan, Exec. Sec'y. 

Bureau of Education — A. C. Monahan, Director. 

Department of Laws and Legislation — William J. Cochran. 

Department of Social Action — Directors, John A. Ryan and John A. Lapp. 

Department of Press and Publicity — Director, Justin McGrath ; Ass t 
Director, Michael Williams. 

National Council of Catholic Men — President, Rear-Admiral William S. 
Benson; Exec. Sec'y., Michael J. Slattery. 

National Council of Catholic Women — President, Mrs. Michael Gavin; 
Exec Sec'y., Miss Agnes G. Regan. 

National Catholic Service School for Women, Washington, D. C — 
Director, Charles P. Neill; Dean, Miss Maud R. Cavanaugb. 

Bureau of Immigration — National Director, Bruce M. Mohler. 

105 East 22nd St, New York. Industrial, agricultural investigations. 
Works for improved laws and administration ; children's codes. Studies 
health, schools, recreation, dependency, delinquency, etc. Annual member- 
ship, $2, $5, $10, $25 and $100; includes quarterly, "The American Child." 


Powlison, gen. sec'y.; 70 Fifth Ave., New York. Originates and publishes 
exhibit material which visualizes the principles and conditions affecting the 
health, well being and education of children. Cooperates with educators, 
public health agencies, and all child welfare groups in community, city or 
state-wide service through exhibits, child welfare campaigns, etc. 

Walter B. James, pres. : Dr. Thomas W. Salmon, med. dir. ; Associate 
Medical Directors, Dr. Frankwood E. Williams and Dr. V. V. Anderson; 
Clifford W. Beers, sec'y. ; 370 Seventh Avenue, New York Citv. Pamphlets 
on mental hygiene, nervous and mental disorders, feeble-mindedness, 
epilepsy, inebriety, criminology, war neuroses and re-education, psychiatric 
social service, backward children, surveys, state societies. Mental 

Hygiene;" quarterly, $2 • year. 

Pres., Boston: W. H. Parker, sec'y., 25 East Ninth Street, Cincinnati, 
Ohio. The Conference is an organization to discuss the principles of 
humanitarian effort and to increase the efficiency of social service agencies. 
Each year it holds an annual meeting, publishes in permanent form the 
Proceedings of this meeting, and issues a quarterly Bulletin. The ' ortT- 
ninth annual meeting, and Conference will be held in Providence, Rhode 
Island, in June 22-29, 1922. Proceedings are sent free of charge to all 
members upon payment of a membership fee of five dollars. 

NESS— Edward M. Van Cleve, managing director; George D. Eaton, 
field sec'y j Mrs. Winifred Hathaway, sec'y.; 130 E. 22nd St, New 1 ork. 
Objects: To furnish information, exhibits, lantern slides, lectures, publish 
literature of movement — samples free, quantities at cost Includes New 
York State Committee. 

Please mention Thb Survey tehen writing to adiertiserg 

April i, 1922 



Mrs. Florence Kelley, gen'l sec'y. Promotes legislation for enlightened 
standards for women and minors in industry and for honest products ; mini- 
mum wage commissions, eight hour day, no night work, federal regulation 
food and packing industries; "honest cloth legislation. Publications 

sec'y.; 20 Union Park, Boston. Develops broad forms of comparative study 
and concerted action in city, state and nation, for meeting the fundamental 
problems disclosed by settlement work; seeks the higher and more demo- 
cratic organization of neighborhood life. 

THE NATIONAL HEALTH COUNCIL— Livingston Farrand, M. D., 
Chairman; Donald B. Armstrong, M. D., Executive Officer. For the 
study and correlation of national voluntary health activities. Publications 
include Federal and State health Legislative Bulletins, current Library 
Index, and Monthly Digest of news of ten voluntary member agencies 
and one official member; 370 Seventh Ave., New York City, and 411 18th 
Street, N. W., Washington, D. C. 

Member, National Health Council — Anne A. Stevens, R.N., Director, 370 
Seventh Avenue, New York. For development and standardization of 
public health nursing. Maintains library and educational service. Official 
Magazine "Public Health Nurse." 

NATIONAL URBAN LEAGUE — For social service among Negroes. 
L. Hollingsworth Wood, pres. ; Eugene Kinckle Jones, exec, sec'y. ; 127 E. 
23rd St., New York. Establishes committees of white and colored people 
to work out community problems. Trains Negro social workers. 

A. Gordon, president. Headquarters, 1730 Chicago Avenue, Evanston, Illi- 
nois. To secure effective enforcement of the Eighteenth Amendment, to 
advance the welfare of the American people through the departments of 
Child Welfare, Women in Industry, Social Morality, Scientific Temperance 
Instruction, Americanization and other allied fields of endeavor. Official 
publication "The Union Signal," published at Headquarters. 

Robins, pres.; 311 South Ashland Blvd., Chicago, 111. Stands for self- 
government in the work shop through organization and also for the 
enactment of protective legislation. Information given. Official organ, 
"Life and Labor." 

— H. S. Braucher, sec'y. ; 1 Madison Aye., New York City. Playground, 
neighborhood and community center activities and administration. Special 
attention given to municipal recreation problems. 

sentation for all. C. G. Hoag, sec'y., 1417 Locust St., Philadelphia. 
Membership, $2, entitles to quarterly P. R. Review. 

the study of the causes of race degeneracy and means of race improve- 
ments. Its chief activities are the Race Betterment Conference, the Eu- 
fenics Registry, and lecture courses and various allied activities. J. H. 
[ellogg, pres. ; B. N. Colver, sec'y. 

RUSSELL SAGE FOUNDATION— For the Improvement of Living Con 
ditions — John M. Glenn, dir.; 130 E. 22nd St., New York. Departments: 
Charity Organization, Child-Helping, Education, Statistics, Recreation, 
Remedial Loans, Surveys and Exhibits, Industrial Studies, Library, South- 
ern Highland Division. The publications of the Russell Sage Foundation 
offer to the public in practical and inexpensive form some of the most 
important results of its work. Catalogue sent upon request. 

TUSKEGEE INSTITUTE — An institution for the training of Negro 
Youth ; an experiment in race adjustment in the Black Belt of the South ; 
furnishes information on all phases of the race problem and on the Tuske- 
gee idea and methods. Robert R. Moton, prin. ; Warren Logan, treas. ; 
A. I. Holsey, acting sec'y, Tuskegee, Ala. 

Jr., Sec'y.; 465 West 33rd St. A clearing-house for Workers' Education. 


Published weekly and copyright 1922 by Survey Associates, Inc., 
112 East 19 St., New York, a non-commercial cooperative society 
without shares or stockholders, incorporated under the member- 
ship law of the State of New York, with 1,600 members. Robert 
W. deForest, president ; Henry R. Seager, V. Everlt Macy, vice- 
presidents ; Arthur P. Kellpgg, treasurer ; Ann Reed Brenner, 

Price 15 cents per copy, $5 per year, Canadian and Foreign postage 
65 cents extra. 

Entered as second-class matter, March 25, 1909, at the post office, 
New York, N. Y., under the act of March 3, 1879. Acceptance for 
mailing at a special rate of postage provided for in Section 1103, 
Act of October 3, 1917, authorized on June 26, 1918. 
Volume XLVIII, No. 1. 


Conducted by 

The Appeal to Force 

In 1808 New England threatened to secede from the 
union. In 1832 South Carolina "nullified" certain ob- 
noxious laws passed by Congress. Thirty years later the 
" right to secede " was submitted to " the arbitrament of 
war" and settled (as clearly as such things can be settled 
by war). Does war ever settle anything? Secessionist and 
nullification elements still exist in our population, elements 
holding themselves superior to the laws. Some of those 
elements we call criminals. Should they all be called crim- 
inals? Automobiles make our city streets unsafe. "Boot- 
leggers " are said to laugh at our prohibition laws. How 
shall reckless drivers and purchasers of contraband liquors 
be classified? What shall be the attitude of the citizen 
toward law and the enforcement of laws? Can there be two 
opinions on this question? 

1 The New Nullification 

■*• • In autocratic states laws are handed down from a superior 
power: the lawmakers are above the law. What is the source of 
laws in a democracy? What is the nature of law in a democracy? 
Is any group or individual to be regarded as being above the law 
in a democracy? Are laws properly applicable to all individuals 
and groups in a democracy? Even to members of legislatures and 
congresses? To judges, juries and administrators of the laws? Is 
there such a thing as "the spirit of the law"? How does it differ 
from " the letter of the law ? " Can either of these be obeyed with- 
out obeying the other? What efforts are now being made by any 
individual or group in your community to nullify any law? Who 
are these "new milliners"? How are they regarded by the citizens 
of the community? 

'P Extra-Legal Enforcement of the Laws 

«• Have you in your community any individual or group that 
assumes to be particularly virtuous in obeying the laws? That 
attempts to take over the enforcement of the laws? What is their 
excuse, if they have one? What is their program? What is their 
legal standing? What is their public reputation? What does the 
public think about their performances? What does it do about 
them? Is the public content to have its legal powers taken over 
by some private agent or agency? 

2 Educating with Respect to the Laws 

*-'• What sort of education are the young people of your com- 
munity now receiving as to respect for the laws? In schools? In 
the homes of your community? In common talk and innuendo? In 
the example of the " best citizens "? In what respect are your law- 
enforcing officials held? Are they expected to enforce the laws? 
Or are the laws neglected? What opinions are the young people 
getting about citizenship and civic responsibility? Do the schools 
and the community agree in their teaching about respect for law 
and enforcement of the laws? Which is the more effective, the 
advice given in schools, or the examples that operate on the streets? 
Or, is the whole task too big for human endeavor? Shall we turn 
the job of law-enforcement over to some interested group and give 
democracy up as a failure? Shall we appeal to force? 


L. Duguit. Law in the Modern State. B. W. Huebsch. Price, 
$2.50; with postage from the Survey, $2.75. 

Moorfield Storey. Obedience to the Law. (Gratis.) 735 
Exchange Building, Boston. 

Publications, National Association Distillers. 301 United 
States Bank Building, Cincinnati. 

Publications, Anti-Saloon League, 906 Broadway, New York. 

The Survey, this issue, pages 9 and 10. 


Hendrik JVillcm Van Loon 



No. i 


Robert W. DeForest, President 
Henry R. Seager > Vue . PresidenU 


Arthur P. Kellogg, Treasurer 
Ann Reed Brenner, Secretary 




Bruno Lasker Joseph K. Hart 

S. Adele Shaw Paul L. Benjamin 



The World in Brief 

THE guard on the 11:17 subway express left his 
station at the end-door and sat down beside the pas- 
senger with the brief-case. In a manner that 
mingled hopefulness and apology, he said: 

" Are you a lawyer? " 

The passenger disclaimed that honor. With a look of 
complete defeat, the guard said, bitterly: 

" I might have known it. Everybody's carrying them 
things, these days. You can't tell a thing by What folks 
carry. Now, me : I need a lawyer, and I need one bad ; 
and I've been looking for one on the train for a week. I 
remember the time when nobody but lawyers carried them 
leather cases. What's the matter with the world? I s'pose 
lawyers don't ride on the cars any more. They mostly own 
their own autos, I guess. Well, I'll say the world's turned 
upside down. You're sure you're not a lawyer?" 

And he returned to his station with the air of one to 
whom the complexities of life had grown too great. But 
he eyed the passenger with the brief-case suspiciously all 
the way to Brooklyn Bridge. 

The Twelve Lawyers 

THE " lawless acts of a mob " and " deliberate usurpa- 
tion " are among the terms used in the unsparing criti- 
cism which the sub-committee of the Judiciary Com- 
mittee of the Senate levels at the acts of the Department 
of Justice in connection with the deportation proceedings 
which reached their climax in the January raids of 1920. 
The committee was authorized in December, 1920, to con- 
duct an investigation into the charges made by the commit- 
tee of twelve lawyers appointed by the National Popular 
Government League and headed by Dean Pound of the 
Harvard Law School, which had charged the Department 
of Justice with illegal practices. Senator Walsh of Mon- 
tana, Democrat, was chairman of the Senate committee 
which has now made its report. 

It will be remembered that about ten thousand aliens were 
arrested during the raids, many of them property owners, 
fathers of children born in America, and veterans of the 
World War. [See The Communist Deportations, by Francis 
Fisher Kane, the Survey for April 24, 1920.] Concerning 
these raids the committee states the following conclusions: 

1. The agents of the Bureau of Investigation of the Department * 
of Justice have no authority to make arrests in deportation proceed- 
ings, if, indeed, they have authority to make arrests at all. 

2. The agents of the Department of Labor have no authority to 
make an arrest looking to deportation without a warrant. 

3. The issuance of a warrant upon the unsworn statement of an 
agent of the Bureau of Investigation is a plain violation of the 
fourth amendment to the Constitution of the United States. 

4. There is no authority in the law for the conduct of a search 
in deportation proceedings, either of the residence of the alien or 

in the meeting place of societies condemned by the immigration laws 
or for the seizure of books, records, or papers of either. 

5. There is no authority in the law for the issuance of a search 
warrant in deportation proceedings at all. 

6. There is no authority in the law for the issuance of a search 
warrant to seize books or papers to be used as evidence, even of 
the commission of a crime, much less to establish a case in deporta- 
tion proceedings. 

The committee recommends the repeal of the section of 
the act of October 18, 191 8, which makes membership in or 
affiliation with " any organization that entertains a belief 
in, teaches or advocates " " the overthrow by force or vio- 
lence of the government of the United States " sufficient 
reason to send a man back to the " country from which he 

A New Kind of Club 

FOREIGN visitors who report back home on their main 
impressions of America seem to overlook, one and all, 
the most characteristic of all American institutions, the 
ubiquitous club. Did they but know it, they would recog- 
nize in the group of little girls that brightens up a somber 
park corner with its vivacious talk the Yorkville Daffodils, 
and in the half dozen business men who seem engrossed 
over their after-lunch cigars in earnest talk of high finance 
the Banjo Boosters' Club. No subject is too large or too 
small to have its devotees formally organized, with presi- 
dent, secretary, membership fees and buttons. A salesman, 
a lawyer, a proofreader and a sexton, with various others, 
meet regularly every week to read Dante; and the Isaac 
Wolfsohn club, whose members claim common descent from 
a little-known rabbi in far-off Bielostok, numbers from two 
hundred to two hundred and fifty at its annual gatherings. 

Since causes that bring people together seem well-nigh 
exhausted, some bright genius has thought of forming clubs 
of those whose only bond is that they have nothing in com- 
mon; and the idea, report has it, is rapidly catching on. 
To Evansville, Indiana, or to be more precise the Commun- 
ity Welfare of that city, seems to belong the credit of hav- 
ing organized the first Newcomers' Club, the only condi- 
tion to whose membership is that the candidate has been in 
town for less than two years. The club began with two 
men, new to the city, who invited about twenty other new- 
comers to lunch with them. Its success was instantaneous. 
In about four months, more than a hundred newcomers have 
become members and, through the club, have been drawn 
into the life of the community. In fact, they were repre- 
sented, the chronicle adds with pride, on every team in the 
recent membership drive of the Chamber of Commerce. The 
club lunches together on Wednesdays. Once a month it gives 
a family dinner party to which the members bring their 
wives and children, who are provided with entertainment 
suited to their years by talent within the membership. The 



April I, 1922 

entertainment is followed by an informal dance in the course 
of which " men who have not danced for years take their 
wives on the floor." The membership of the club is made up 
of doctors, lawyers, school teachers, college professors, busi- 
ness men, social workers " and others " who have come to 
the city within the year. (One wonders who the " others " 
are; there is no mention of Mike, the bricklayer, or Peter, 
the new soda jerker at the corner drug store.) 

Guests from other cities, we are told, have been impressed 
with the spirit of the Newcomers of Evansville and the way 
in which they have established friendship for lonesome 
strangers and drawn new men and women into the progres- 
sive movements of the city. Because of many inquiries as to 
methods of organization the next, also characteristically 
American, step has just been taken, and " a national organ- 
ization in order to preserve the ideals and perpetuate the 
spirit " of the club has been effected. Indeed, there is talk 
of a Newcomers' International. 

A Good Beginning in Delaware 

THERE are a number of social workers' clubs in Amer- 
ica which vary in aims and methods with the person- 
ality of their leading spirits. Some are small in number 
and meet quite informally to discuss pressing social questions 
in their community. Others meet at regular intervals to have 
presented to them by invited speakers thoughtful addresses on 
professional topics. Again others are frankly recreational 
and, with much song and merrymaking, try to take the edge 
off any serious discussion that might arise at their gatherings. 
The Professional Social Workers' Club of Delaware, formed 
last November, is the first, it would seem, to take the initia- 
tive in instructing and edifying not only its own members 
but in carrying on a propaganda for effective social reform 
in the state. Within three months of its formation it held 
a successful state conference of social work in which, in 
addition to local speakers, such nationally known authorities 
as Sherman C. Kingsley, Margaret E. Rich, J. Prentice 
Murphy, Dr. Ellen C. Potter, Mary Van Kleeck, Robert A. 
Woods and Dr. Francis Lee Dunham took part. Shortly 
afterward a committee was appointed to study the com- 
munity chest. As the club already has over a hundred mem- 
bers and honorary membership in it is open to influential 
citizens not professionally engaged in social work, its object, 
" the attainment of a higher standard of social service for 
the people of Delaware through closer cooperation and bet- 
ter mutual understanding of the members and the societies 
which they represent," already seems measurably nearer. 

Relief in West Virginia 

MINERS in West Virginia are appealing to the nation 
for help in the widespread unemployment crisis that 
has brought want and even hunger to parts of the 
mining fields of that state. A committee of union officials 
and others visited New York the other day to raise funds, 
and an organized appeal to the country at large is planned. 
It is unusual for the workers of a great industry to find that 
the shutting off of their normal way of making a living 
compels them to carry their requests for help to the whole 

The committee estimates that "of 115,000 men normally 
employed in coal mining in West Virginia, 70,000 are with- 
out work; 35,000 families are without bread." Only seven- 
teen mines are said to be in operation in the Grafton dis- 
trict alone, out of 121 ; in the Kanawha district 10 per cent 
of the mines are declared to be open. This is the result of 
one of the most acute depressions in the coal fields ever 
known. Fred Mooney, secretary-treasurer of District 17 of 
the United Mine Workers of America, says: 

When a relief agent visited the Michigan and Elmo camp in 
Fayette County recently, he found forty-three families which had 

been virtually without food for three days. The miners have 
looked after their own needy until recently; but now their resources 
are gone. 

A relief committee has been formed in New York to 
assist in getting help. 

Local efforts to relieve distress among the miners of West 
Virginia have been helpful but by no means adequate, as 
revealed by a first-hand investigation published in the Sur- 
vey for February 18. No comprehensive plan is in capable 
executive hands. Committees including representatives of 
the Y. W. C. A., the miners, public officials, Red Cross 
chapters and others have given some assistance. In a letter 
to the Survey, W. Frank Persons, vice-chairman of the 
executive committee of the American Red Cross, outlines the 
policy of the national organization in regard to this effort : 

The American Red Cross, as a national organization, has not 
undertaken to relieve the distress due to the unemployment situation 
among the miners of West Virginia. It is not the function of the 
National Red Cross to do this for two important reasons: 

First, to undertake such a practice and policy would involve giv- 
ing relief on a large scale in hundreds of places throughout the 
country. As a matter of fact if we were in that field of (unemploy- 
ment) relief work, unemployed ex-service men in this country at 
the present time, alone, would more than absorb any resources we 
have or could secure for such an undertaking. 

Secondly, the problem of unemployment is so large, its causes 
so deep-rooted, and so entirely dependent upon economic and social 
conditions, that the entire community organization, economic, social 
and political, in any one place, must share the burden of both relief 
and the removal of the underlying causes. 

Nevertheless, any Red Cross chapter in a region where such dis- 
tress exists is interested as a civic agency and may in its discretion 
stimulate the creation of representative citizens' committees and par- 
ticipate in any action they undertake, avoiding the acceptance of 
independent responsibility in the matter. 

In West Virginia, chapters of the American Red Cross have main- 
tained this policy in Kanawha and Fayette counties. The former 
took part on a committee on which were represented the Rotary 
Club, the Ministerial Association, Lions Club, Kanawha Valley 
Association, Women's Club and the Knights of Columbus. This 
committee obtained funds and supplies and delegated the Red Cross 
chapter to administer relief. Cases were investigated, and within a 
short time over 12,000 garments were distributed, food supplied to 
366 families, and a list of 146 families receiving weekly aid. 

In Fayette County the Red Cross chapter participated in several 
representative committees and participated in direct relief activities 
in which aid was and is being given to families to the extent of 
over $5,000. These two operations have been carried on in addition 
to those of a number of other agencies described by Mr. Lane in the 
Survey of February 18. 

In the Hocking Valley of Ohio, where similar conditions exist, 
the Red Cross chapters of Athens, Hocking and Perry counties arc 
represented on joint committees formed by delegates at a meeting 
called by the governor of the state; and in Birmingham, Alabama, 
the Jefferson County chapter has adopted the same policy in con- 
nection with the unemployment in that district. 

The Searchlight on Amoskeag 

WHEN a dispute concerning wages arises in an indus- 
try labor is always without facts showing what the 
industry can bear. The manufacturers are in 
possession of the books and refuse to submit them to the 
workers or to impartial boards for arbitration. An excep- 
tion to this rule is to be found in the case of the job printing 
industry in New York city, where the employers in forty- 
eight firms last fall agreed to show their books to expert 
accountants before the arbitration of their wage dispute. Each 
side to the controversy chose an accountant and these in 
turn chose an accountant to whom the books were submitted. 
The award was based on facts. 

The textile industry is no exception to the rule. The 
dispute now affecting nearly one hundred thousand workers 
and their families in New England hangs on what the indus- 
try can afford to pay. Only the employers know. The work- 
ers and the public are uninformed. In this case, however, the 
unions have resorted to new tactics. Both the United Textile 
Workers — the old line union affiliated with the American 
Federation of Labor — and the Amalgamated Textile Work- 

April I, 1922 


ers have retained expert economic advisers who have scanned 
the public records for facts regarding the financial condition 
of the companies involved. The results obtained have been 
released to the press or, in some cases, paid advertisements 
have been inserted in the newspapers in the manner formerly 
used only by the employing groups. Three advertisements 
inserted last week by the United Textile Workers in the 
Manchester (New Hampshire) Union give publicity to the 
findings of the Labor Bureau, Inc., of Boston, which has 
been retained to make the investigations. Most important 
are the figures on the Amoskeag Manufacturing Company, 
employing more than fifteen thousand operatives in its mills 
at Manchester, said to be the largest cotton textile plant in 
the world. 

These figures' are compiled from statements on the com- 
pany taken from manufacturers' records, principally 
Moody's Industrial Corporations Manual. They show that 
full-time wages in 1921 were 120 per cent above those paid 
in 191 1 ; sales per yard of cloth sold had decreased 66 per 
cent. Nevertheless, net profits were, in 1921, 139 per cent 
over those of 191 1 ; dividends on common stock increased by 
365 per cent and dividends on common and preferred stock 
by 409 per cent. [See chart.] Amoskeag's financial state- 
ment, the Union says, does not include in profit dividends 
paid on preferred stock. This $450,000 per year appears 
under " cost of manufacture." Dividends paid in 1921 rep- 
resent about 75 per cent on the capitalization as it stood be- 
fore 1907. Since 1906 the capitalization has been increased 
from $4,000,000 to $44,500,000, and " not one dollar of 
capitalization has been put into the business since except from 
profits." The advertisement says : 

Thus has southern competition affected the Amoskeag and brought 
them to the present situation in which they announce the necessity 
of cutting wages and lengthening hours of operatives who averaged 
to earn, before the cut, 39 cents per hour, $18.51 per week, and, if 
they worked every day for a year with no vacation, no illness, nor 
shut down of the mill, the total sum of $962.52. 

Dividends paid for the last ten years follow: 








. $6.00 
. 6.00 
. 3.875 
. 7.50 

The Union comments: 

One share of Amoskeag common drew 25 per cent higher dividends 
in 1921 than at any time since the stock was issued. Furthermore, 
in 1919, a 100 per cent stock dividend was declared on common, so 
that the holder of each share thereafter held two and, of course, 
received dividends upon each, without investment of an additional 
penny except from profits, which the Public and the Workers furnish, 
not the shareholders. The holder of one share of Amoskeag common 
in 1912 who retained it to date would therefore have received divi- 
dends in the last three years as follows: 1919, $6.75; 1920, $9.75; 
1921, $15. That is, the dividend money received by the individual 
who held his Amoskeag common from 1912 to date, and held the 
stock dividend handed him gratis in the meantime, amounted in 
1921 to 2^2 times as much money as his stock had ever brought him 
before the war years, and more than 50 per cent more than he had 
ever received, even during the period of war profits. 

The trustees of Amoskeag in their wisdom voted to increase divi- 
dends in 1921 when profits from the business showed a decrease. 

The trustees of Amoskeag voted to increase dividends during a 
year when sales of cloth by the company fell lower than during any 
year for the past 15 years, with a single exception. 

The trustees of Amoskeag voted to increase dividends during 1921 ; 
and at the same time, or mighty soon after, they voted to lower 
wages and lengthen hours of 15,500 employes who help them earn 
the dividends. 

The trustees of Amoskeag voted to increase dividends during 1921 ; 
perhaps they voted, also, to " cut another melon " during 1922. At 
all events, Amoskeag stock went up about the same time that wages 
went down. 

Amoskeag now has a surplus of over $40,000,000. Of course, this 
surplus MUST NOT be drawn on to MAINTAIN WAGES at 
$18.71 a week; but this surplus CAN be drawn on to RAISE 
DIVIDENDS HIGHER, as was done in the year of Grace, 1921. 

The manufacturers have not at the time of going to press 
replied to these allegations of the union. 

Amoskeag manufacturing company 

WA$E 5 



ftowtt Actually PiUD 0</r 


3 l,7*C.« 




1911 1914 




1911 l»W 



hi Litis* 6w««u ImC. 3iO Cbho««M 3T. Po»Tfln HAH, 


Showing the relation of wages, sales, earnings and dividend pay- 
ments last year and ten years ago, of the Amoskeag Manufacturing 
Company, with mills at Manchester, New Hampshire, employing 
more than fifteen thousand workers now on strike. Diagram pre- 
pared by the Labor Bureau, Inc., for the United Textile Workeri, 
and published in the Manchester Union as a paid advertisement. 
Figures taken from published statements of the company and manu- 
facturers' records. Average weekly wage full-time earnings would 
be $16.84 if wage rates were cut 20 per cent and hours increased 
from 48 to 54 per week as has been ordered by the company; or 
$14.97 if wages were cut 20 per cent and hours remained 48 a week 

Virginia's Tobacco Workers 

IMAGINE that you began work when you were some- 
where between eight and twelve years of age; that you 
have been working thirty or more years at the heavy, 
dusty labor of rehandling tobacco; that you leave home at 
6:30 on a winter morning, to return often as late as 7 
o'clock at night; that you work regularly in season ten 
hours a day and fifty-five hours a week; and that in return 
for this you receive each week $11 or $12. With this money 
you help meet the family expenses or are perhaps the finan- 
cial mainstay and you are responsible for cooking the meals, 
and caring for your home and children after hours of work. 
This composite picture gives some idea of the Negro 
woman at work today in the tobacco factories of Virginia. 
Buried in the back of a report on Negro Women in Industry, 
issued by the Women's Bureau of the Department of Labor, 
lies the story of these women told by Emma L. Shields, 
investigator for the bureau, in a study made of eighty-five of 
them in their homes. Of this number twenty-one had never 
attended school, twelve had stopped in the second grade, seven 
in the third, twenty-one in the fourth, and but three were 
graduates of high schools. During a normal working week 
72 per cent earned less than $12; 19 per cent less than $9; 
and but one woman earned over $16. Yet these workers 
had been in the industry for from six months to forty-two 



April I, 1922 

years. Thirteen had been employed over thirty years. More 
than 42 per cent had begun work at twelve years of age 
or less. 

Fifty-eight per cent worked a schedule of fifty-five hours 
a week ; 38 per cent, fifty hours a week ; and " hours were 
often lengthened by overtime." Sixty-six per cent were re- 
sponsible for the entire care of their homes, and 30 per cent 
had home duties to attend to before or after the factory closed. 

One of the girls, whose father had been ill for years and 
whose wage had to be stretched to cover medical attention, 
in addition to upkeep of the home, stated her problem: 

It is not only the need of money that burdens me but the respon- 
sibility of being nurse and housekeeper and wage-earner at one time. 

Another : 

I am so tired when I reach home that I can scarcely stand up, and 
then I have so much to do that it just exhausts me. I jump in 
my sleep all night, my nerves are so bad. 

Mothers get employment for their children as soon as these 
reach the legal age, a necessary step because a child labor 
law has been in force in Virginia for some time. Miss 
Shields comments on the effect of the family employment on 
community life: 

Life in each generation was bounded on all sides by the same 
influences. In the factory, nothing elevating or improving was 
afforded the workers; home influences were no better, for the wages 
were so low that the workers were forced to select the poorest of 
homes in localities so undesirable and unhealthful that the environ- 
ment naturally would react on the lives of the persons within it. 
There thus resulted a class consciousness among those workers, 
which was expressed in their suspicion of other groups, their con- 
centration on their own interests and their maladjustment to the 
communities in which they lived. 

In spite of their financial condition, many of the women 
invest some of their savings. They have bought houses and 
improved them, and 95 per cent carry some form of sick 
benefit or life insurance. The investigator closes with this 
interesting commentary : 

There was something of beauty in the attitude of the women 
toward their work. Their patient trust and belief in the better day 
that should come to them as workers was pathetic. In spite of the 
unpleasant conditions which surrounded them at work, they con- 
tinued to express their consolation and hope, as they sang and chanted 
their own songs during the long hours of the day. 

That Siberian Concession 

THERE has been a good deal in the newspapers about 
a concession in Siberia which the Soviet government 
was said to have made to Bill Haywood, the fugitive 
American I. W. W. ; and some of the papers suggested that 
the welcome extended to American engineers to work that 
concession was intended more for their dollars than for 
their persons. The first group of these pilgrims, consisting 
of fifty or sixty men and eight or nine women, is sailing 
on April 8. The real purpose and organization of the en- 
terprise has been explained to a representative of the Survey 
by H. S. Calvert who, with his associate, Montgomery 
Schuyler, has recently come to the United States from Rus- 
sia to take charge of its American end. Mr. Calvert is a 
descendant of a British pioneer who came to Maryland in 
1634 in search of religious freedom. He went to Russia 
after the revolution as a representative of the I. W. W. 
and, together with a Dutch engineer, S. J. Rutgers, made 
a survey of what was called Concession Number One, the 
first to be offered by the Russian government to foreign 
capitalists. As a result of their expedition, they submitted 
to Lenin a report which procured them an operating lease. 
" Big Bill " Haywood, says Mr. Calvert, had nothing to 
do with the original undertaking and is merely acting at 
present as Moscow representative of the organizing com- 
mittee that has been formed. This committee of nine mem- 
bers is trying to mobilize six thousand workers and en- 
gineers to operate the lease. The nature of this is described 
by Mr. Calvert as follows: 

In southern Siberia, halfway between Moscow and Vladivostok 
and a hundred miles south of Tomsk, there stretches a tract of land 
known as the Kuznets Basin which contains iron deposits that are 
75 per cent iron; coal deposits cover an area of nine thousand 
square miles, and in addition to timber forests there are some 
twenty-five thousand acres of excellent arable land. Development 
of this area, under a lease from the crown, was begun in 1913 by 
an engineering organization. Kemerovo, in the basin, is a small 
industrial Gary with a population of eleven thousand and contains 
a steel and chemical plant, some well equipped houses, stores, a 
hospital, two theaters and public buildings. 

Another industrial center in the district is Gurieff Zavod, with 
a blast furnace that has produced four thousand poods or sixty-five 
tons of pig iron per month and a cement plant with a capacity 
of sixteen hundred tons. 

Tomsk, the largest city in Siberia, is in the concession area. 
It has a population of eighty thousand, flour mills, a glass factory, 
tannery, shoe factory and Hoffman brick kilns — all to be operated, 
as are also the other plants named, by the Kuzbas, the leasing 

The steel plant at Nadejendenski is " almost an isolated industrial 
empire," a well equipped modern plant which will supply seven 
blast furnaces of one hundred tons daily capacity each, with a 
total yearly capacity of ten million poods of highest grade charcoal 
pig iron ; an automatic rolling mill with its own power plant, and 
a sheet or tin plate mill. Over 50 per cent of this plant is ready 
to run as soon as labor is available and minor repairs have been 
made at the mill. 

Of the six thousand settlers sought, five hundred are to be miners 
to work the Kemerovo coal field, now operated by natives who come 
from the farms and turn out only three-quarters of a ton a day, 
whereas it is expected that American miners will have a daily 
output of nine tons a day. 

The Kuzbas is one of several concessions offered by the 
Soviet government in line with its present economic policy. 
Owing to lack of machinery and capital and because of the 
depletion by the war of the native supply of technical and 
skilled labor, it is unable without outside aid to run these 
industrial assets to anything like full production. From 
Concession Number One more particularly, the government 
hopes to obtain a coal supply for the Trans-Siberian Rail- 
road and an efficient operation of the machine industries in 
southern Siberia. That this first concession was made to 
a committee of foreign revolutionists, Mr. Calvert believes, 
has the psychological purpose of reassuring the Communists 
in Russia that an industrial community can be run success- 
fully along other than purely " capitalistic " lines. 

If the lessees were planning to build up an industrial com- 
munity on cooperative lines, securing the profit for the work- 
ers, this in itself would be an interesting experiment. But 
they plan something even more unique: The question they 
hope to answer in the affirmative is, is it possible to build 
an industrial community in which the technician is supreme ? 
Hitherto, except in public service, the technician has been 
employed as a necessary factor in producing for profit. As 
Mr. Calvert expresses it, the Kuzbas enterprise has for one 
of its purposes that of supplanting the " one-eyed captain of 
industry " by a " two-eyed supremacy of workers and en- 
gineers." The technicians will not be concerned merely 
with production but will have complete control of the 
goods produced. The basic wage of the workmen will be 
one sufficient to insure a satisfactory standard of living and 
will be determined by the board of managers who are re- 
sponsible both to the workers and to the government. In 
addition to the wage the workers will receive a yearly bonus 
determined on the basis of production. The surplus product 
will be used for extension of the various enterprises after 
deduction of the current taxes. No stocks or shares are 
issued. According to the prospectus, the government is to 
receive in exchange for the concession the equivalent of the 
production secured by it in 1921 (which was about 10 per 
cent of the total capacity) and one-half of all production 
in excess of that. For all products turned over to it, " a 
credit will be given and an equivalent in other commodities 
received through exchange on a commercial basis." 

Applications for membership among the first six thousand 
to go to Siberia are pouring into the New York headquarters 

April i, 1922 


of the organization. Workers are getting together in groups 
from Illinois to New Mexico. Miners have applied in such 
large numbers that, says Mr. Calvert, " if they were all 
accepted, the coal strike would have to be called off for lack 
of strikers." Many of them have saved up against the 
possibility of a strike in April and are therefore able to 
comply with the financial requirements. The workmen who 
go to " Kuzbas " will not be penniless adventurers. Skill, 
tools to the value of $100, $130 for transportation and $100 
for food — to be supplied by the organization at wholesale 
prices — are prerequisites. Among those desirous to go are 
many engineers of the best standing. Mr. Calvert himself 
is a "production man" with a knowledge of engineering; 
so is Mr. Schuyler. Among other things these men dream 
of the creation at Tomsk of a great proletarian university 
" which will bring about a marriage of industry and educa- 
tion." The university of Tomsk, says Mr. Calvert, has 
capacity for six thousand students, and laboratories for 
experimentation as fine as any in the world. 


THE curious twists of mind in persons anxious to ad- 
vance good citizenship are worthy of special study by 
a psychologist. The " extra-legal enforcement of 
laws " [see page 3] is not the only paradox in their pro- 
gram. There are ~ X only those who would foster law 
enforcement by breaking laws, but many — in the North as 
well as in the South — who are such passionate upholders 
of personal liberty, as guaranteed by the constitution, that 
they would go to any length to suppress the speech of those 
who to them seem antagonists of such liberty. They re- 
mind one of the entertainer who said : " I am inviting crit- 
icism. The ushers will please put out any one who does 
not like this show." 

Some such mental peculiarity underlies an extraordinary 
communication addressed last week to William H. Ander- 
son, state superintendent for New York of the Anti-Saloon 
League. During the more than twenty years of his activity 
on behalf of prohibition, says Mr. Anderson, he has fre- 
quently — and sometimes almost weekly — received letters 
threatening his life. Of these he has taken little notice. But 
the letter signed " A group who believes in the right of life, 
liberty and pursuit of happiness as individuals. Live and 
let live is our motto " is unique in that this group, com- 
posed as it says of 100 per cent Americans who during the 
late war have voluntarily served in the army, are " bound 
together by the strictest oaths of obedience to wipe out a 
certain type of person who at the present time has made 
himself prominent in the advocacy of the theory of repres- 
sion." They admit it will be almost impossible to kill off 
the whole membership of the Anti-Saloon League, but they 
are going " to kill without the slightest compunction " such 
of its members as will not " take their place quietly in the 
great body of American citizenship." 

The incident would be funny were it not gruesome and 
were it not for the probability that such conspiracies really 
exist, even though their words practically always are louder 
than their actions. When rakes combine to defend the fair 
name of American liberty, there must be something wrong 
with the virginity of the lady. 

The P. R. T. Labor Program 

THOMAS E. MITTEN, president of the Philadelphia 
Rapid Transit Company since 191 1, has put over a 
program of cooperation between the management and 
men which is probably unique in this country and which 
has saved the company from bankruptcy. 

Certain members of the board of directors have recently 
attempted to displace Mr. Mitten. The ten thousand em- 
ployes of the company .took money from their Savings Fund 

Association, against the counsel of the president of the asso- 
ciation, and bought P. R. T. stock in order to vote it in sup- 
port of Mr. Mitten at the meeting of March 15, 1922. Their 
slogan was : " Every member a stockholder." At that meet- 
ing, the Mitten management was overwhelmingly supported, 
and directors favorable to a continuation of the policy of the 
last eleven years were elected. One of them is an employe of 
the company. Interest in the struggle grows out of the fact 
that since 191 1, the P. R. T. has been transformed from an 
expensive travesty on transportation into an effective, profit- 
paying concern. The employes have shared in the work and 
in the rewards. 

The future of the program is, of course, problematic. The 
employes have no union organization. Philadelphia boasts 
that it is the home of the so-called " American plan." But 
the cooperative association acts for the men. The Mitten 
management has succeeded in keeping the union out by giv- 
ing the cooperatives a growing share in profits, responsibility 
and control. Cars on all lines now carry placards with the 
legend : 

P. R. T. stockholders operating this car with Mitten management 
pledge car service, safe, courteous, efficient. 

Two contingencies lie ahead. On the one hand, the city 
is protesting that all surplus earnings beyond a minimum 
dividend must go to the city and to the stockholders ; that the 
charter makes no provision for a bonus for the workers. 
This is a matter of contract, however, and can be definitely 
determined. In the second place, the effort to keep out the 
unions has resulted in admitting the workers to a share in 
control. This is a step toward one item in the famous 
" Plumb Plan." There seems no escape, however, from the 
logic of the case : the employes are now sharing in a minimum 
way in control of the P. R. T. What they shall accomplish 
in the future depends upon what they do with this beginning 
of power. 


Profit and Loss 

MERICA still remains the land of opportunity," 
B. Seebohm Rowntree concludes after his recent 
visit to this country. This prominent English busi- 
ness man and economist is writing a series of articles on his 
visit for the Yorkshire Gazette and, in the first of them, says: 

The immigrant from Central or Eastern Europe, often a down- 
trodden and oppressed soul, will not for long live on the East Side 
of New York. That is but a perch where he rests after his long 
flight across the ocean 

He pictures the pitiable discomfort of the immigrant's 
ocean crossing and his entrance to this continent. A descrip- 
tion of the cosmopolitan life in ouf large cities brings him 
back to his first point: 

The slum district has not the atmosphere of hopelessness that one 
observes in the slums of London. I went to th» pooiest streets and 
saw some dreary and dirty tenements; but the people are different 
from those in the slums of our English cities. Why is it? It is be- 
cause every one ... is "on the move." Even if some of the im- 
migrants will always live there, their children will almost certainly 

This movement of the population onward and upward is the 
sociological factor which most constantly impresses itself on a 
visitor from the old world. 

Nevertheless, Mr. Rowntree believes that we are not suf- 
ficiently aware of the enormous wealth which the flow of 
migrants from the old world contributes to the life of 
America, and that the old countries are not aware of the 
potential wealth lost to them. He says: 

I think we are apt to forget that an adult immigrant of normal 
character is a great source of wealth and capacity. He has been 
reared at the cost of the mother country — it has fed him, clothed him, 
housed him for perhaps twenty-five years. It has educated him. 
And then, just when all this capital has been sunk in him and he has 
become a wealth-producing instrument (to talk mere economics), he 
is presented, so to speak, ready-made to another country. From the 
day he lands, without any further capital expenditure on his behalf, 
he begins to produce wealth — more wealth than he consumes. 



April I, 1922 

The Klan in Texas 

THE New York World is quoted by the Searchlight 
of Atlanta as " chortling " to the effect that " now 
that the mask has been torn from the Ku KIux 
Klan, it has ceased to be a menace." In this county 
seat in the interior of Texas where I have been spending a 
week the Klan seems to be considered a very serious menace 
indeed — to evildoers. I am still rubbing my eyes and ques- 
tioning my ears. This is surely not the same fantastic 
embodiment of anti-Catholic, anti- Jewish, anti-Negro, anti- 
labor prejudice which I have read about, the masked hundred 
percenters who are so free with whips and tar and feathers, 
or worse, whose lawless methods have become proverbial. 

My first shock came in Atlanta, when the Sunday Consti- 
tution had a full-page special-feature article on the new 
university — the enlarged Lanier — which is to eclipse Har- 
vard and Yale. Text and illustrations were all presented 
with every appearance of seriousness. Atlanta — if one may 
judge from the treatment accorded by the leading newspaper 
to its educational project — does not consider the Klan a 
menace or a joke, but an institution, like the Elks, the Salva- 
tion Army, or any other. My next jolt came when a student 
in this Texas town, who bears a distinguished name and is 
earning his way through college by work in the hotel, came 
to my room for a long evening talk, in the course of which 
he launched into a warm eulogy of the Ku Klux Klan. He 
is not a member, but that is only because a certain girl whose 
opinions are important to him had vetoed it. She felt so 
strongly about it that he could hardly even discuss the matter 
with her ; but he discussed it with me. 

The Klan, this ardent college youth insists, is not against 
Negroes but in their interest, not against Catholics but only 
for Protestantism — as the Knights of Columbus are for their 
religion. It is for one hundred per cent Americanism, for 
law and order, and for white supremacy. He admitted that 
it sometimes upholds law and order by extra-legal means. 
He knew of the cases in Houston; for example, the tarring 
of a doctor who was known to be guilty of criminal practices. 
What the boy insisted upon was that the doctor was guilty, 
that he was a menace, and that the Klan rid the city of his 
presence and his practices when the authorities by their 
milder measures had failed to do so. Law and order, as he 
sees it, means not overscrupulous observance of the forms 
of justice, but making the law-breakers quit or get out — or, 
more accurately, quit and get out; not squeamishness about 
the legal rights of guilty defendants, but unceremonious and 
drastic " cleaning up " of the community. I tried to do my 
duty toward correcting this inadequate view of justice, but I 
think I succeeded only in making my young friend regret 
that we had got on a subject of so controversial a character 
when he was sincerely eager to get help on questions of 
greater importance. 

In order to find out whether the young woman who re- 
strained this student from joining the Klan was representa- 
tive of the student body, two questions were put to the girls 
whose classes happened to be in session. Forty-four answered 
the questions — in writing, and not giving their names. The 
first question was: Are you in sympathy with the Ku Klux 
Klan? The second: Would you be willing to have your 
father or brother join it? While my young friend was 
neither the brother nor the father of the one who had en- 
tered the objection in this instance, it seemed better to for- 
mulate the inquiry in this way. Both questions were an- 
swered in the negative by eighteen of the girls; in the af- 
firmative by twenty-six. Thus in this small group, which 
there seems to be no reason to consider exceptional, the 
Klan wins by a ratio of nearly three to two. 

It began to seem to me important to understand the point 
of view of this southern communitv. I therefore sounded 

next the Methodist minister. " I understand," I remarked 
casually, " that some very good people get into the Ku Klux 
Klan in these parts." " The very best people get into it," 
he replied emphatically. The good doctor who said this is 
not a bigot. In several conversations I was impressed by his 
tolerant, vigorous thought. He is active in the inter-racial 
commission. He neither condemned nor advocated the Klan, 
but with discrimination expressed both his doubts and his 
appreciation of some of their acts. He is deeply distressed 
by the lawlessness of the time. He thinks that the intention 
of the Klan is to combat lawlessness, and that — in this region, 
at least — its ordinary method is to try to secure the election 
of capable and honest officials and to cooperate with them in 
furnishing evidence of criminal acts. Assaults by white men 
on colored women are, he thinks, dealt with as drastically as 
any other offenses. " Bootlegging " is the particular crime 
which is most widespread, and in suppressing which anony- 
mous informers are most useful. Here in Texas, in short, 
law and order means at present, more than any other one 
thing, hostility to moonshine distillers and other violators of 
the prohibition laws. 

I had a whole afternoon of serious talk with half a dozen 
men of the faculty of a school for the training of teachers. 
We talked about the race question and the Ku Klux Klan. 
All these men are southern in ancestry, birth, education and 
life-long residence. They are in sympathy with efforts to 
improve racial cooperation. They are taking part in them 
persistently. They would no doubt subscribe to the shibbo- 
leth of white supremacy, but they would narrow its meaning 
in practice in such a way as to make it comparatively unobjec- 
tionable to self-respecting Negroes. They are for equal jus- 
tice in the courts and in economic relations ; for better schools 
for the colored, for better accommodations on railways. They 
sympathize with the efforts of Negroes to protect the sanctity 
of their homes, and with all well-considered measures to 
protect and elevate the standing of living of either race. 

What these gentlemen, whom I came to know well enough 
to call them personal friends, had to say about the mysterious 
organization is no doubt as fair an estimate as one will find. 
They are confident that stories of lawless acts by the Klan 
published in northern newspapers are exaggerated ; that here- 
abouts, at least, it does not represent anti- Jewish prejudice 
nor anti-Catholic bigotry nor antagonism to Negroes; that 
it is not hostile to labor; that it does represent a strong 
determination to prevent cohabitation and promiscuous inti- 
macy between whites and blacks, and that this is as much 
in the interest of the black race as of the white race ; that its 
main purpose, however, is to inculcate a wholesome respect 
for law and order, including the laws against " bootlegging " 
and gambling. They deplore the use, by members of the 
Ku Klux Klan or anybody else, of unlawful or extra-legal 
means of upholding law and order; but they think that even 
now these are not often resorted to, and that even sporadic 
cases are less likely to occur in the future. They consider 
that one of the speedy means to promote the enforcement of 
law lies in breaking down the custom of claiming exemption 
from jury duty which now prevails among the best citizens. 
The Ku Klux Klan seems to be bringing effective pressure 
on the citizenship of the South at this point. 

I had, finally, an interview with one representative bus- 
iness man, who was so well informed and so outspoken in 
his advocacy as to leave little doubt of his active membership. 
In his eyes it is a righteous crusade. It makes no mistakes. 
It will use whatever means are necessary. If it can secure 
the election of men in sympathy with its aims, enforcement 
can then safely be left to them. But if not, what can you 
do? He is against hanging and burning Negroes. It is not 
effective. For the unmentionable crime he would resort to 
other remedies, which he thinks would be more effective, and 
which apparently he would be equally ready to apply to white 
offenders. • 

April I, 1922 



The Ku Klux Klan represents a complex in our national 
life which has not yet been accurately defined. It is certainly 
open to the objections which Sidney Smith long ago brought 
against all organizations of private informers. Its employ- 
ment of " direct action " is on a par with similar policies by 
any revolutionary body. Even with best citizens in its mem- 
bership, it can hardly prevent exploitation of a private grudge 
under the cover of the secrecy in which the Klan moves. It 
is said to be alive to the importance of defending itself against 
the use of its name by outsiders who are committing unlawful 
acts, and of course this possibility always exists even in the 
case of organizations which are not secret. Justice is not 
always blindfolded in the courts; but the "justice" of a 
secret order is even more likely to be honeycombed with 
favor 1 ' tism and injustice. 

It is easy to laugh at the absurdities of the Klan, its child- 
ish follies, its illiterate nomenclature, its fallacious conception 
of law and order. But it is not easily laughed out of exis- 
tence. Close at hand it is serious. It has a certain dignity 
of purpose. It is not sheer bigotry or stupidity or charla- 
tanry or fraud. Perhaps it may be short-lived. I hope so; 
for the evils which it professes to attack are certainly for 
the most part to be overcome only by very different means. 

Edward T. Devine. 

Prison Reform in Europe 

II. Czecho-Slovakia 

THE majority of them acknowledge their guilt and 
are conscious of deserving punishment — but remem- 
ber that they are human and that the spark divine 
is within them." Thus wrote Dostojevsky of 
criminals, and this seems to be the spirit in which Czecho- 
slovakia is just setting about a reform of her prison system 
and her treatment of offenders against the criminal law. 
Simultaneously with the introduction of an amended criminal 
code which will abolish capital punishment as well as some 
of the severer species of confinement in vogue under the old 
Austro-Hungarian regime, the reforms proposed by the pres- 
ent government of Czecho-Slovakia apply especially to two 
aspects of prison life. 

There is, first, the prison staff, those who have charge 
of the prisoners. The Austrian government of old always 
regarded ex-non-commissioned officers of the army as alone 
suitable to fill the posts of warders and officials in the prisons. 
To have served a certain period in the army and to possess 
adequate muscles and nerves were all that was demanded in 
the way of qualification for such posts. Since December, 1920, 
every applicant for the position of warder or official in a 
jail and all warders appointed since 1918 are required to 
have attended a four-months' course of instruction which is 
provided by the government. Lectures, instruction and ad- 
vice are given during these courses by competent authorities 
upon the topics bearing most directly upon prison manage- 
ment and treatment of criminals, for example, on prison reg- 
ulations and conduct, on the history of the prison system, on 
criminal psychology, pedagogy and hygiene. The officials 
must be competent to speak with any prisoner in his own 
tongue. [It may be recalled that within the Czecho-Slovak 
Republic three or four languages are spoken besides Czecho- 
slovak, the language of the great majority of the inhabitants. 
See the Survey for June 11, 1921, page 357.] Similar 
provision is made with regard to prisons for women offend- 
ers. The government is determined to break away from 
Austrian tradition, and aims at securing a prison personnel 
possessing sympathy and understanding. It will publish a 
handbook in which will be summarized the subject-matter 
of the instruction given in courses to the staff. 

Prison courts — the judges being drawn from outside 

will try cases of alleged offenses taking place inside the jails 

and convict settlements, and the extensive powers given to 
prison authorities in this respect under the old Austrian law 
will be abolished. 

The second part of the reform refers to the prisoners 
themselves. The incorrigible criminals are to be confined 
away from those who are capable of improvement, while 
youthful offenders and first offenders are also to be treated 
separately. The prisoners are to be better supplied with 
reading matter and libraries; reading rooms are to be pro- 
vided, indoor games such as chess and draughts are to be 
permitted, and lectures by first class lecturers to be given. 
Prisoners will also be encouraged to work by payment for 
what they do. Even now a convict may earn about K. 1.50 
a day, compared with K. 0.08 under the Austrian regime. 
There will also be committees of supervision whose duty it 
will be to find suitable occupations for prisoners liberated 
from jail. Those who have previously followed no occupa- 
tion will be given the opportunity of learning some handi- 
craft during their terms of confinement. Detailed attention 
will be paid to the health of the prisoners. That the Czecho- 
slovak Republic has already accomplished good work in this 
respect may be seen from the statistics of the principal penal 
station, that of Pancrace, near Prague. In the year 19 18, 
when the republic took over that institution, 65 prisoners 
died, 31 of them of tuberculosis — a death rate of 76 per 
thousand. In 1919 the deaths numbered 14, of which io 
were from tuberculosis — a death rate of 15 per thousand. 
In 1920 only 9 prisoners died, 4 of tuberculosis — a rate of 
6 per thousand. 


TALL, ragged, wan, he stands 
A herculean frame, 
With toil-beseeching hands. 

He said, " I seek the task 

My iron arms can do. 

In vain I knock and ask." 

Who answered NO! Dismay 
Drew from his breast a sob, 
" Don't have me go away! " 

" When one is hungry, oh, 

To be repulsed is hell. 

I've a right to work ! And so, 

" For love of your dead's fame 
Don't have me go away. 
Have pity in their name." 

He said, " 'Tis blasphemy 
If you believe in God, 
Now to abandon me." 

Who spoke that timid No, 
That sent him reeling forth, 
With heavy step and slow ? 

Follow his stony chart, 
While on his head beats down 
The June's sun searing dart. 

Rejected, Useless Strength, 
That wanders on and on 
The road's despairing length. 

Through cities, towns, by farms, 
He goes, proud mendicant, 
And shows in vain strong arms. 

He falls beneath the flail, 
Vain scars and thorns of fate — 
Invokes the end. I pale, 

Bow down, nor lightly rate 

The error ages long, 

My heart sinks 'neath the weight. 

Ada Negri. 

Translated by Ida L. Hull and Laura G. Woodberry. 

High and Wet 

The Indictment of the State Prohibition Director of Pennsylvania 

ON Wednesday, March 15, the resignation of T. Henry 
Walnut as special assistant United States attorney 
for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania (which had been 
on file), was accepted. Mr. Walnut had served notice on 
his superior that " if he was not fired " before the closing 
session of the grand jury the following Wednesday, he 
•would start his long held up case against William C. 
McConnell, state director of prohibition. He started it; 
and within a week he was to all intents and purposes fired. 
McConnell is one of the leading citizens of Shamokin, 
Pennsylvania, president of various banks and water com- 
panies, several times a state senator and, to quote the 
Philadelphia North American, "a staunch supporter of the 
late Senator Penrose, whose influence made him prohibition 

" We were scotching the little fellows every day," ac- 
cording to Mr. Walnut, " and we were letting the big ones 
hide under the bush." Not to be balked by his own dis- 
missal, he set out to force the district attorney to make a 
clean sweep by carrying his case to the public and exposing 
the influences and pressure reaching back to the Attorney 
General's Office and the Treasury at Washington, which 
had stalled prosecution. 

On Friday, March 24, Mr. Walnut spoke before the City 
Club of Philadelphia, giving in greater detail the circum- 
stances of his fight inside the government service to follow 

Mr. Walnut's Statement 

IN view of the discussion of the McConnell case and my 
part in it, I want to present the facts as I know them. 
The case began, so far as I was concerned, August 23, 
1 92 1, with the seizure of some three hundred or four 
hundred cases of whiskey at Bookbinder's restaurant, Second 
and Walnut streets. The trail of that liquor led to the 
prohibition office at Tenth and Market streets, Philadelphia. 
At that time, William C. McConnell was state director of 
prohibition, Albert F. Slater was his secretary in charge of 
the Philadelphia office, H. Wilson Benner was chief clerk 
of the Philadelphia office, and Samuel B. Wolfe was in 
charge of the Pittsburgh office, under McConnell. 

The investigation of the offices in Philadelphia and Pitts- 
burgh led to the dismissal on October 14 of Slater and 
Benner in Philadelphia, and Wolfe in Pittsburgh. McCon- 
nell was retained in office, but control was taken over by 
Samuel F. Rutter at the direction of Commissioner Haynes. 

On October 21, Slater and Benner were arrested, charged 
with conspiracy. Samuel Singer, Bookbinder and others 
were named as co-conspirators. 

The two McConnell subordinates were held under $2,500 
bail each for court, together with the other defendants. The 
testimony offered indicated that Benner had approved ap- 
plications for and Slater had signed McConnell's name to 
permits releasing to bootleggers 30,000 gallons of whiskey 
on one day, namely August 3, 1921. This was only one 
week after McConnell had taken office. 

Furter investigation produced evidence to the effect that 
between August 3, 1921, and October 14, when McConnell 
was superseded (approximately seventy days), 700,000 gal- 
lons of whiskey and alcohol (valued conservatively at $10,- 
000,000) had been released to bootleggers through the two 

The booze poured out of Pennsylvania distilleries and 
warehouses like water. It flooded into the state from 
Maryland, West Virginia, Kentucky and Indiana. Under 
McConnell and his three aides, the law and the constitution 
in Pennsylvania were scrapped. 

There was a wild scramble of money-mad men to get 
their share. Politics played a part, but money knows no 
politics. Half of the defiant bootlegging crew talked with 
a foreign accent. During McConnell's regime came the 
climax to the crookedness that began the year before. 

The center of the whole conspiracy was in the director's 

the trail from the bootleggers to the men higher up. A few 
hours later the federal grand jury returned an indictment 
against Mr. McConnell along with forty-six others on a 
charge of conspiracy growing out of the wholesale illegal 
withdrawals of whisky during his term of office. This, 
according to District Attorney Coles, was sufficient answer 
to Mr. Walnut's charges; but the Philadelphia Record in 
an editorial on Hamstringing Justice holds otherwise, 
pointing out that the indictment was finally pressed " only 
as a result of the exposures," and calls on Attorney Gen- 
eral Dougherty " whose administration has been gravely 
compromised by this scandal" to reinstate Mr. Walnut, 
placing in his hands the prosecution of the indictment just 

Mr. Walnut was a member of the insurgent group in 
the Pennsylvania Legislature in the Progressive Party days, 
and his name is identified with the Walnut bill which put 
an end to the evils of child labor in the glass houses of 
his state. That was a militant fight, and so has been his 
contribution at different times to civic reform movements 
in Philadelphia. The present incident is perhaps the most 
dramatic clash in prohibition enforcement since the Eigh- 
teenth Amendment went through, and Mr. Jl'alnufs City 
Club address, here published, sheds a searching flood of 
light on the complex forces at work in our great cities to 
nullify the constitution. — Editor. 

two offices from which issued the permits for the release of 
the liquor. 

In November of 1921, I pointed out to Mr. Coles, the 
United States attorney, that the additional evidence secured 
in the case involved McConnell, Wolfe and a number of 
others in addition to those subordinates already arrested. 
The grand jury met the last week in November. The case 
was prepared for submission to it on the first Monday of 
December. Shortly before that date Mr. Coles went to 
Washington. He returned the day before the grand jury 
met. I went over the case with him, and he then asked me 
to confine my evidence to men already arrested and eliminate 
all witnesses involving other persons, particularly McCon- 
nell. I told him I could not be a party to smothering the 
case. On Monday morning before the meeting of the grand 
jury there was a further discussion of the matter, at which 
time Mr. Coles gave his reasons for not proceeding. For 
the second time I could not agree with him. He laid 
emphasis upon the fact that Mr. McConnell was still pro- 
hibition director for Pennsylvania, in name, and that no 
action should be taken until he was separated from the serv- 
ice. I could not see, however, that the failure of the 
Treasury Department to dismiss him should interfere vt ith 
the presentation of the evidence to the grand jury for it» 

However, during Monday I presented evidence involving 
the original defendants only, in order to give Mr. Coles an 
opportunity to communicate his difficulties to the attorney 
general's office. On Tuesday morning I told him my othci 
witnesses involved additional defendants and that I must 
present their evidence or resign my position. 

He then repeated to me some of the reasons advanced the 
day before and concluded with the statement that the attorney 
general himself would be embarrassed in his relations with 
the Treasury Department by prosecution at this time. He 
then added that if I would withold the additional evidence 
from the grand jury, he would immediately, upon its ad- 
journment, call a special grand jury to continue the investi- 
gation, before which could be presented the evidence against 
any one implicated, and that in the meantime immediate 
action should be demanded of the commissioner of prohibi- 

I then called in the chief of the special intelligence service 
with whose unit I had been cooperating in gathering the 
evidence, and Mr. Coles repeated his statement. We agreed 
to Mr. Coles' proposal upon the distinct understanding that 

April I, 1922 



the case was only temporarily deferred, until a special grand 
jury could be called, and the commissioner of prohibition 
interviewed. Mr. Coles stated expressly that this was his 

He never referred to his promise again. The special 
grand jury was not called, although I urged him to call it, 
and the next regular grand jury did not meet until February 
27, 1922. I questioned the sincerity of Mr. Coles in the 
matter very early in the case. I never trusted him after he 
broke his promise. 

When he told me that the attorney general would be 
embarrassed if the case was proceeded with in December I 
did not believe that the attorney general knew anything about 
the case. I did believe, however, that Mr. Coles had talked 
to some one in Washington who was insistent that no prose- 
cution be brought. 

I went to Oklahoma on a tax case early in January. When 
I returned Mr. Coles had gone away on a vacation. He 
came back about February 1 , and once again the McConnell 
case was discussed. He was then in entire agreement with 
me that the matter should be pushed vigorously. 

Within two or three days thereafter Mr. McConnell left 
his home for Florida, and within a day or so of his departure 
Mr. Coles advised me that Washington had telephoned ask- 
ing that action in the McConnell case be deferred. Subse- 
quently this conversation was confirmed by letter, to which a 
formal reply was drafted. I suggested that the attorney 
general should be informed with particularity of the serious- 
ness of his request. A letter was then written which 
emphasized the necessity of prompt action. 

It was suggested on several occasions that we go to Wash- 
ington and lay the matter before the attorney general or one 
of his assistants, but I was advised that no interview could 
be arranged. 

The matter drifted on. The grand jury met the week 
of February 27. Our case was not presented. The jury 
adjourned to meet the following Wednesday for a three-day 
session. It would then adjourn for the term. The next 
grand jury would not meet for three months, about June 1. 
I drew Mr. Coles' attention to the fact that the biggest case 
on the list, one in which the assistance of the grand jury was 
materially needed in developing additional evidence, was 
being crowded to the last minute. To my surprise he told 
me that there was no present necessity for proceeding with 
the case. 

On Saturday, March 4, H. T. Jones and Morgan C. 
Smith arrived from the attorney general's office to discuss 
the case. I spent the major portion of the afternoon going 
over the evidence involving McConnell (they manifested no 
interest in any one else). At the conclusion of this discus- 
sion I asked if they were satisfied with the evidence. I was 
then advised they had no authority to settle the question, but 
must report back to Washington. I asked that a decision 
be revealed promptly. 

I was then told that we were not expected to proceed at 
the present time in any event. I was not surprised at this 
in view of Mr. Coles' previous suggestion to me, nor was I 
surprised when Mr. Coles immediately agreed to the proposal. 
But I was indignant. 

I told them, in brief, that the case had been hanging five 
or six months. That it was the most flagrant conspiracy to 
defy the law that had come into the office. The case had 
been slipped past the grand jury in December to save the 
attorney general from embarrassment. That if it was 
shuffled past this grand jury I was through with that office. 
They expostulated that Washington was interested in the 
case. I told them Washington had had five weeks to satisfy 
its interest and had now come in at the last moment to ask 
that no action be taken. 

There was the law and there was the evidence, and Wash- 
ington could change neither. I added tha' it was the first 

time in my experience that Washington had ever attempted 
to hold up a prosecution, and I concluded by telling them 
that if I wasn't fired before Wednesday I would start the 
case before the grand jury. 

I was emphatic. Five weeks of telephoning and corre- 
spondence between District Attorney Coles and the attorney 
general had failed to release the dead hand grip of the orders 
from Washington. It was my only chance. The attorney 
general was being used to accomplish a discreditable end. 
It was my duty to get him awake, and I passed out the 
stiffest jolt I carried. 

The representatives of the attorney general, together with 
Mr. Coles, left me. I understand they telephoned Washing- 
ton. On Monday morning Mr. Jones returned. He asked 
me to prepare a report on the case. I told him I not only 
would do that, but I would myself take it to Washington. 
On Tuesday morning I saw one of the assistants to the attor- 
ney general and came back with authority to proceed. Cer- 
tain evidence already gathered was presented to the grand 
jury on Thursday. On Friday a court order was secured 
especially continuing the grand jury beyond the regular 
term, which ended Saturday, in order that a complete inves- 
tigation might be made. 

On Saturday I saw Mr. Holland, assistant to the attorney 
general, in the office. He was closeted with Mr. Coles for 
an hour or more. I did not meet him, nor was I told the 
purpose of his visit. 

Further evidence was presented to the grand jury when it 
convened in special session on Monday. It then adjourned 
until Friday to give us an opportunity to follow up new 

The investigators with whom I was working and I myself 
were eager to uncover the whole crooked mess. At 12 o'clock 
on Wednesday, March 15, Mr. Coles said he had a letter for 
me. I read it. It severed my connection with the service 
that same day. 

It was my opinion then, and it is my opinion now, that it 
would have been a disgrace to the administration of justice 
to shuffle that case past the present grand jury. 

There were plenty of people with full knowledge of the 
case on the outside who didn't want it started, and only a 
handful on the inside who knew about it and wanted it 
begun. Most of them were not in a position to kick it into 
life. Cases like that are likely to go to sleep and die of old 
age, because nobody does anything. 

It was not a wet or dry issue. It wasn't any issue at all. 
It was common decency. We were scotching the little fel- 
lows every day and we were letting the real big ones hide 
under the bush. 

I haven't charged any one with bad faith in the matter, 
but there are several questions that seem to me ought to be 

1. When Mr. Coles went to Washington last December before the 
meeting of the grand jury, the McConnell case had been pending a 
month or more. Did he discuss it with any one at that time? 

2. If he did, who was it? And if he did not, why did he insist 
immediately upon' his return, that the evidence should be withheld 
from the grand jury? 

3. Why did Mr. Coles ignore his promise made to me and to the 
chief of the intelligence bureau to call a special grand jury in 
December in order to sift the case to the bottom? 

4. How did the attorney general learn that an investigation in- 
volving William C. McConnell was under consideration in the dis- 
trict attorney's office at Philadelphia? 

5. There were cases against a hundred defendants to be presented 
before the grand jury in March. Why did the attorney general's 
office trust entirely to the district attorney's judgment in all but one, 
that of William C. McConnell, and tie his hands as to that one. 

6. Both the attorney general and Mr. Coles, the district attorney, 
are now in accord with the idea that the case should be proceeded 
with at once. Is the attorney general now convinced that my em- 
phasis saved his department from a disgraceful failure of duty, or 
does he resent my emphasis as insubordination and just ground for 

I only know I was dismissed- You may put such construc- 
tion upon that as you choose. 

Leaves from an Architect's Diary 

Limitation of Output 


HE was speaking with perfect assurance; his argu- 
ments had been well arranged and he was march- 
ing them to a well thought out conclusion. At 
the outset he made a brief reference to the pur- 
poses of the recently created Congress of the Building In- 
dustry, stating how it aimed to bring together the widely 
separated elements within it — unorganized labor and the 
investment banker; and how it was proposed to eliminate 
those practices and differences of opinion which result in 
waste and high cost of building. All this was said paren- 
thetically. The purpose of his talk was to reveal how 
vitally important it is for the architect to participate and to 
play a leading part in the deliberations. For the architect, 
among the elements of the industry, is but equipped to bring 
to the discussions that broad knowledge of building and that 
unbiased point of view without which little may be accom- 

To illuminate this point he called to witness the outcome 
of the recent case in arbitration between Chicago builders 
and building trade unions before Judge Landis. It was the 
architect, said he, who had first called attention to the im- 
portance of taking full account of the differing trade union 
rules and regulations in fixing or adjusting wages. For, 
these rules and regulations operate with varying force toward 
decreasing production and increasing the cost of building. 

He referred to the rules which operate to limit the produc- 
tivity of a workman; to rules which require highly skilled 
artisans to do work that could be done equally well by- 
unskilled labor; to rules which interfere with the use of 
improved methods, materials and appliances ; to rules which 
require that certain work be done by hand when it could be 
done quite as well and far more economically by machines; 
to rules which require excessive rates for overtime ; to rules 
requiring the employment of unnecessary foremen, helpers 
and assistants; to rules limiting the entrance of apprentices 
and the membership in unions — he referred to rules galore. 

What was so gratifying to him about the Landis decision, 
which reduced wages in forty-seven of the Chicago building 
trades by varying amounts in a relation to the interfering 
rules, was the fact that it recognized this new principle in 
the establishment of wage rates and pointed the way toward 
freeing building of sabotage. 

While the judgment had been but recently rendered, the 
immediate consequences should not be overlooked. For, said 
he, the banks of Chicago are already refusing to make build- 
ing loans unless contractors agree to abide by the Landis 
rulings. And in New York the Lockwood Committee has 
already taken steps to effect some nineteen reforms in trade 
union rules which operate to reduce output or increase the 
cost of building. 

All through his talk he had spoken of these trade union 
practices as sabotage. From his use of this term ; from the 
utter shame which he succeeded in attaching to the practice 
of deliberately limiting productivity, or membership in 
unions, of in deliberately increasing the cost of building, I 
could plainly see that he had a very definite idea that con- 
trolling output and limiting supply were practices resorted 
to alone by trade unionists. Again and again he had stressed 
the point that it was by eradicating these trade union rules 
and practices that the building industry was to be freed. 

That he might take such a view of the matter I could 
easily understand. He was in close touch with the situation 
through supervision of the buildings which he had designed ; 
the trade union rules and practices had caused him no end 
of annoyance. Besides, he had been closely confined to his 
work. But with the reporters and the editorial writers who 
had commented in such glowing terms upon the Landis deci- 


sion the case was different. Their work had been to handle 
the news, to report and to analyze it. So that it was dif- 
ficult to understand why the practices of the trade unionists 
should have been referred to as such utterly shameful acts, 
when just over the page action of exactly the same char- 
acter should have been frequently referred to in two-column 
captions as a great achievement in the business world. 

For in the issues of the press which carried the glad tid- 
ings concerning the Landis decision were other glad tidings. 
One might learn in detail of the elaborate and far-flung 
plans which had been made in the early spring of last year 
to insure that in the fall but a half crop of cotton would 
be harvested ; of how it had been the practice to issue credit 
with respect to planting upon condition that a smaller 
acreage without much fertilizer would be put in ; of how 
the ravages of the boll-weevil during the summer had given 
rise to such captions as Worm Turned Tide of Business 
Slump and were generally hailed as a " constructive " fac- 
tor ; of how credits had been advanced so that cotton might 
be held in storage — all this with a view to sustaining or 
advancing prices. Or one might learn of how four hundred 
million pounds of copper had been " withdrawn " from the 
market ; of how 6 per cent debenture bonds had been issued 
and sold upon this copper as collateral ; of how not more 
than eight million pounds are being released each month — 
all with a view to sustaining or advancing prices. Or one 
might learn of what the Dairymen's League had been do- 
ing to perfect the marketing of milk and to insure against 
"over production" and a fall of prices; of how the War 
Finance Corporation had arranged to loan farmers 75 per 
cent of the value of grain, and to renew loans for three 
years if necessary in order that grain might be held in 
storage pending a rise in prices ; or of many things of a 
similar nature — simply by turning to the " market " section 
of his daily paper. 

But when Judge Landis selects the rules and regulations 
of the trade unions as his target, that target becomes the 
general practice of limiting supply and curtailing output 
which, when successful, makes up the " favorable " news 
items of our market columns and financial journals. So 
much he says in the closing paragraph of his decision — but 
that paragraph is never mentioned. 

AFTER the meeting I talked with him. I remarked 
upon the insight of the architect in going so directly 
to the heart of the trouble. And I asked him about the 
larger significance of the Landis decision ; inquiring what 
was likely to be done by way of broadening its application 
to the general fields of production and distribution of goods. 
I pointed out what had been going on in fields other than 
those covered by building trade workmen. But he was 
sure that I was wrong in seeking a wider application ; and 
he pointed out how necessary it was to control the output 
of cotton and several other commodities. And I agreed 
that, under the price system, curtailment of output was, 
no doubt, necessary; I was willing to admit that under such 
an economic system sabotage is blameless. But if sabotage 
is blameless, why should the workmen in the building trades 
alone be penalized for practicing it? 

He insisted on a difference which I was utterly unable 
to comprehend ; he ended by asking what would become of 
business if producers of goods were required under penalty 
for failure to keep right on producing regardless of a falling 
market. And all that I could say was that in such a case 
I did not know what would become of business. 

Frederick L. Acker man. 


Conducted by 

What is Schooling Doing to Us? 

1HAVE here to report a series of conversations, nothing 
more. What the doctrines set forth may signify for 
education, or for living, I do not undertake to say. The 
question that heads these materials indicates my own 

My friend Brown came on from the West some time ago 
to look for teachers for his school. After wandering through 
eastern colleges for six weeks, he looked in on me. 

" What have you found ? " I asked him, interestedly. 

" I've found one thing not on the cards," he replied. 
" I've found that the students in these eastern schools, from 
the sixth grade to the sixteenth, are spending their time try- 
ing to learn a vocabulary that they do not understand!" 

Some days later, I met Roberts, the sociologist, and I 
asked him what he thought of this curious remark that 
Brown had made. 

" Your friend from the West is right," he said. " But 
what else can be expected? We have a foolish desire to 
make everybody literate. We make every child go to school. 
We teach him to read. Now, reading fills people with 
ideas. But a very large percentage of the population have 
no business to be fooling with ideas. Their minds have abso- 
lutely no capacity to deal with ideas — in any realistic way. 
They can get the ideas, all right. But getting them takes 
them out of the realm of reality into some ethereal, imag- 
inative, unreal world. Most people should stick to the solid 
things of the world and let ideas alone. They would do 
so, too, if they were not compelled to learn to read. Teach- 
ing them to read raises them above their intellectual station, 
makes them ashamed of dirt and work, leaves them as mere 
dabblers in ideas. The whole trouble is that we are so 
insanely intent on making every one literate." 

This way of looking at schooling was so disturbing that 
I decided to take a day off and go into the matter fully. 
It turned out to be my busy day. First, I went to see 
James, a teacher of science in the Washington High School. 
James is a man of opinions. 

" But the trouble really is," said he, " that children are 
not learning to read in the schools. They are learning to 
pronounce words. I had suspected that for a long time. 
Recently, I made the round of a number of elementary 
schools just to see what was happening. I give you my 
word: Children are reading aloud in the schools, though 
almost no one ever reads aloud any more. That is to say, 
they are pronouncing words aloud. But the average teacher 
hasn't the slightest understanding of the difference between 
pronouncing the words on a page and actually reading that 
page. Children are not learning to read. We have no 
universal literacy. We have a universal pronouncing of 
words. Of course children are learning a vocabulary that 
they do not understand. For all that children are getting 
out of their reading they might as well be reading spelling 

I wondered whether teaching was going on more credit- 
ably in private schools; so I called on Miss Jones, a teacher 
of mathematics in the Select School for Girls, Manhattan. 
When she saw me she said, enthusiastically, " I must tell 
you all about our new plan for student self-government in 
this school. We have about six hundred girls here, and I 
am in charge of the work of planning out the machinery. 
Don't you think it will be fine if we can get self-government 
started in this school ? " 

" It certainly will be fine," I replied, heartily. " But, 
haven't you a teacher of anything called civics in this 

" Oh, yes," she said, " we have a fine civics department. 
All the upper classes take civics. Why do you ask ? " 

" Has no one ventured to suggest any connection between 
the classes in civics and the problems of self-government in 
the school? Why must you, a teacher of mathematics, do 
this work? Why should not the teacher of civics have 
charge of it? " 

Evidently here were civics classes in which students were 
learning to talk a language that meant nothing to them. 

But I was not to be disheartened by any such experiences. 
There must be something hopeful somewhere in this edu- 
cational maze. I thought of my friend, Michaels, prin- 
cipal of Public School 345, and decided to ask him about 
it. Michaels is known over the city as a successful admin- 
istrator of a public elementary school. I called at his office. 

"Don't you find the educational situation hopeful?" I 
asked. " Your work is certainly successful. You have made 
a reputation as a public school administrator. How have 
you done it ? " 

" Yes," he said, hesitatingly. " I have made a reputation, 
and I am accounted successful. But I have made this suc- 
cess by taking account of facts. And the basic fact of my 
experience — the one fact that I may never for a moment 
forget — is this: that not one of the teachers in this school 
has a mental age of more than 14 years; some of them are 
much lower. I have organized my work on that basis. 
Hence, I am successful. I am not sure that the work of 
this school should be called successful, however." 

On my way down-town I picked up an old magazine to 
beguile the tedium of rapid transit. Standing out on the 
cover was a flaming title, What's the Matter with Our 
Schools? The author was one of the best known of 
America's school superintendents. " We are a nation of 
sixth graders ! " he wrote. A sixth grader is twelve years 
old. The average intelligence of America, according to this 
educational authority, is twelve years. But then, what more 
should be expected, if the teachers of America are at most 
fourteen years old, intellectually? 

I thought to make a day of it ; so I called on Miss Green, 
the vocational counselor. " What do you make of all this 
educational muss?" I asked. " I started out this morning, 
full of hope. But there's nothing much left. Can't you 
give me a little cheerful news?" 

" I'm afraid not," she replied. " We are in the midst of 
the most discouraging situation of which I have any knowl- 
edge. You see, American schools were copied from Euro- 
pean schools, originally; and European schools were never 
supposed to be for all the children. They were bookish 
institutions for children who cared for books and intel- 
lectual things, or whose parents thought they ought to care. 
But we Americans got it into our heads that all the people 
should be educated. We assumed, naturally and honestly 
enough, that the way to get an education was by going to 
school. Hence, we passed compulsory education laws and 
started in to make every child spend a certain amount of 
time in school. We did not change the schools to fit the 
needs of those children who had never been attracted by 
the older types of schools. We just herded them all into 
the older schools. Oh, of course, we've added some ' fads ' 
in a half-hearted sort of way. But we still believe that the 
only true education is the kind children got in the older 
days when they went to school because they liked to go. 

" The result is that we have sadly mussed up education 
of the older sort, even for those who like it; and we have 
made education of any sort almost impossible for those 




April I, 1922 

who do not and cannot like that older sort. We are trying 
to make them learn and use words and ideas that have no 
reality for them; we are cheating them out of their right 
to a real education with real things using their real capaci- 
ties and powers; and we are delivering them over to unreal 
worlds, either of piddling dreams or of dementia praecox. 
We are on the wrong track. But it's as much as any one's 
job is worth to say so! " 

That suggestion about dementia interested me, and I 
found I still had time to drop in at the office of my favorite 
psychiatrist for a final word on the subject. 

" What is this I hear about the increase in mental 
troubles among school children ? " I asked him when I 
found him at leisure. 

" It's too late in the day to begin on that," he said. " But 
I'll say this much: At the present time we are needing in 
New York state one new hospital holding three thousand 
patients every three years for dementia praecox alone — to say 
nothing of the many other forms of neuroses and psychoses 
that need hospital care, and those that can be handled out- 
side of hospitals." 

"How much of this increase is due to the schools?" I 
asked him. 

" Who can say ? " he replied. " We do not know enough 
as yet about the etiosis of these diseases to allocate the blame 
for them. But there is no doubt that our big cities are 
definitely, if not deliberately, producing mental diseases at 
an alarming rate. Among school children the increase is 
uncertain but very considerable; and of course the schools 
must accept their share of the blame for whatever increase 
there is. We are not facing the facts of life today. We 
think that universal education is a sure cure for all the 
evils of democracy. It may be. But if so, it will provide 
something very different from the universal schooling now 
operating under that title. It is not unlikely that our ma- 
chine-made schooling is responsible for most of the intel- 
lectual and social evils of the present. Our schools proceed 
on the assumption that there is no hope for the world in 
human nature. They refuse to let human nature be nat- 
ural. They insist on making it over into something called 
for in the books, or in business, or in some social conven- 
tion. What's to be the end? Well, I don't know. But a 
statistician could show by graphs the exact date, in the 
future, when the effective part of the population will no 
longer be able to pay the bills for supporting the ineffectives 
we are now producing. It's a world of unrealities we are 
building. And we'd better find it out." 

It was a busy day. I'll admit that. I'm not looking for 
another like it soon. But there is a question here which 
some one would do well to undertake to answer: What is 
our schooling really doing to us? 

The Teacher Turns Critic 

[The following statement was used as the basis of discus- 
sion at a recent dinner of the Teachers' Union, New York. 
It is presented here in the hope of stimulating further dis- 
cussion. — The Editor.] 

ARE we on the verge of a breakdown in the institutions 
of public education? There are indications of this on 
every hand. Here are some of them: 

1. Leadership in public education is intellectually im- 

2. Boards of supervision are, for this reason, unable to 
restate the purposes of education from time to time as social 
conditions change. 

3. Autocratic control of the educational system has 
enabled the authorities to maintain and even to improve the 
mechanical, or purely administrative, features of education, 
and to prevent the development of such intellectual freedom 
within the staff as might threaten the educational status quo. 

4. The traditional regimentation of the public school 
has been attended by results that come near to constituting 
the reasons for the present-day indifference toward public 
education. One of these is that the subject-matter of school- 
ing shows extremely little change in the direction of the 
organization of human experience and human work, in a 
way that would stimulate the native interests of human 
beings. Another is that the best characters, the lively minds, 
the strong personalities among the young men and women 
about to start their adult careers avoid the school systems. 
A school system employing subject-matter that does not 
always attract, managed by personalities who are in the main 
not interesting and effective, tends to make people think it 
is impossible to change things, and perhaps not worth trying 
to do so. 

5. The " system " tends to reflect the lower ideals and 
practices of society, while failing to conceive and practice 
the better ones. It plays favorites in the making of appoint- 
ments to the higher positions. It " plays politics." It 
teaches conformity to codes of petty dishonor. It teaches 
the cash basis of success. It discredits the ideal that the 
schools are to teach the truth. It punishes non-conformist 
leaders with exclusion. 

6. The " system " while inspiring fear on the part of 
subordinates is in its directing personalities the victim of 
fear. They have been trained for the part while they were 
teachers. They have submitted to injustice so long that 
when evil begins to menace them strongly they are unable 
to make a convincing defense. 

7. There is a deplorable lack of professional spirit among 
public school teachers, not only with reference to improving 
their understanding of subject-matter, but also with refer- 
ence to the improvement of the dignity and the influence 
of the teacher's position in the community. The morale of 
the teaching staff is very low. 

8. The low state of professional morale is aggravated 
by the authorities when they seek to economize by increasing 
the amount of work required by the teachers. The practice 
of the officials is to overburden one group, as for example, 
the junior high school teachers; and then, in order to appease 
them, to increase the amount of work required of senior 
high school teachers — one group is played off against the 

9. Child labor in industry is illegal, but in the schools 
it is practiced generally and continually. Children from 
the age of seven are given home work to do ; and for children 
from ten or eleven, fifteen to twenty problems in arithmetic 
are not uncommon as a home task. In addition to the five 
hours of work in school, the children have from one to three 
hours' home work that is not or cannot be done in school. 

U'VEN a casual consideration of the foregoing facts will 
••-^indicate that all of them are anti-social in their effects. 
It is not satisfactory to say that the schools are as good as 
existing society expects them to be. The same excuse could 
be made for the existence of a dishonest press. 

It is not improbable that many thinking persons have 
begun to state for themselves the problems that naturally 
develop from the condition of education thus described; but 
we believe that it was logical for thinking teachers to desire 
to organize to establish such working conditions as would 
enable them to carry on their lives in an efficient, self-respect- 
ing way. Socially, this is what organized labor is trying to 
do. Therefore, we believe it is right that the Teachers' 
Union should be affiliated with organized labor. 

Organized labor has been dealing with matters of hours 
and wages and is just beginning to give consideration to 
the setting up of social standards. Organized teachers are 
indeed concerned with hours and wages, but the activities 
of the Teachers' Union are in the main outside that field. 

April I, 1922 



When we carry on a running fight against such reaction- 
ary legislation as the Lusk laws, we are fighting for all the 
people, as well as for the freedom of the next generation. 
If no other teachers' organization is willing to help us fight, 
for fear of the danger to them, we feel that intelligent per- 
sons outside the teaching profession should sense the real 
state of affairs in the schools, and be willing to offer us 
effective support. Henry R. Linville. 

President, New York Teachers' Union. 

Comment from Norway 

[The following contribution is self-explanatory. The 
writer is a Norwegian educator. The material reached the 
New York Teachers' Union in the form of a letter, which 
commented at length upon the union's " program of action." 
See the Survey for October 8, 192 1, page 57.] 

I HAVE read your program of action, translated it for the 
educational periodicals and distributed it to our free 
associations of teachers, all of whom have reprinted it. 
Everywhere we are highly interested in educational matters 
in America, especially in the economic and social condition 
of your associations. The tendency of the times does not ap- 
pear to be in the direction of the teachers. The educational 
reviews are overflowing with arguments for salaries and 
other rights. A more intimate cooperation among all teach- 
ers is needed. Most of the proposals in your program are 
of international interest and are familiar to us. Perhaps 
you would be interested in hearing the reflections of a 

Your proposal for a sabbatical leave of absence with pay 
is a specific American plan, known and desired by us, but 
as yet without place in our own programs. We have occa- 
sional holidays, once in several years, to visit other schools 
and observe their work. A few teachers have secured a 
stipend to attend a study hour devoted to keeping abreast 
of the progress in foreign countries. Parliament and the 
larger school districts make every year the necessary appro- 
priations to provide such study hours; most teachers can get 
leave, with full pay, during the hour. Such arrangements 
may run from four to six months, seldom for a longer period. 
But a study hour does not mean a year of recreation, a 
" sabbatical " for recuperation. We hope for your success 
in this matter, and for the success of the plan around the 
world. Not a few Norwegian teachers are already visiting 
the schools of the U. S. A., and they report that this sab- 
batical leave is already a fact in some places. 

We are but in the dawn of the age of paper ; we hear the 
paper avalanche approach. Medical officers, child welfare, 
mental tests, gratis boarding at schools, open-air schools, 
summer colonies, swimming courses, school gardens, etc., 
etc. We are snowed under with circulars and with requests 
for memoranda and statistical statements which must be 
written during lesson periods when we should be teaching. 
Our teaching work is threatened with submergence unless 
we can manage to organize these extraneous functions in a 
department by themselves. 

In the year 191 1, I published an investigation into the 
hygienic conditions in the primary schools of Norway. Copies 
of this report were sent to the Fourth International Con- 
gress on School Hygiene at Buffalo (1913). Last year I 
suggested to representatives from the teachers' unions of 
Denmark and Sweden the desirability of a statistical inves- 
tigation into the health conditions of Scandinavian teachers 
by the governments of these three countries. The problem 
was proposed at the First Congress on Hygiene, at Nurem- 
berg (1904), but has not been discussed by any of the suc- 
ceeding congresses. 

Our boards of education, in towns or parishes, do not 
possess financial independence. We regard it as a good thing 

that the parents should not first think what a school improve- 
ment of reform should cost. A school board " cannot serve 
God and mammon." 

The Act of 1889 established in our primary schools full 
democracy of relationship between teachers and boards. The 
teachers elect one or two (male or female) representatives 
to each school board of the towns or country parishes. The 
teachers further elect representatives of both sexes to a court 
made up of teachers and headmasters, or superintendents, 
whose duty it is to deal with all important school questions 
before they are presented to the board. No teacher can 
now be removed from one 'school to another against his 
will. His case will be heard by a committee on which one 
of his colleagues sits as a member to look after his interests. 

In Norway female teachers have recently obtained equal 
salary for the same work as male teachers in relation to the 
lessons given. The latter work thirty-six hours a week, the 
former twenty-four. But when a female teacher is working 
in the lower primary school, her salary does not equal that 
of male teachers. Hard work is now going on in Parlia- 
ment to secure a more equitable adjustment. A single voice 
is also urging the necessity of equal salaries in all grades from 
the lowest to highest. 

We await with great anticipations the results of your in- 
vestigations into these problems; but please let your results 
become the property of all the peoples. Why not make com- 
mon cause with the Scandinavian brethren? Why not with 
all the teachers' and educators' unions of the world? Cer- 
tain associations of young men include ail the world in their 
scope: Why should not their elder and wiser teachers 
follow ? 

In 1918, the American Committee on Public Information 
invited our government to establish cooperation between the 
teachers of the United States and Norway. After the matter 
had been presented here to a great many prominent persons 
and periodicals, the Ministry of Education in 1920 appointed 
me to organize the proposed cooperation. After the dissolu- 
tion of the Committee on Public Information, the proposed 
cooperation was transferred to the Norwegian Section of the 
Foreign Language Information Service of the American Red 
Cross, New York (H. Smidby-Hansen, manager), and to 
the United States Bureau of Education. Several other im- 
portant institutions have also promised to assist. All grades 
of Norwegian schools are interested in this cooperation, and 
the papers are supporting it. Otto Grenness. 

Consultant, Department of Education, Christiania. 

Straws in the Winds 

THE struggle for freedom of speech on the university 
campus is enjoying a spirited moment at the University 
of Wisconsin. Liberal students want liberal speakers ad- 
mitted to the university halls. The administrative authori- 
ties reserve the right to select and reject. The students 
point to the famous inscription on Bascom Hall, placed there 
by the board of regents in 1894 in honor of Richard T. Ely, 
to celebrate the victory of freedom over attempted suppres- 
sion. That inscription reads: 

We cannot for a moment believe that knowledge has reached its 
final goal or that the present constitution of society is perfect. In 
all lines of investigation the investigator should be absolutely free 
to follow the paths of truth wherever they may lead. Whatever 
may be the limitations which trammel inquiry elsewhere, we believe 
the great state of Wisconsin should ever encourage that continuous 
and fearless sifting and winnowing by which truth alone can be 

That inscription seems now to be temporarily veiled. 
George P. Hambrecht, former member of the legislature 
and now secretary of the state Board for Vocational Educa- 
tion, in a recent address in Madison, suggested to the uni- 
versity authorities : " Take your screwdriver, remove the 



April I, 1922 

tablet from Bascom Hall and sell it to a junk dealer if you 
cannot be true to the sentiment expressed thereon." 

EDUCATIONAL leaders are having some difficult)', these 
days, in keeping their ideas in complete alignment. The 
growing struggle between the programs of centralization 
and decentralization is causing not a little unwonted intel- 
lectual activity, wherever that is possible. For example, 
some of the most constructive educational work in America 
is now going forward in Wisconsin, where the state Board of 
Education under the leadership of its secretary, Edward A. 
Fitzpatrick, is working out a state-wide program of educa- 
tional decentralization. Supported and interpreted, as this 
program has been, by the masterly bulletins prepared by Mr. 
Fitzpatrick and his colleagues, most of the educators both 
within the state and outside have been compelled to give it 
at least cursory support; and many have been very enthu- 
siastic about it. 

Meanwhile, the program for a more complete centraliza- 
tion of our national educational interests has called for their 
support, also. Between the two programs, the average mind 
is left in something of a daze. It has been suggested by a 
pessimist that one reason America has survived all its ad- 
versities to date may be discovered in the fact that so many 
Americans have been caught between two, or more, antago- 
nistic ideas (such as the two set forth above) and that, there- 
fore, they have never been able to start anything very de- 
structive. But the time seems to be approaching when edu- 
cators will be compelled to make up their minds: centraliza- 
tion or decentralization — which shall we have in the future 
educational developments of America? 

THE American Educational Association is a new corpora- 
tion with head offices in Philadelphia, city of independence. 
This association specializes in the Declaration of Independ- 
ence. Its official bulletins are devoted to extended inter- 
pretations of that famous document. Its general theme is, 
" Our first duty to independence is independence as indi- 
viduals." The object of the men who set! up our national 
government was to establish in the form of institutions this 
inviolable and inalienable right to independence. 

" Every American realizes that the most precious treasure 
in the world is his American independence." But our immi- 
grants are misled and badly directed for the most part. Yet, 
if they can but have the benefits of a proper education, " It 
is difficult to believe that any alien once he understands the 
simple basic principles of American independence can desire 
to substitute for it any form of government in which men 
are denied the right to work, play, love and worship as thev 

The only menace that our country need fear is within our 
own borders. We are too powerful to be attacked from 
without. As for our internal dangers, we have nothing to 
fear from religious repression: Religious independence is 
secure in the United States. We have nothing to fear in 
the matter of love and marriage : The right of " any un- 
married man and woman of like race, sound body and mind " 
to marry cannot be abridged. In matters of play, " every 
man makes his own rules. . . . There is no limit except his 
inclination and his purse." 

Our only danger, then, lies in the field of work. Here the 
Declaration of Independence has either been grossly violated 
or is in danger of being violated: "While play, and love 
and worship are indispensable parts of our lives, we can 
enjoy none of these three without work. Unless we retain 
our individual independence to work as we will, we can 
hardly hope to preserve our independence in the other three 
activities. Our first duty to independence is independence 
in work." 

And so the American Educational Association launches its 
nation-wide campaign of education for the purpose of induc- 

ing the American people to see that labor unions are directly 
contradictory to the spirit of the Declaration of Independ- 
ence. It seems that the old Declaration is to be made to 
sponsor a considerable variety of doctrines in these unsettled 
days. And just now, when public discussion will tend to 
make a study of the document really interesting, the writers 
of the history books are leaving it out. Curious how we 
never miss the water till the well runs dry. 

CLARK UNIVERSITY has become the center of liberal 
hopes and fears. It has always had an exceedingly liberal 
tradition. Its founder, James G. Clark, expressed his lib- 
eral quality in his will: 

I also declare in this connection that it is ray earnest desire, will 
and direction that the said university in its practical management, 
as well as in theory, may be wholly free from every kind of denom- 
inational or sectarian control, bias or limitation, and that its doors 
may be ever open to all classes and persons, whatsoever may be 
their religious faith or political sympathies, or to whatever creed, 
sect or party they may belong. I especially charge upon my executors 
and trustees to secure the enforcement of this clause of my will by 
application to the court as above provided, or otherwise, by every 
means in their power. 

But on March 14, Wallace W. Atwood, president of the 
University, closed a meeting held in one of the university 
halls under the auspices of the Liberal Club, because, as he 
says, Professor Scott Nearing, who was the speaker, was 
" making remarks that maligned the moral integrity of the 
American people." " I closed the meeting," he said, " be- 
cause there were so many of our undergraduates present. 
I naturally feel a responsibility for the education within the 
halls of the university, and I would not be responsible for 
their hearing any further statements such as were being 
made by the speaker." 

The Rotary Club of Worcester, when it heard of the 
action of the president, cheered him for thirty seconds and 
unanimously adopted a resolution that the club " extend 
to President Atwood its hearty commendations for his 
patriotic stand against radical propaganda." 

The students have not taken the incident in any kindly 
way. The membership of the Liberal Club grew in less 
than a week from thirty to above one hundred and fifty. 
The students point out that the average age of the whole 
student body at Clark is 25.6 years; and that the average 
age of the undergraduates is 21. The students called the 
attention of the president to the provision in the founder's 
will, quoted above. President Atwood replied : " That 
doesn't mean that we are to allow radicals to come here to 
our halls in order to give instruction in anarchy. I do not 
think Mr. Clark wanted the university to be used for that 
purpose." In reply, the student body, acting through repre- 
sentatives of every undergraduate organization in the uni- 
versity, offered an official protest, in five sections, in which 
they stand firmly on the proposition laid down in the will 
of the founder, that " its doors may be ever open to all 
classes and persons whatsoevor may be their religious faith 
or political sympathies, or to whatever creed, or sect, or 
party they may belong." 

The faculty is divided in its support of the president. A 
number of the members are outspoken in their refusal to 
accept his position as the official policy of the university. 
Professor Hankins, of the department of political and social 
science, is quoted as saying: 

" It is fairly obvious that the president acted beyond his 
authority in contradicting the explicit provisions of the will 
of the founder of the university." 

The Worcester newspapers deprecate discussion of edu- 
cational matters by schoolboys. The Worcester Gazette 
said, editorially, on March 16: "The incident will soon be 
forgotten. Baseball is much healthier and a good deal more 



Conducted by 

The Occupational Therapy Aide 

AL JOHNSON, a colored boy, won fame during the 
war by spending a larger portion of his active serv- 
ice in the guard house than any other member of 
'his regiment. He boasted of it in the hospital and 
continued his demonstrations of independence there. The 
reconstruction aide, after trying every method of ap- 
proach, finally tried that of ignoring him. It was a 
new sensation to be overlooked. He began to " hang 
around " when the aide was instructing other patients 
and at last, having vainly tried to buy a khaki-color 
string belt from every boy making one, he decided that 
he would have to make one for himself. He strug- 
gled and struggled ; he could not master the knot ; the strings 
got tangled in the most amazing manner. The boys 
jeered at him — at him who had always done the jeering! 
At last one day he burst out with, " By Gosh ! Fse a goin' 
to make dis here belt if I 'ave to re-enlist! " And he set 
to it. From that day on he was encouraged and guided by 
the aide from ward work to the more advanced work of the 
curative shops, and when he left the hospital three months 
later he was doing cabinet work of real merit. The energy 
he had used in demoralizing ways now went into constructive 
occupations, and the will-to-do that had been awakened in 
him he passed on to many others. 

The occupational therapy aide of today is largely a prod- 
uct of the war. Prior to 1914 there were fewer than one 
hundred of these aides in this country, but during the next 
five years this number increased to nearly a thousand. (In 
this short time the aide has shown that her work is one of 
the greatest single factors in raising and maintaining the 
morale of institutional life. It prevents deterioration 
due to prolonged illness and assists in restoring health, self- 
confidence and initiative. It diverts tormented minds and 
helps to bring back mental control. It is of distinct service 
in the treatment of physical and functional disabilities.) Oc- 
cupational therapy is a vital link in the hospital, an auxiliary 
medical service, cooperating with the medical and the nurs- 
ing service on one side and the social service, the home and 
the outside interests on the other. Just as the chief nurse 
is responsible to . the hospital superintendent for the nurses 
under her, so the director of occupational therapy is respon- 
sible to the superintendent for her aides. 

The idea is still prevalent that the aide goes into the hos- 
pital, wanders through the wards, and picks out any patient 
who expresses the desire to work. In the early months of 
her army service this was of necessity sometimes the case, 
but today the procedure is more definite. The doctor alone 
prescribes for the patient. It is obviously impossible for him 
to take the time to "know all the beneficial attributes of each 
craft, nor is this necessary if he has a trained therapist. The 
physician prescribes so many minutes a day of occupation, 
according to the need and ability of each patient, for a speci- 
fied disability, with a definite curative result in view. It is 
then the part of the aide to use her " tools " to reach this end. 
Her goal is not only to provide diversion for the patient, 
though sometimes this is an important factor, but to give him 
something tangible in the way of treatment for his disability, 
and something intangible as well, that will let him leave the 
hospital keener mentally, broader spiritually, as well as 
healthier physically, than when he came in. A skilled crafts- 
woman is not necessarily a successful therapist. Each craft 
involves certain physical movements, effort and degrees of 
mental concentration, and these the aide must know as well 
as the fundamentals of anatomy and psychology. But even 
if trained in all these essentials, she may still lack the power 
to interest her patients, to encourage them through tedious 

months, to stimulate them to progressive effort. She must 
have the rare gift of imparting knowledge, an understanding 
of human nature, an intelligent sympathy, and with it all a 
friendly dignity. A medical officer when asked his defini- 
tion of an aide said, "An angel, with a slight business knowl- 
edge." Her " business knowledge," her craftsmanship, must 
not be " slight," but it is evident that the ultimate success 
of the aide depends upon her personality. 

More men are wounded annually in industry in the United 
States than were wounded in the United States army during 
the war. A continual stream of disabled humanity flows 
through the hospitals, and many of the patients are candi- 
dates for a life of dependency unless helped back to work in 
the shortest possible time and prevented from lapsing into 
the attitude of hopeless cripples. 

It is asked, " Do you re-educate these men for a voca- 
tion?" No. Occupational therapy must in no way be 
confused with vocational training. In occupational therapy 
the emphasis is on treatment ; the product is secondary. In 
vocational training the product is of primary importance. 
Only as a curative measure is occupational therapy jus- 
tified in a hospital, but in many cases it can be developed into 
prevocational work or an avocation. Statistics show that of 
all those injured in industry less than 2 per cent need to be 
fitted for a new trade. This small unit is re-trained outside 
the hospital, but the general stimulation and incentive to 
effort begun in the hospital through occupational therapy is 
the first stepping stone to this vocational training. 

By giving the tuberculosis patient something to think 
about and talk about, during the long months of inactivity, 
occupational therapy has proved an outlet to suppressed ener- 
gies, a means of expression, and through the resulting con- 
tentment of mind it has also aided in maintaining the 
necessary physical quiet. 

In the treatment of psychiatric patients occupational ther- 
apy has its contributions to make, as shown in the case of 
Mary, who had been in a state mental hospital for four years. 
For years her hands had been clenched tightly and held rig- 
idly. Every known means had been used to overcome this con- 
dition of hysteria. Occupational therapy was introduced, and 
the aide, realizing that function held in abeyance through 
neurotic symptoms must not be looked upon as lost, under- 
took the stupendous task of bringing movement to those 
useless members. The first response noticed was when a 
rose was tucked into Mary's hand and she made a visible 
effort to hold and to smell it. (Not occupational therapy, 
you say; but often the most important work of the aide 
begins long before her crafts are used.) So, step by step, 
using color, sweet scents and objects of appeal, first simple, 
then more difficult crafts, Mary was led back to usefulness. 
Today she is earning twenty-eight dollars a week at dress- 
making. Every state institution has similar cases, dependents 
for life unless some stimulus is found that will hold interest, 
awaken sleeping initiative, turn aside the disordered mind 
from its squirrel-wheel of thought. 

The aide's field of activity now reaches far beyond the 
hospital walls into many homes in the district. The indus- 
trial accident board referred Pietro to the district aide. 
Through the loss of a leg he had been made unfit for his 
trade of roofing. He had lost not only his leg but all hope 
and joy in life, and his family was out of patience with his 
lethargy. An aide visited him, talked to him, showed him 
articles others had made and, after several visits, persuaded 
him to try tooling leather. In less than a month she had 
enticed him away from the atmosphere of the sick room to 
the curative shop, where he became one of a social group. 




April I, 1922 

He began on hammered copper and ended with jewelry work. 
He is now apprenticed to learn mechanical dentistry. He is 
keen, self-respecting and interested in his new trade, with 
confidence in his powers of supporting his large family. No 
amount of reasoning and calls of duty could have worked 
the magic wrought by the first finished piece of work made 
by his own hands. There is perhaps real truth in the ques- 
tion once asked, " Are you one of these Resurrection Aides? " 

Harriet A. Robeson. 
Massachusetts Association for Occupational Therapy. 

The Right to See Straight 

OF the twenty-four million school children in the United 
States today, approximately ten million are laboring 
under a grave handicap — defective eyes — which could be 
mitigated to a great extent, if not corrected entirely, by the 
intelligent supervision of the state, and of the teachers of the 
country, through proper eye tests followed by appropriate 
care. . . 

State laws require that children, within certain age limits, 
shall attend school for a given number of weeks per year, 
where they are compelled to carry on a stipulated amount 
of work. Yet very few states or communities make provis- 
ion for suitable inspection and proper tests of the pupils' 
eyes to see that they are fitted to do the work required of 

In rural communities particularly, very little provi- 
sion is made for the care of children's eyes or for the 
proper lighting of the school rooms. In only 23.3 per cent 
of twelve hundred and sixty-two rural schools reporting 
from eighteen different states are eyes tested. Statistics 
from states where school children's eyes have been ex- 
amined have shown that from 25 to 60 per cent have had 
defects needing correction. It was learned some years ago 
by examination that 65 per cent of several thousand school 
children in Philadelphia had defective vision of such degree 
as to warrant glasses. When we note that of the one hun- 
dred thousand school children of New York city public 
schools who failed to pass their examinations last year, 
fifty thousand were found to be suffering from eye defects, 
we can well understand why some rural communities report 
that a number of their pupils are "retarded." 

In education it is necessary that the eyes not only have an 
abundance of things to see, but that they see them correctly. 
Furthermore, accuracy of vision has a vital relationship to 
conduct. Many a child striving for an education against 
this handicap of poor vision becomes not only stupid but 
rebellious, sometimes a truant, and a truant child is a po- 
tential criminal. 

Some evidence of the harmful results of eye defects in chil- 
dren and of the prevalent neglect of these defects is afforded 
by many cases of injured health; of retardation in school; 
of truancy and of mental and emotional disturbances. But 
nobody can estimate with accuracy the potential economic 
loss, the lack of the best development and achievement in 
childhood and in later life which results from the failure to 
do all that is possible and essential for the eyes of all the 
children. If a truthful valuation could be made of the loss 
to the nation in economic power; in the efficiency of citizen- 
ship, even in general character, which may be charged to 
failure in providing for the young the best eyesight possible, 
the country would be supplied with a dramatic and compel- 
ling challenge to action. 

Teachers throughout the country should be trained to 
make simple standard tests of the eyes of the children under 
their care to determine those cases which are manifestly be- 
low normal and in need of immediate attention. Every child 
should also have a thorough eye examination by a competent 
refractionist. Thomas D. Wood, M. D. 

Columbia University. 

A Hospital Information Bureau 

AS a result of a survey of hospital work in New York 
city made by E. H. Lewinski-Corwin, executive secre- 
tary of the Academy of Medicine [see the Survey for De- 
cember 10, 1921], a Hospital Information Bureau has been 
organized by the United Hospital Fund, an organization of 
fifty-seven non-municipal hospitals of the city. The aims 
of this bureau are to keep in touch with hospital work and 
progress and to study the hospital needs of the city and 
make them known through exhibits and publicity; to make 
available information about hospitals, their organization and 
facilities; to assist, when requested, in making further 
studies of both public and private hospitals. It also will 
maintain a library of hospital reports, statistics, record forms 
and blanks. 

The total investment in hospital real estate in New York 
city is seventy-eight million dollars and the annual cost for 
maintenance is over thirty-five million dollars. Greater 
New York has one hundred and fifty-five hospitals, not in- 
cluding sanitaria and institutions run for profit, asylums for 
the insane, or hospitals under the federal government. These 
hospitals contain thirty-two thousand beds, one for even- 
two hundred of the population, which is a higher propor- 
tion than for most American cities. Over one-third of the 
number of beds are in municipal hospitals supported by 
taxation; some of them, according to the United Hospital 
Fund, are running at only 60 per cent of their capacity or 

The fund gives a number of the causes which make it dif- 
ficult for the municipal hospitals to render the service they 
wish. They are thought of as being only for the poor, 
whereas it should be no more a disgrace to go to a city hos- 
pital than to send a child to a city school. Although 
physicians of high standing are on the visiting and consult- 
ing staffs of the city hospitals, such positions are more at- 
tractive in the non-municipal hospitals where staff doctors 
can send and treat their own private patients. Further, the 
very character of the municipal hospitals makes it difficult 
for them to give the same consideration to the religious, 
racial and personal preferences of their patients that private 
institutions can give. The fund points out that a social 
service division in each of these hospitals would help to make 
patients feel at home and to " humanize the whole at- 

Until a wider use of municipal hospitals is secured, the 
Fund believes that sound public policy should mean more 
rather than less cooperation by the city with non-municipal 
hospitals through the system of " public charges." Ten years 
ago such- public charges furnished about 23 per cent of all 
patients in the united hospitals of the city. Lately this pro- 
portion has fallen to about 13 per cent. 

The United Hospital Fund of New York has been in 
existence for more than forty years. It is the central agency 
serving fifty-seven of the non-municipal hospitals in the city. 
Each one of these hospitals is represented by one person on 
the board while the contributing public is represented by 
forty-eight members. A board of trustees is chosen from 
these two groups to manage the organization. The objects 
of the Fund are: to raise money for free hospital work; and 
distribute it to the hospitals; to promote standards; to pub- 
lish statistical information about the hospitals; to secure free 
treatment for proper hospital cases; to carry on the work 
of a committee on dispensary development. These fifty- 
seven hospitals represent an investment of fifty million dollars 
for buildings and equipment. Each year fifteen million 
dollars is required to maintain them, of which eleven million 
comes from earnings and endowment. The average attend- 
ance of patients averages about 77 per cent of the capacity of 
the hospitals. The 1921 report of the Fund states that with 
a slight additional expenditure the hospitals could care for 

April I, 1922 



10 per cent more patients — a service equal to that of 
four hospitals the size of the Presbyterian or Roosevelt — 
without any further expense for lands, buildings, or 

Immunity From Influenza 

THE present epidemic of influenza, which has spread 
over France, England, Germany and other European 
countries as well as the United States, differs in several 
marked respects from that of 19 18. In New York city the 
epidemic has more nearly resembled the Russian influenza 
which swept the world in 1889 and 1890 than the Spanish 
influenza of three years ago. The mortality has been 
largely confined to old persons and to the very young, 
whereas in 191 8 it was heaviest among the middle-aged. 

Both England and Wales were practically submerged in 
a great wave during the epidemic of 1918, while the pres- 
ent one, according to the Manchester Guardian, seems to 
flow in definite channels, forming pools which correspond to 
centers of dense population. "It would appear that the 
cause of influenza," says the Guardian, "waits for a gen- 
eration unprotected by any natural or acquired immunity. 
The first assault kills off or immunizes its victims, but, lying 
in wait, the foe finds at intervals of a little less than a year 
a fresh crop for the reaping." The Guardian takes issue 
with the pronouncements of some health officers in regard 
to the prevention of influenza. It says: "But of what use 
is it to advise a modern urban population to avoid traveling 
in trains or trams, to ask the rising generation to abandon 
the pictures, or to warn the unemployed to take plenty of 
nourishing food and avoid worry?" It believes that further 
research is the key to the problem. 

Epidemics of pneumonia, according to Dr. Frederick 
Taylor Lord, in a new volume of Harvard Health Talks, 
are largely attributable to overcrowding. Other causes are 
chronic alcoholism, old age, lack of resistance, resulting 
from such factors as hunger, fatigue, exposure to wet and 
cold, the later stages of cardiac disease; and the want of a 
certain acquired immunity. The immediate cause of pneu- 
monia, of course, is a bacterial one, the organism pneu- 

Dr. Lord suggests several lines of attack against the 
disease. One method is "the application to pneumonia of 
such knowledge as we already possess regarding the trans- 
fer of infectious material from person to person in com- 
municable disease." There is danger of such a transfer, for 
example, in using the dishes of a person infected with the 
disease. The improvement of housing conditions in order 
to remove overcrowding is also advocated. Predisposition to 
pneumonia results from the lowering of resistance by an in- 
adequate food supply, exposure, overwork and fatigue. 
Since measles, whooping cough, influenza and diphtheria are 
frequently followed by pneumonia, it is necessary to bring 
these diseases under control before pneumonia can be elimi- 

Dr. Lord does not believe that there is sufficient evidence 
as yet to justify the general adoption of preventive inocula- 
tion against pneumonia, although in a number of cases its 
results have been extremely good. Among 17,000 inocu- 
lated miners employed at the Premier Mine in South 
Africa in 19 13, the death rate from pneumonia was six 
per thousand; while among 6,700 uninoculated it was 
seventeen per thousand. Following the use of a vaccine 
containing types of pneumococci prevalent in the mines it 
was found that no cases of pneumonia of the type against 
which the men had been vaccinated developed during nine 
months of observation. Encouraging results from inocula- 
tion were also obtained at Camp Upton and Camp Wheeler 
during the recent war. 




Chile— — > 

Japan. ) 

Germany ) 

France _ 

Cndtancl and CJa\es 
° Ireland ; 

Stdcdfiv . 

Moruiay \ 






( H.,.-],.' - .! 





^ tUtkcrlan-d* 


^ land 

. DeumarK. 


From the Children's Bureau of the United States Department of Labor 

Trade Unions and Health 

TO stimulate interest among trade unions in the con- 
servation of health a joint committee from the Henne- 
pin County Tuberculosis Association and the Trades and 
Labor Assembly of Minneapolis is conducting a survey of 
health conditions among the one hundred and forty-one 
unions of that city. Members of the committee feel that 
between the private practitioner on the one hand and the 
public free clinic on the other it is usually only the very 
well-to-do and the very poor who receive such medical and 
dental treatment as they need. The survey has a twofold 
purpose: the collection of information, necessary before defi- 
nite plans can be made, and the education of workers to the 
importance of maintaining their health and to the need for 
the establishment of a health service by the unions. 

Two questionnaires have been sent out to discover how 
much and what kind of health service is already being ren- 
dered by the unions to their members, and to determine to 



April I, 1922 

what extent the members are in need of medical and dental 
care. One form, addressed to the union secretary, requests 
information regarding cash sick benefits, health service — 
nurse, physicians, dispensary, hospital care, compulsory med- 
ical examination, maternity benefits — educational work in 
health and other matters. The other questionnaire, sent to 
the individual members, inquires into the number of work- 
ing days lost on account of sickness, the amount spent during 
the last year for medical and dental care for themselves and 
their families, and needed medical or dental attention which 
they do not obtain. Three other questions are concerned 
with housing conditions in relation to health. A similar sur- 
vey is planned for the unorganized workers of the city. 

The success of the union health center maintained by the 
International Ladies' Garment Workers of New York city 
suggests the practicability of such a service as is contem- 
plated. Staff and equipment are provided for medical and 
dental work. In New York, moreover, clinics are con- 
ducted by the Health Department at various trade union 
headquarters, where members can get free examinations. 

Labor's increasing interest and participation in public 
health activities is further manifested by the official repre- 
sentation of trade unions on the working staff of several 
public health associations in the East. Ival McPeak. 

Hennepin County Public Health Association. 

A Habit Clinic 

PERHAPS there should be a habit clinic in every com- 
munity — a place where persons might be cured of the 
thousand and one funny tricks of behavior that annoy their 
neighbors. Such a clinic is conducted at the South Bay 
Union Settlement in Boston by Dr. Douglas A. Thorn, 
director of the out-patient department of the Boston Psycho- 
pathic Hospital. According to the bulletin of the Massa- 
chusetts Society for Mental Hygiene, its effort is more par- 
ticularly " to nip in the bud habits and tendencies leading 
to later nervous breakdown." 

The children treated in the clinic fall into three groups: 
those who have developed poor habits of eating and sleep- 
ing, those showing disorders of mental life and those in whom 
motor defects, such as muscular twitching, are found to exist. 

As has been true of case workers in other fields, those in 
the habit clinic find it necessary to go into the homes of the 
children to discover the fundamental causes of their diffi- 
culties. Perhaps there is a mother who is unstable emotion- 
ally or over-solicitous and too demonstrative in her affec- 
tions; or a father, rigid, stern and self-righteous, ruling by 
fear. One of the prime aims of the clinic in all cases is to 
guide the tendencies in children in order to avoid character 
twists which may distort their future lives. 

Among the clinic records is the story of Mary, who, al- 
though only a little over two years old, was jealous of Jane, 
her four-year-old sister. She bit and scratched Jane, and 
screamed and threw things about the room. Mary's mother 
introduced her at the clinic as a " regular little tough." 
Nothing very complex, it appears from the records, was at 
the bottom of the situation : 

Mary's parents were English immigrants, rather low of intelli- 
gence and with unstable, uncontrolled emotional equipment. It was 
a marriage of convenience and neither was especially fitted for 
parenthood. Strong affection or fidelity was lacking. A few months 
after Mary's birth the father found he could arouse her babyish 
anger by effusively caressing the older sister in her presence. He 
delighted in doing this and, as time went on and Mary's objection 
grew more violent, he would laugh uproariously and tease theYnore. 
The child's reaction was natural and toward poor, unoffending Jane 
she soon developed the violent dislike that ultimately brought her 
to the clinic. 

Treatment, while obvious, was not simple. It had to commence 
with the parents and the long, slow process of their education in the 
barest fundamentals of child training. Happily, results have already 
been shown in Mary's case, and while in later life she may become 
known for traits of suspicion and uneasy temper, a major nervous 
disability has almost certainly been averted. 

The Training of Sanitarians 

THE conference on the future of public health in the 
United States and the education of sanitarians which 
was held in Washington on March 14 and 15 under the 
auspices of the United States Public Health Service was 
probably the most notable gathering of public health work- 
ers ever called together for such a purpose. Such leaders in 
the field of public health as General Cumming, Dr. Biggs, 
Dr. Snow, Dr. Vaughan and Dr. Vincent, and such educa- 
tors as President Angell, President Farrand, President Good- 
now, Dr. Edsall and Dr. Welch discussed the present status 
of the public health movement, the urgent need for better 
qualified sanitarians and the various obstacles which have 
heretofore impeded the recruitment of the type of men and 
women needed for this field of public service. There is obvi- 
ously no short cut by which the right type of students can be 
attracted, by which our new schools of public health can be 
brought to the highest level and by which the public can be 
persuaded of the importance of offering inducements suf- 
ficient to attract to this field men of the calibre needed. The 
conference did much, however, to clarify the thoughts of 
those who took part in it, and its proceedings when they are 
printed will serve as an invaluable guide to the general lines 
of effort which should be pursued. A permanent committee 
of fifteen members has been appointed by the surgeon-general 
" to consider whatever questions it sees fit and take whatever 
action for further conferences may seem wise in order to 
continue the activities this conference has started." 

C.-E. A. Winslow, M. D. 

Notes and News 

THE New York state legislature has approved of appro- 
priations totaling $1,989,600 for new construction and 
improvements at state hospitals. One item of $13,700 for 
occupational therapy in the hospitals for the insane is the 
first direct appropriation that has been made for developing 
" the work cure " in the hospitals of the state. Other 
states, including Wisconsin, Illinois and Missouri, have long 
recognized the value of occupational therapy and have made 
appropriations for it. 

THE National Dairy Council, which is financed by the 
dairy industry of the country, is adopting the methods of 
public health organizations to increase the consumption of 
milk. To do this successfully they have secured certain of 
their educational and organization workers from social 
agencies. During 1921, the council took part in more than 
one hundred milk and dairy products campaigns. 

THE Michigan Department of Health is starting prelim- 
inary proceedings for prosecuting twenty-five local registrars 
of vital statistics in eighteen different counties because of 
alleged failure oh their part to comply with the law requir- 
ing births and deaths to be filed with state authorities before 
the fifth of each month. These registrars are liable under 
the law to a $200 fine and sixty days' imprisonment. 

A COURSE in the rehabilitation and re-education of handi- 
capped persons will be given at the coming summer session 
of Harvard University under the direction of W. I. Hamil- 
ton, industrial research secretary of the National Tubercu- 
losis Association. It is particularly intended for occupational 
aides, teachers of the handicapped, " after-care " nurses, 
workers in employment bureaus for the handicapped, agents 
of state rehabilitation services and of the Veterans' Bureau. 

THE medical societies of Jackson and Wyandotte counties, 
Kansas, have volunteered to treat free of charge all children 
in the two counties who need medical attention but are un- 
able to pay for it. Through the cooperation of the social 
agencies, all such cases are filed at a central bureau. 



By Cornelia Straton Parker. Harper Bros. 246 pp. Price, 

$2.00; with postage from the Survey, $2.20. 

Mrs. Carlton Parker in her recent book, Working With 
the Working Woman, "aims to contribute an infinitesimal 
drop and hasten a saner industrialism." She undoubtedly felt 
that her most genuine contribution could be made by working 
side by side with working women, seeing for a time at least 
their world and themselves through her own eyes. 

She purchased a pair of large green earrings, a bar pin of 
imitation platinum and brilliants, a gilt box of face powder and 
a lip stick. During the previous summer she faded out a tam- 
o-shanter, saved an old blue serge dress, secured a pair of 
spats which did not match, one of which had one button off, 
and last but not least in importance she somehow acquired a 
pair of silk stockings. 

With all these accessories and third or fourth season clothes, 
she still felt that her equipment was incomplete. A package 
of chewing gum was purchased, and not only purchased but 
chewed. And then she set about to get a job. She scanned 
the want ads, blue penciling "Help Wanted," "Females In- 
experienced." She in turn secured a job in a candy factory, 
a brass factory, a laundry, a dress factory, a bleachery and in 
a hotel. She secured her position through the regular channels 
of employment, was assigned to her own job and stayed only as 
long as she felt she was getting something out of it. 

Mrs. Parker's reactions to the various kinds of work are all 
personal. She doesn't pretend to see anything that would be 
seen by a "keen investigator." She herself is a woman of 
charming personality, very adaptable, and the book in no way 
indicates that the girls were "on" to her. There seems to have 
existed during the periods of employment an honest relation- 
ship between "Connie" and the girls with whom she worked. 
The men liked her and tried to make dates. 

One definitely and forcefully recorded reaction of the workers 
to her venture is the clever rhyme written by a fellow employe 
who worked with Mrs. Parker in Department 10 in the 
bleachery. The Lady and the Tiger, appearing in The Bleach- 
rey Life of November 18, 192 1, indicates that in that factory, 
at least, the workers were not in sympathy with her method 
of procedure nor her interpretation. 

We find no new or startling facts recorded. Tired feet, 
long days, speeding, no pay for overtime — this side of the 
working woman's life has been told over and over again. Mrs. 
Parker does, however, depict the human characteristic of these 
workers in quite an unusual way — their moods, their chatter, 
their love of dancing and singing; their reactions to people about 
them. The stories are merry, quaint or full of pathos. They 
are always complete, well rounded, surprisingly finished. 

The question to be answered is — does Mrs. Parker's book 
measure up to the standard which she set for herself? Does 
it add to the mutual understanding of employer and employe, 
and to a more intelligent comprehension of this vital relation- 
ship on the part of the public? Does this picturesque, almost 
playful treatment of the working woman, who is such an in- 
tegral part of modern industrial life, meet any of the real 
problems ? 

For those who wish to have this question presented dra- 
matically and amusingly, this book might meet a real need, 
were it a little less patronizing. The danger in presenting 
industrial material in the manner which Mrs. Parker has 
used is that it too often diverts attention from the real issues. 

Nelle Swartz. 


By Sidney A. Reeve. E. P. Dutton & Co., New York. 871 
pp. Price $12.00; with postage from the Survey, $12.35. 
The title of Mr. Reeve's book, with its subtitle, An Eco- 
nomic History of America, is misleading. The dedication — 
To the Memory of Edward Bellamy — is more helpful in 
furnishing a clue to the content of this somewhat formidable 
work. For the major portion of the book concerns itself with 
a lustily condemnatory analysis of our " Commercialistic " eco- 
nomic order. It ends with a much briefer, but equally confi- 
dent, outline of the system that is to replace it. 

This substitute system, which is as inevitable as the defeat 
of the Republican Party, is an anti-toxin to the legion of eco- 
nomic ills which beset mankind. It may be recognized as an 
accomplished fact when the (carefully capitalized) Ultimate 
Consumers " suitably aggregated and simply organized, . . . 
take control of all industrial, commercial, and financial plant 
and stock, not through the political government, but by the 
exercise of economic sovereignty. ..." 

Mr. Reeve maintains that the competitive organization of 
industry, with its concentration of wealth in the hands of a 
small minority, has, in some fashion that is not entirely clear 
to the reviewer, brought it about that each dollar spent by 
the consumer purchases but twenty cents' worth of goods; by 
the time one has reached page 775, this has been reduced to 
nineteen cents. It is held that as time goes on the rich grow 
richer, and " the poor more uncertain of their tenure of life." 
Nothing can change this while the competitive order remains. 
" The wealthy themselves cannot prevent it." 

The socialists fare little better. It is true that " the greatest 
philosophic enemy of civilization is commercialism; but only 
second to this is socialism." The aims of trade unionism are 
discarded with as little ceremony. 

Mr. Reeve's analysis presents a social order that is im- 
mune to improvement, and subject to no change except decay. 
It is wrong because it contravenes " natural law." It carries 
within it the seed of its own destruction. It produces for profit 
instead of for the " life support of the Ultimate Consumer." 
Our present order places a premium upon exploitative ability 
instead of productive ability. There can be no remedy for all 
this until the machinery of production is owned and controlled 
by the Ultimate Consumer. Only then can every one pro- 
duce at " 100 per cent efficiency." We must wait until the 
present order expires of its own disease; in the meanwhile 
we must do nothing except to educate the consumer for his 
ultimate responsibility. Then, with the wages system retained, 
each one will receive " what he produces." 

The book is the work of a man who has worked in se- 
clusion, and who has felt the welfare of the world as a dead 
weight upon his shoulders. " Circumstances have required the 
author to handle this vast topic during the spare time of a 
life which had first to support a family," writes Mr. Reeve 
in his preface. " The task which should have been shared with 
the entire profession of economists he has had to compass 
single handed." This isolation goes far to explain the dogma- 
tism of his conclusions, and the inaccuracies and unsubstan- 
tiated statements, and the trite nonessentials that bristle in 
pompous italics upon every other page. It explains why he 
has written a chapter upon panics and crises without, seem- 
ingly, being aware of the work of Wesley Mitchell in that 
field; so that he naively speaks of the crisis of 1914 as being 
inherently different from all the crises which preceded. It ex- 
plains the inadequate handling and the errors in the statistical 
material with which the book abounds. 

But there is something fine about the situation also that 
catches the imagination. Mr. Reeve's book is not an academic 
treatise; it is a crusade. It must be judged as a record of pro- 
test and of desperate work, and not as a source book of eco- 
nomic fact. And for all its errors in logic and subject matter, 
it contains some very suggestive material in criticism of the 
prevailing order, and there is imagination in his contention 
that waste effort (would that we could isolate it!) should 
be placed in the same category as unemployment. 

Stacy May. 

HOME SERVICE IN ACTION: a study of case work 


By Mary Buell Sayles. New York County Chapter, A. R. C. 

Price, $2.00; with postage from the Survey, $2.1 5. 
Those who hope to find in Home Service in Action proof or 
claims for startling departures in case work methods, will be 
disappointed, as will also those Red Cross workers who may 
expect a history of the thrilling episodes of war-time activity. 
The book is dispassionate in tone; but this very absence of 
color makes the quiet and scholarly record the more convincing. 




April I, 1922 

Miss Sayles had the double advantage of not having worked 
with the Red Cross prior to making the study, yet having all 
doors — and files — open to her. She considers the real "stuff" 
of the study the cases, and these are given in sufficient detail for 
the reader to test the interpretation. In addition to the technical 
interest for social workers, the book has an incidental value 
as a source for college students and others. So far as the re- 
viewer has knowledge, there has never before been given in one 
book so rich a mine of actual stories of family problems. 

The large use and training of volunteers and the unique organ- 
ization developed within the section stand out as its distinctive 
contributions to social work method. The slow development 
of a professional and salaried staff, although it seriously hamp- 
ered the early efficiency of the section, forced the volunteers 
to carry burdens of responsibility that contributed to the appre- 
ciation they showed of the necessity for training. The demon- 
stration was made that volunteers can be held to professional 
standards, and that the viewpoint rather than the salary check 
is the test of the "professional" worker. 

The author's interpretation and analysis of case work methods 
do not so much demonstrate an original contribution by the 
Home Service Section to case theory as a more difficult achieve- 
ment — the adaptation to normal families of the best methods 
of established agencies for abnormal ones. The qualities cited 
as characteristic of Home Service — flexibility in treatment, con- 
sideration of the client's point of view, cordial cooperation, 
emphasis upon normal standards, a spirit of genuine democratic 
fellowship between clients and visitors — are usually considered 
essential to good case work. The only difference seems to lie 
in the extent to which they were carried. Miss Sayles discusses 
three cases in which investigation was omitted or curtailed for 
what she considers good reasons, and in which effective treat- 
ment followed. She feels that, in the interest of honesty, case 
workers should admit what, she thinks, many of them believe, 
that in a certain minority of cases investigation can be curtailed 
or omitted, and that they should assume the burden of discrim- 
ination entailed by the admission. In case treatment as in 
government, the section, because it started absolutely fresh, 
could risk action suggested by the experience of established 
agencies but upon which these agencies might hesitate to hazard 
their carefully built up policies. 

The glory of the New York County Home Service Section 
consists in its acceptance of the challenge given by this situa- 
tion, and its attempt to pay back its debt to the older organiza- 
tions by making available this record of the use of its oppor- 
tunity. Katherine Z. Wells. 


By Broadus Mitchell; Johns Hopkins Press; 281 pp. Price, 

$2.50; with postage from the Survey, $2.70. 

This book is a hard and conscientious effort to make com- 
prehensible one of the most startling among the many surpris- 
ing industrial phenomena at the end of the Nineteenth Cen- 
tury — the conscious adoption of industrialism by the South. 
The author found in the almost religious fervor of the " cot- 
ton bill campaign " about 1880 a fact of spiritual significance 
overshadowing its purely economic importance; and this spir- 
itual significance he has endeavored to interpret. He has been 
remarkably successful, because he has gone about his task 
soberly, carefully, and with scrupulous exactness as to detail; 
one is tempted to describe his as the extraordinary achievement 
of having prosecuted a spiritual inquiry in a scientific spirit. 
The book is an important contribution to the as yet unwritten 
history of southern industry. The extent to which its plowing is 
in virgin soil — and also something of the enormous difficulty 
of the work, it might be said in passing — is indicated by the 
multitude of footnotes which refer to personal interviews. For 
that matter, the bulk of the documentary material to which 
the writer had access lay in newspaper files. 

The outstanding value of the book is the flood of light that 
it throws upon the origins of certain conditions that obtain in 
the cotton manufacturing industry of the South to this day; and 
upon certain obscure and perplexing mental attitudes of south- 
ern cotton mill owners, on the one hand, and southern cotton 
mill operatives, on the other. One who hopes to gain even a 
superficial acquaintance with the cotton mill problem certainly 
cannot afford to overlook this work. 

Gerald W. Johnson. 


By Gilbert Murray. Houghton Mifflin Co. 221 pp. Price, $3.00 ; 
tcith postage from the Survey, $3.10. 

A series of ten essays on Greek and modern subjects, summing 

up the point of view of a Religio Grammatici, as Professor 

Murray himself styles it in the first essay on the religion of a 

man of letters. He seeks to understand modern life by means of 

the light that Greek experience throws on it. 


By Js8ac A. Hourunch. B. W. Huebsch, Inc. 574 pp. Price, $6.50 ; 
with postage from the Survey, $6.65. 

A new, revised edition amplified by a chapter on The Lessons 
of the War. Restriction of labor, experienced during the war, 
does not touch the problem of price control, the author con- 
tends. "What is wanted in order to secure to the worker a 
real advance in wages," he says, "is regulation of profits in the 
interest of the consumers, of whom the wage-earners are the 
most numerous element." 


By Agnes C. Laut. Macmillan Co. 279 pp. Price, $2.50 ; tcith 
postage from the Survey, $2.60. 

Picturing Canada's immense resources and its comparatively 

slow development, the author looks forward to a time of great 

national prosperity partly based on the sense of national unity 

which she claims Canada got out of the war. 

By Edna Oeister. The Womans Press, 600 Lexington Avenue, Nexc 
York. 141 pp. Price, $1.25 ; with postage from the Survey, $1.30. 

Another useful book of stunts, games and suggestions for in- 
door and outdoor amusements. 


Compiled by Julia E. Johnson. H. W. Wilson Co. 370 pp. Price, 
$2.25 ; with postage from the Survey, $2.40. 

An interpretation of the leading aspects of the Negro problem. 

By Henry F. Kallenberg, M.D. Association Press, New York. 49 pp. 
Price, 35 cents; with postage from the Survey, $.40. 


By C. C. Robinson. Association Press, New York. 134 pp. Price, 

$1.40 ; with postage from the Survey, $1.45. 

By Clare Sheridan. Boni d Liveright. 359 pp. Price, $3.00 ; with 

postage from the Survey, $3.10. 

By William S. Sadler. A. C. McClurg d Co. 421 pp. Price, $2.50 ; 

with postage from the Survey, $2.60. 

By Leighton Parks. Charles Scribner's Sons. Price, $2.50 ; with 

postage from the Survey, $2.60. 

By Albert Jay Nock. B. W. Huebsch, Inc. 114 pp. Price, $1.00 ; 

wtth postage from the Survey, $1.05. 


By Robert E. Stauffer. Christopher Publishing House. 185 pp. 

Price, $2.00 ; with postage from the Survby, $2.10. 

By the Rev. Angelo Di Domenica. Christopher Publishing House. 

282 pp. Price, $2.00 ; with postage from the Survey, $2.10. 

By Robert H. Montgomery. Ronald Press Co. 1,931 pp. Price, 

$10.00; icith postage from the Survey, $10.15. 

By Sheldon Emmor Davis. Macmillan Co. 346 pp. Price, $1.40; 

with postage from the Survey, $1.50. 

By Eleanor dates. D. Appleton d Co. 419 pp. Price, $2.00 ; with 

postage from the Survey, $2.20. 

By F. Kuhlman. Warwick d York. 208 pp. Price, $2.00 ; with 

postage from the Survey, $2.05. 

By John Cayce Morrison. Warwick d York. 1G2 pp. Price, $2.00; 

» ith postage from the Survey. $2.05. 

By Frederic Harrison. Henry Holt d Co. 207 pp. Price, $3.00 ; 

with postage from the Survey, $3.15. 

By Theodore Stanton and Harriet Stanton Blotch. Harper d 

Brothers. Vol. 1, 362. Vol. 2, 369 pp. Price, $6.00; with postage 

from the Survey, $6.25. 

B\) H. A. Shands. Harcourt, Brace d Co. 304 pp. Price, $1.90; 

with postage from the Survey, $2.00. 
A storv of a Texas cotton-raising community where the race 
problems of black and white people became tangled in exciting 


By Frank Haigh Dixon. Charles Scribner's Sons. 
$2.25 ; with postage from the Survey, $2.45. 

378 pp. Price, 






Old Immigration and, New 

To the Editor: Attempts to prove that there are no sig- 
nificant differences between the old and the new immigration 
always arrest my attention. For this reason (among others) 
I have been much interested in the valuable article by John 
Palmer Gavit in the March Survey Graphic. I am looking 
forward to the book which it foreshadows. I realize that it is 
hardly fair to pass judgment upon Mr. Gavit's conclusions on 
the basis of this article alone, but since there will be many 
people who read this article who will not study the book it 
seems justifiable to make one tentative suggestion. 

The author's main thesis is that the new immigration is no 
less assimilable than the old, judged by the tendency to natural- 
ization. In addition to the generally recognized fallacy of 
comparing gross percentages of citizenship, he points out that 
even of those who have been in the country over ten years 
the old immigration has been here much longer than the new 
and therefore has had more opportunity to secure naturaliza- 

The point is obviously well taken. But in calling attention to 
this conditioning factor Mr. Gavit has failed to recognize an- 
other factor of equal importance which works the other way. 
This is the highly temporary character of the new immigra- 
tion and the large proportion of returns. 

That this feature is much more marked among the new im- 
migration than the old is a matter of a common knowledge, 
easily verifiable by reference to the reports of the commissioner 
general of immigration. The result of it is that a much smaller 
proportion of the new immigration reaches the stage of long 
residence than of the old. This fact clearly has a direct bear- 
ing on the tendency to citizenship of the different races. 

The "civic and political interest" of any foreign group is 
to be judged not only by the percentage of those who have 
been here ten years or over who are naturalized, but also by 
the proportion of the total number of immigrants of that 
group who stay here long enough to be counted in the ten-year 
class. "Residence," from the point of view of the naturaliza- 
tion law, is continuous residence. A very large proportion of 
the new immigration does not, and never will, stay long enough 
at a stretch to be counted as having resided here five years, to 
<ay nothing of ten years. And this is lack of "civic and political 
mterest" of the worst kind. 

Two foreign groups may show exactly the same percentage 
of citizenship among those who have been here over ten years. 
But if in one group 85 per cent, say, of the immigrants event- 
ually move up into the ten-year class while in the other group 
only 50 per cent ever get there, the latter group certainly has 
a much smaller tendency toward citizenship. 

New York University. H. P. Fairchild. 

To the Editor: I am much impressed by the fairness of 
Professor Fairchild's letter; especially by his recognition of the 
fact that the book itself is the thing to be judged. Pending its 
publication, let me say this: 

Even granting (only for the sake of argument; I have not 
adequately studied the point, but my experience in the Ameri- 
canization Study has made me suspicious of all the accepted 
statistics) the alleged "temporary" character of the so-called 
"new" immigration; it seems to me to emphasize rather than to 
detract from the force of the fact that the so-called "new im- 
migration" exhibits if anything the greater "civic interest," 
other things being equal. I am myself impressed by three 
factors visible in the figures which are brought out in my book 
though not emphasized in the excerpts which you selected from 
it for publication in the Survey: 

First — The significant relation between economic and social 
status and "civic interest." Generally speaking, I believe (I 
know of no statistical information on the subject) the bulk of the 
"temporary" immigration to which Professor Fairchild alludes is 
among those who have been here but a short time. By the time 
an alien has been here long enough to be available for naturali- 
zation he is no longer temporary. The "new" immigration, 
furthermore, has perforce gained employment chiefly in those 
lowly occupations, and social status only in those grades and 



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ID you rest well last night? Ever hear 
that question? How could you always 
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A CHARITABLE Institution which 
is raising an endowment fund has 
asked for a price on 500 copies of 
"How Much Shall I Give?" The 
Board of Managers had in mind sending 
a copy to each of their principal contrib- 
utors. <JSuch a plan — any plan — that 
promises to increase contributions dur- 
ing these hard times is worth consider- 
ing. «I"How Much Shall I Give?" 
written by Lilian Brandt, with a fore- 
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charitable institution. Executives of 
some of the largest organizations have 
given it strong endorsements. <JA book 
of 153 pages, price $2 by mail of Survey 
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April I, 1922 



conditions, which confine his attention to the business of gaining 
a mere subsistence and holding a social position of mere human 
existence. Also, our economic conditions have greatly changed 
during the past twenty years or so, and it is much harder for 
the immigrant to get a substantial footing than it used to be 
when the "old" immigration was coming to these shores. 

Second — the significant showing of the statistics with regard 
to the petitioners who filed their petitions for naturalization 
in the same state in which they filed their declarations of in- 
tention (a strong side-light on the subject of temporary-ness) ; 

Third — what amounts to the same thing; the facts with re- 
gard to "stability of residence." 

Let me say, once for all, that this study, my own personal 
observation of our foreign-born people, and my profound con- 
viction, established and confirmed by years of residence among 
them in a highly congested city district, have all contributed to 
the unshakable belief that while there are great differences in 
quality of assimilability, in intelligence and personal character, 
the lines of division are not racial. Neither are they educa- 
tional. I believe that until we devise a method of admitting 
and excluding on the basis of personal qualifications of the in- 
dividual we shall continue to commit the most appalling and in- 
credibly stupid blunders and injustices by wholesale. 

In saying all this, I should like to have it remembered that 
so far as I am informed I am an "old-stock" American by 
virtue of upward of two hundred and fifty years of continuous 
residence in every drop of my personal blood. 

John Palmer Gavit. 

New York. 

A Circuit for Churches 

To the Editor: The stage and spectacular amusements 
have become highly organized, because they have been carried 
forward by professionals devoting months of practice and tre- 
mendous sums of money to each performance before it is staged. 
In comparison, religion is on an amateur plane, because our 
ministers have to face their public from one to four times a 
week and are expected to say something new and interesting on 
every occasion. The greatest geniuses or stars of our theatrical 
profession would consider such an undertaking impossible. Why 
should we demand it of our preachers who have pressing pas- 
toral and civic duties besides? 

In competition with a Keith's Sunday night performance 
which it has taken thousands of dollars to stage and months of 
training to perfect, or in competition with moving picture films 
which have also cost thousands of dollars to produce and 
which are advertised from coast to coast, is it fair to put up 
the sermon of a minister who has been allowed at most only a 
day or two for his preparation, and a comparative pittance for 
a salary? . . . Unless religion puts its benefits on a well trained 
and highly organized basis, it cannot expect to grip and hold the 
men and women of our generation. 

It seems to me that the only way to do this is to allow our 
greatest religious leaders to write a few inspiring sermons and 
to travel from center to center, giving these inspirational ser- 
vices, just as the musicals, lectures and dramas of our social 
life are now presented. In country communities ministers of 
certain districts might organize to work out a few of the best 
sermons and church services of which they are capable, and 
exchange pulpits until these polished products have been passed 
on to every one in the district. 

Travel from place to place stimulates the mentality and inven- 
tiveness of our corporation heads, and adds freshness and vigor 
to hundreds of week-end parties; so the lives of our ministers 
might also be stimulated by travel, while the people would be 
given the novelty of coming in contact with different minds. In 
I the congested centers this more highly organized method might 
increase the membership to such an extent that the churchei 
would be able to hire a local man to stay in each community 
for pastoral and executive work, which he would be able to 
■ accomplish more effectively if relieved from the duty of pre- 
paring a sermon for each Sunday. This man might be for the 
local church what the manager is for the theater, except that 
he could also add the pastoral duties of visiting the sick and 
attending funerals and weddings. . . . John H. Chase. 

Secretary Playground Association, 

Youngstown, Ohio. 

Please mention Thb Survey 





By Robert E. Park and Ernest W. Burgess 

Nothing better for the person who desires a founda- 
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language this volume defines and illustrates the concepts 
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would understand our social structure — its peculiarities, 
customs, tendencies, and institutions — should read this 
book. $4.50, postpaid $4.75 


By Clarence E. Rainwater 

The first published survey by a recreation leader of 
the structure and concept of function of the play move- 
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on the origin, stages, transitions, and trend of the play 
movement together with constructive suggestions for 
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of recreation. 


By Sophonisba P. Breckinridge 

An inspiring biography of one of the truly great 
women of modern times. It is more than a biography ; 
it is a fascinating history of social progress in Kentucky 
and especially in the city of Lexington. 

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Volume XV. Some Newer Problems: National and 

Volume XVI. Factors in Social Evolution. 

Tbe papers and discussions contained in these volumes 
are vital and authoritative contributions on the most 
important questions of the day by authorities in the 
sociological field or in an allied field in which the 
sociological aspects are studied. 

Each volume $2.00, postpaid $2.15 


This volume contains the addresses delivered at the 
annual meeting held at Milwaukee, June 22-29, 1921. 
The many phases of social work are presented and 
discussed by experts in their particular lines. The' 
papers presented in this book deal with the most vital 
social problems of the present day and include among 
them " What's on the Worker's Mind " by Whiting 
Williams and " Our Nation's Obligation to her 
Children" by Julia C. Lathrop. $4.00, postpaid $4.15 


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April i, 1922 


GROWTH of the idea of human service 
from the good Samaritan through the time 
of Constantine the Great, King Arthur, the 
crusades, the birth of the International Red 
Cross, the Civil War and the World War, 
to the League of Red Cross Societies and 
the peace-time work of the American Red 
Cross, is the subject matter of the pageant 
of the Red Cross which, staged for the first 
time in Columbus, Ohio, last October, was 
repeated in March during the Red Cross 
conference of the North Mississippi Valley 
states at Des Moines, Iowa. This presenta- 
tion, in which two thousand five hundred 
persons took part, was more effective during 
its second run than its first, according to 
spectators who have seen both. Its impres- 
siveness enhanced the value of a three days' 
discussion in which in addition to the offi- 
cials and workers of the chapters in the 
region prominent men from Red Cross head- 
quarters and from other national organiza- 
tions took part. 

A PRELIMINARY program of the inter- 
national conference of settlements to be held 
at Toynbee Hall, London, July 8 to IS, has 
just been received. Among those invited to 
address the conference, of which Mrs. 
Barnett is president, are many of the fore- 
most social reformers in Great Britain. 
The sessions will be given over to discus- 
sions of the philosophy of settlements, ideals 
and methods of education, housing, the 
" community idea," settlements and indus- 
try, and the use of leisure and reports from 
different countries will be received. There 
will also be many excursions and parties. 
Americans contemplating attendance are 
requested to communicate with Albert J. 
Kennedy, secretary of the National Federa- 
tion of Settlements, 20 Union Park, Boston. 

A NATIONAL organization for the 
mutual help and advice of the various pro- 
fessions engaged in city development, along 
the lines of the English and American city 
planning institutes, has been established in 
Germany under the name of Deutsche 
Akademie des Staedtebaus. It starts with 
one hundred and sixty members, represen- 
tative of every part of the republic (and 
also of Austria, Switzerland and Czecho- 
slovakia) and every "school," including 
such well known city builders as -Bruno 
Moehring, Hermann Muthesius, Emil Lang, 
Bernoulli, Cornelius Gurlitt, Joseph and 
Albert Hoffmann, Stubben, Bodo Ebhardt, 
Th. Fischer, Bruno Taut, Walter Lehwess. 

SLAVE raids in Abyssinia have increased 
by leaps and bounds, according to a report 
published in the Westminster Gazette. The 
correspondents, who speak from intimate 
personal knowledge, desire that the aid of 
the United States and other powers be 
sought by Great Britain to suppress this 
evil. The slave gangs are smaller than 
they were in former times; this is due to 
the depopulation of the border districts. 
But the raiders more frequently than in the 
past invade British East Africa and the 
Anglo-Egyptian Sudan in their nefarious 
business and carry with them men, women 
and children, chained together and often 
dying from exhaustion on the way to the 

CANADIAN interest in adult education has 
been stimulated by the visit of Albert Mans- 
bridge, general secretary of the World As- 

sociation for Adult Education. In addition 
to seven tutorial classes in Toronto, others 
are being held in London, Hamilton, Ottawa 
and the West. Lumber camps and bunk- 
houses, says the Canadian Forum, have be- 
come seats of higher education. The gov- 
ernment cooperates with the Library Asso- 
ciation to make good books accessible in 
remote corners of the dominion. But for 
the most part the universities and the trade 
unions have not as yet found each other. 

STICKERS have been issued by the Family 
Welfare Society of Boston (404 Tremont 
Building; 25 cents per hundred) to make 
public opinion for the enforcement of prohi- 
bition. One of them tells that of the cases 
dealt with by the society in 1920 and 1921, 
2 per cent were affected by drink, whereas 
in 1917 the proportion was 27 per cent; the 
other quotes Lincoln's words: "Let every 
man remember that to violate the law is to 
trample on the blood of his father and tear 
the charter of his own and his children's 

RUSSELL J. POOLE, director of Chicago's 
cost of living bureau, estimates that the 
price reductions that have resulted from 
this organ of the city government saved the 
citizens over thirty-six million dollars last 
year, or an average of thirteen dollars for 
each individual. This result, he claims, has 
been produced by conferences with leading 
business men, investigation of costs and pub- 
licity and various coercive methods. He is 
asking the city council to increase the 
twenty thousand dollar appropriation for 
this bureau by three thousand dollars. 

WHEN in doubt whether to get married, 
ask Dr. Tandler, late chief medical officer 
of Vienna. Alarmed by the appalling cost 
to the city and the state of idiocy and other 
inherited diseases, he has induced the mu- 
nicipality to open a clinic where those about 
to marry may obtain free medical advice. 
The doctor in charge of this clinic will be 
a man with psychological as well as medical 
training and, in addition to individual ad- 
vice, will also advance general education in 

SUMMER schools for Negro teachers, re- 
ports the Foreign Press Service, have taken 
a rapid development in recent years. Prac- 
tically all the colored teachers of Louisiana 
have attended them. In North Carolina, 
twenty-eight hundred teachers attended such 
schools last year, and the attendance ex- 
pected for the coming summer is more than 
three thousand. These schools are provided 
by the state and the certificates granted 
entitle holders to higher salary scales. 

FIFTY congressmen — Republicans outnum- 
bering Democrats two to one — have ap- 
pealed to President Harding to proclaim a 
general amnesty for all prisoners arrested 
or convicted under the Espionage Act " and 
whose offenses were in the nature of expres- 
sions of opinion and not of overt acts." They 
draw attention to the fact that every country 
in Europe has released prisoners of the same 
class and that, besides, the sentences im- 
posed for such offenses were nowhere as 
severe as in the United States. 

THE West Virginia Bureau of Negro Wel- 
fare and Statistics has recently made a sur- 
vey of the Negro in the coal industry in 
that state. From interviews with employ- 
ers it concludes that the Negro worker com- 
pares favorably in efficiency, regularity and 
loyalty with the workers of other races em- 
ployed in the coal fields. 

GEORGE E. HAYNES, whose studies of 
the Negro in industry during and since the 
war have aroused much interest, has left his 
position as director of the bureau of Negro 
Economics in the United States Department 
of Labor and joined the staff of the commis- 
sion on the Church and Race Relations of 
the Federal Council of the Churches, with 
headquarters in New York. Mr. Haynes is [ 
a frequent contributor to the Survey. 

PANHANDLING on the streets of New 1 
York is so easy it is discouraging, says Roy 
P. Gates of the Joint Application Bureau in 
New York in regard to an expedition made 
one cold night this winter by himself and 
Major Edward Underwood of the Salvation 
Army. At the end of an hour they had col- 
lected over three dollars. They found that 
the best prospects were men conversing with 
other men. " No one took the trouble to ask 
us any questions or to offer us any help 
more intelligent than a dime or a quarter — 
flipped out with a kindly impulse no doubt, 
but with as little thought as one would give 
to patting a stray dog." 

DR. JOHN M. BALDY, commissioner of 
the new Pennsylvania Department of Public 
Welfare created by the legislature last year, 
holds one of the pivotal positions in social 
work in that state. The bill creating the 
department [see the Survey for May 14, 
1921] abolished the former Committee on 
Lunacy and the State Board of Public Char- 
ities, and gave even wider powers to the 
new department. For many years Dr. 
Baldy has been president of the Board of 
Medical Education and Licensure of Penn- 
sylvania. In that capacity, although he had 
no legal powers, he was, nevertheless, able 
to establish high standards of medical edu- 
cation in the state. The Board of Public 
Welfare, upon which there are two women 
members, gives promise of support for ad- 
vanced and improved social work in Penn- 

NORTH CAROLINA, called the " Wiscon- 
sin of the South," is one state in which a 
woman may rise to high office in social work. 
Mrs. Clarence A. Johnson is now serving 
her first year as commissioner of the Board 
of Charities and Public Welfare. She was 
previously director of child welfare of the 
board. According to the press of the state, 
she was appointed to this position not be- 
cause it is necessarily a woman's job. " It 
is a man's job in responsibility and labor 
and administration, and a woman of real 
energy and devotion and ability has been 
called to it because there was not an avail- 
able man in the state who possessed in ex- 
perience and training the qualifications 
which she possesses." At the same time that 
she was chosen, Professor Howard W. 
Odum, director of the school of public wel- 
fare at the University of North Carolina, 
was selected as consulting expert to the 

OTTO F. BRADLEY, secretary of the Hen- 
nepin County (Minnesota) Tuberculosis 
Committee and the Hennepin County Public 
Health Association, has become executive 
secretary of the Centralized Budget of 
Philanthropies of Milwaukee. The Budget, 
which was organized in 1916 and had its 
first campaign for funds in 1917, is separate 
from the Central Council of Social Agencies. 
Its task is to raise money for its member or- 
ganizations, to prevent new institutions from 
springing up which might conflict with 
other agencies already in the field, to bring 

April I, 1922 



together organizations doing similar work 
and to improve the business methods of its 
members through such means as central pur- 
chasing. Mr. Bradley possesses uncanny 
ability as a lobbyist for social legislation. 
The passage, several years ago, of the bill 
consolidating public health work in Minne- 
apolis and taking it out of " politics " which 
had made a football of it for years, showed 
skillful generalship on his part, especially 
since previous attempts to accomplish this 
had always been frustrated. Civic leaders 
outside his own special sphere of work were 
constantly making use of this ability. 


LEWIS H. CARRIS, of Washington, is 
the new field secretary of the National Com- 
mittee for the Prevention of Blindness. In 
addition to working with local and state 
organizations he will assist schools to organ- 
ize special classes for children. Until re- 
cently Mr. Carris was administrative head 
of the Federal Board for Vocational Edu- 
cation, and before that assistant commis- 
sioner of education for New Jersey. 

DR. D. C. FLOYD HAVILAND, of Albany, 
the new chairman of the New York State 
iospital Commission, is a former president of 
the Connecticut Conference of Social Work. 
In 1914 he made a survey of the care of 
the insane in Pennsylvania for the National 
Committee for Mental Hygiene, the first 
state-wide survey of its kind in the United 
States. His findings, published by the Pub- 
lic Charities Association of Pennsylvania, 
had great influence in improving the care 
of the insane. He has also written widely 
upon occupational therapy and mental hygi- 
ene. Dr. Haviland succeeds Dr. Charles W. 
Pilgrim, who had served several times as 
chairman of the commission, during 1906, 
and from 1916 to December, 1921. Dr. Pil- 
grim was one of the first advocates of the 
mental clinic and of the social service work 
connected with it. He has strongly favored 
the parole system for certain type* of insane 
patients. He was also one of those chiefly 
responsible for the passage of a resolution 
by the New York State Hospital Develop- 
ment Commission to the effect that there 
should be at least one social service worker 
in each hospital for each hundred patients 
on parole. 

FEW awards of honors in recent times have 
been as popular as that of the Edward Bok 
gold medal in Philadelphia to Leopold 
Stokowski, conductor of the Philadelphia 
Orchestra, for the most noteworthy civic 
achievement of the year. The award also 
includes a prize of ten thousand dollars. 
Stokowski is an immigrant. He has a Polish 
father and an Irish mother and was brought 
up in London. It is told that when a repre- 
sentative of St. Bartholomew's Church, New 
York, in the course of looking up various 
men in London recommended for the posi- 
tion of choirmaster, came to St. James', Pic- 
cadilly, to interview Stokowski, he asked 
a fair-haired youth playing football with 
others in the yard to direct him; that youth 
was Stokowski, their choirmaster, star 
student of Elgar, Parry and Stanford. 

Stokowski has made the Philadelphia Or- 
chestra what it is — some believe the fore- 
most in America ; he has secured its future 
financially and developed with its artistic 
;quality also its effectiveness as a force for 
civic beauty, as for instance through his con- 
certs for children and his constant coopera- 
tion with other artists and societies in Phil- 
adelphia to advance musical education. But 
to have made Brahms and others of the 
great composers a living reality in America 
is sufficient accomplishment to deserve this 
expression of public gratitude. 

C INGLE copies of the Coal number of Survey Graphic 
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4152 Survey. 

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Levy, 40 Fairfield Ave., Bridgeport, Conn. 

WANTED: By small Jewish Home for 
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children five years of age and under. 4075 

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charge of department dealing with delin- 
quent girls. Must have exceptional training 
and experience. State full particulars. 
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TEACHERS wanted for public and private 
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Service, Southern Building, Washington. 


WANTED : Executive position social or 
welfare organization. College graduate, 
semester's work at University in Community 
organization. Year's experience executive 
secretary Red Cross. Good personality, ex- 
cellent references. 1214 Linden Ave., Nash- 
ville, Tennessee. 

WANTED : By experienced handicraft and 
social service worker, position in or near 
large eastern city. Good opportunity of 
more value than salary. 4155 Survey. 

YOUNG MAN, 28, married, Columbia 
M. A. in Psychology, formerly director 
higher educational institution, just returned 
extensive trip Europe for newspaper, sev- 
eral languages, including Yiddish. Open 
for engagement, social or settlement work. 
4160 Su rvey. 

GRADUATE NURSE, colored, hospital 
social service experience, holding executive 
position, desires social work. Preferably 
church work. 4148 Survey. 

YOUNG MAN, seven years' experience 
in settlement, institutional and Y. M. C. A. 
work, desires a position. Ready to report 
at once. 4149 Survey. 

WANTED : Position in Social Service 
Work by trained and experienced worker. 
Graduate of National Service School, Wash- 
ington, D. C. References. 4150 Survey. 

EXECUTIVE with twenty years' exten- 
sive and intensive experience in work with 
delinquent, dependent and under privileged 
boys desires correspondence with organiza- 
tions having use for such a man. Indus- 
trial schools or large orphanages preferred. 
At present congenially and permanently em- 
ployed in executive capacity. Best of rea- 
son? for considering possibility of change. 
4144 Survey. 

SUPERVISOR: Single, with institutional 
and settlement experience; delinquent juve- 
niles; qualified printer; athletic instructor; 
desires connection child-caring work imme- 
diately. Anywhere. 4136 Survey. 

MAN of 35 wishes Executive Secretaryship 
or other administrative position in Social 
Welfare work. A connection of this kind 
with a Civic League, or other similar or- 
ganization, would be desirable. Any section 
of the country considered. 4156 Survey. 

experience in institutional and playground 
work desires a position in a New York 
settlement house for the summer of 1922. 
4126 Survey. 

TRAINED social and case worker, four- 
teen years' experience, good personality, ex- } f 
cellent references, desires position with hos- e 
pital or social organization. 4146 Survey. s 


Five rooms, lot 50 x 200. Opposite Essex / 
County reservation. One hour from New York. S 
Price, $1,800. A. Chown, St. Cloud Avenue, 
West Orange, N. J. 


THIRSTY blotters sent free on request, 
also samples of excellent stationery for per- 
sonal and professional use. Franklin Print- 
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UNUSUALLY desirable stationery for 
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Rosedale Nurseries 

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YOUNG business woman, Jewish, wishes 
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Fall In. Call of Christian ministry written 
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The Sword or thi Cross, by EIrby Page. An 
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OF AUGUST 24, 1912 of the Survey, pub- 
lished weekly at New York, N. Y., for April 
1, 1922. 

State of New York, County of New York, 

Before me, a Commissioner of Deeds, in and 
for the State and county aforesaid, personally 
appeared Arthur P. Kellogg, who, having been 
duly sworn according to law, deposes and says 
that he is the business manager of The Survey, 
and that the following is, to the best of his 
knowledge and belief, a true statement of the 
ownership, management (and if a daily paper, 
the circulation), etc., of the aforesaid publication 
for the date shown in the above caption, re- 
quired by the Act of August 24, 1912, embodied 
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printed on the reverse of this form, to wit: 

1. That the names and addresses of the pub- 
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managers are: Publisher, Survey Associates, 
Inc., 112 East 19 Street, New York City; Editor, 
Paul U. Kellogg, 112 East 19 Street, New York 
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York City. 

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laws of the State of New York with over 1,600 
members. It has no stocks or bonds. President, 
Robert W. de Forest, 30 Broad Street, New 
York, N. Y. ;Vice-Presidents, Henry R. Seager, 
Columbia University, New York, N. Y. ; V. 
Everit Macy, "Chilmark," Scarborough-on-Hud- 
son, N. Y. ; Secretary, Ann R. Brenner, 112 
East 19 Street, New York, N. Y.; Treasurer, 
Arthur P. Kellogg, 112 East 19 Street, New 
York, N. Y. 

3. That the known bondholders, mortgagees, 
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so state.) None. . . 

4. That the two paragraphs next above, giving 
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of stockholders and security holders as they 
appear upon the books of the company but also, 
in cases where the stockholder or security holder 
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Business Manager. 
Sworn to and subscribed before me this 22d 
day of March, 1922. „„„„,,,„ 

Commissioner of Deeds, City of New York. 
New York County Clerk's No. 144; New 
York County Register's No. 22056. 
Commission Expires April 27, 1922. 





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Second National Conperence op the Social 
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Drama League op America, Third Annual 
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Report op State Field Agent for Adult 
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Comparative Statistics of State Hos- 
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Forbush. Bureau of Statistics, National 
Committee for Mental Hygiene, 370 Fifth 
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A Program for the Statistics of the 
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The United States and the Economic 
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Another Cruise for Survey Readers 

To The Holy Land— The Mediterranean-Egypt 

65 Days of Delightful Cruising for $600 and Up 

Sailing from New York, February 3, 1923 

A year from now you can be sailing back across the Atlantic after 
a delightful two months in the sunshine of the blue Mediterranean. 
You will have escaped the most trying weather of the year at home 
and will be full of energy for a year of hard work. 

The luxurious S. S. Empress of Scotland — the pride of the Canadian Pacific 
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No bother, no worry about any of your travel arrangements. Every 
detail carefully planned ahead for your enjoyment, educational 
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APRIL 8, 1922 

Jt* ■'*■'• 

, v 


" "J 

The Arbitration of Industrial Justice 
By Basil M. Manly 

The Lay of the Land in the Coal Strike 40 

' More about the Klan Edward T. Devine 41 

A Balance Wheel George L. Bell 42 

Gandhi — A Poem ------ Mary Siegrist 43 


In Quest of Romance — New Jersey's Fight on Vice — But Women's 
Toil . . . — Where Social Workers Go Wrong — Three Shifts versus 
Two Shifts — Industrial Relations in Norway 


Public Relief of Unemployment - - - Fred R. Johnson 47 

The New Poor in Germany - - Elisabeth Altmann-Gottheimer, M.D. 48 

Divorce in Denmark — Trends in Social Service 

INDUSTRY: Industrial Hygiene 

A Workers' Health Bureau in Spain - Mary Senior 51 

A Platform for the Industrial Physician - Otto Geier, M.D. 52 

Posture and Fatigue ------- Theresa Wolf son 52 

Industrial Health Laboratories — Rag Towns — Output and Hours 
of Work — Coal Mine Fatalities — Industrial Hygiene News 


15 Cents a Copy $5.00 a Year 



April 8, 1922 



ERS — Miss Ida M. Cannon, pres. ; Social Service Department, Massachu- 
setts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts. Miss Ruth V. Emerson, 
sec'y; National Headquarters, American Red Cross, Washington, D. C. 
Organization to promote development of social work in hospitals and dis- 
pensaries. Annual meeting with National Conference of Social Work. 

AMERICA — Constituted by 30 Protestant denominations. Rev. Chas. S. 
Macfarland, Rev. S. M. Cavert, gen'l. sec'ys.; 105 E. 22 St, New York. 
Commission on the Church and Social Service — Rev. Worth M. Tippy, 
exec, sec'y. ; Rev. F. Ernest Johnson, research sec'y. ; Agnes H. Camp- 
bell, research asa't; Inex M. Cavert, librarian. 

Andrews, sec'y; 131 E. 23rd St, New York. For adequate public employ- 
ment service; industrial safety and health laws; workmen's compensation; 
unemployment, old age and health insurance ; maternity protection ; one 
day's rest in seven; efficient law enforcement Publishes "The American 
Labor Legislation Review." Annual membership, $3.00. 

WORK — Mrs. John M. Glenn, chairman; Francis H. McLean, field director; 
David H. Holbrook, executive director, 130 E. 22d Street, New York. 
Advice in organization problems of family social work societies (Associated 
Charities) in the United States and Canada. 

tional Social Workers' Exchange) — Graham Romeyn Taylor, director, 138 
East 22nd Street, New York City. An organization of professional social 
workers devoted to raising social work standards and requirements. Mem- 
bership open to qualified social worker*. 

TALITY— Gertrude B. Knipp, sec'y; 1211 Cathedral St., Baltimore. Urges 
prenatal, obstetrical and infant care; birth registration; maternal nursing; 
infant welfare consultations; care of children of pre-school age and school 

dent; A. R. Mann, vice president; E. C. Lindeman, executive secretary; 
Nat T. Frame, Morgantown, West Virginia, field secretary. Emphasizes 
the human aspect of country life. Membership $3.00 

Cooper, sec'y; Battle Creek Sanitarium. Battle Creek, Mich. Organized 
for betterment of conditions in home, schools, institutions and 

Publishes Journal of Home Economics. 

1211 Cathedral St., Baltimore, Md. 

AMERICAN PEACE SOCIETY— Founded 1828, labors for an interna- 
tional peace of justice. Its official organ is the Advocate of Peace, $2.00 
a year. Arthur Deerin Call, secretary and editor, 612-614 Colorado Build- 
ing, Washington, D. C. 

AMERICAN PRISON ASSOCIATION— Annual Congress of American 
penologists, criminologists, social workers in delinquency. Next Congress 
Detroit, Michigan, October, 1921. E. R. Cass, general secretary, 135 
East 15 Street, New York City. 

J. Osborne, exec, sec'y.; 35 W. 45th St., New York. To disseminate 
knowledge concerning symptoms, diagnosis, treatment and prevention. 
Publication free on request Annual membership dues, $5. 

Ave., New York. For the conservation of the family, the repression of 
prostitution, the reduction of venereal diseases, and the promotion of sound 
sex education. Information and catalogue of pamphlets upon request 
Annual membership dues, $2. Membership includes quarterly magazine and 
monthly bulletin. William F. Snow, M.D., gen. dir. 

New York. Dr. L. Emmett Holt, chairman; Sally Lucas Jean, director. 
To arouse public interest in the health of school children; to encourage 
the systematic teaching of health in the schools; to develop new methods 
of interesting children in the forming of health habits ; to publish and dis- 
tribute pamphlets for teachers and public health workers and health liter- 
ature for children; to advise in organization of local child health programs. 

CHILD WELFARE LEAGUE OF AMERICA— A league of agencies to 
secure a better understanding of child welfare problems, to improve stand- 
ards and methods in the different fields of work with children and to make 
available in any part of the field the assured results of successful effort 
The League will be glad to consult with any agency, with a view to assist- 
ing it in organizing or reorganizing its children's work. C. C. Carsten s, 
director, 130 E. 22nd St, New York. 

COUNCIL OF JEWISH WOMEN— 305 W. 98th St. New York. Miss 
Rose Brenner, pres.; Mrs. Harry Stemberger, ex. sec'y- Promotes civic 
cooperation, education, religion and social welfare in the United States, 
Canada, Cuba, Europe. 

Department of Immigrant Aid — 799 Broadway, Mrs. S. J. Rosensohn, 

chairman. For the protection and education of immigrant women and 


York City. Joseph Lee, president; H. S. Braucher, secretary. Citizenship 
through right use of leisure. A national civic organization which on request 
helps local communities to work out a leisure tune program. 

EUGENICS REGISTRY— Battle Creek Mich. " Chancellor David Starr 
Jordan, pres.; Dr. J. H. Kellogg, sec'y.; Prof. O. C. Glaser, exec sec'y. 
A public service for knowledge about human inheritances, hereditary in- 
ventory and eugenic possibilities. Literature free. 

HAMPTON INSTITUTE— J. E. Gregg, principal; G. P. Phenix, vice 
pnn.; F. H. Rogers, treas. ; W. H. Scoville, sec'y.; Hampton, Va. Trains 
Indian and Negro youth. Neither a State nor • Government school. Free 
illustrated literature. 

Culbert Faries, dir., 245 E. 23rd St, New York. Maintains free industrial 
training classes and employment bureau; makes artificial limbs and appli- 
ances; publishes literature on work for the handicapped: gives advice on 
suitable means for rehabilitation of disabled persona and cooperates with 
other special agencies in plans to put the disabled man " back on the pay- 

LEAGUE FOR INDUSTRIAL DEMOCRACY (formerly Intercollegiate 
Socialist Society) — Harry W. Laidler, secretary; Room 931, 70 Fifth Avenue, 
New York City. Object — Education for a new social order, based on 
production for use and not for profit. Annual membership, $3.00, $5.00 
and $25.09. Special rates for students. 

ORED PEOPLE— Moorfield Storey, pres. ; James Weldon Johnson, sec'y. ; 
70 Fifth Ave., New York. To secure to colored Americans the common 
rights of American citizenship. Furnishes information regarding race prob- 
lems, lynchings, etc. Membership 90,000, with 350 branches. Member- 
ship, $1 upward. 

SOCIATIONS—COO Lexington Ave., New York. To advance physical, 
social, intellectual, moral and spiritual interests of young women. Main- 
tains National Training; School which offers through its nine months' 
graduate course professional training to women wishing to fit themselves 
for executive positions within the movement Recommendation to posi- 
tions made through Personnel Division, Placement Section. 

Body of the Catholic Organizations of the country. 

National Executive Offices, 1312 Massachusetts Avenue, N.W., Wash- 
ington, D. C 

General Secretary, Rev. John J. Burke, C.S.P. 

Department of Education — Rev. James H. Ryan, Exec. Sec'y. 

Bureau of Education — A. C Monahan, Director. 

Department of Laws and Legislation — William J. Cochran. 

Department of Social Action — Directors, John A. Ryan and John A. Lapp. 

Department of Press and Publicity — Director, Justin MjGrath; Ass t 
Director, Michael Williams. 

National Council of Catholic Men — President Rear-Admiral William S. 
Benson ; Exec. Sec'y., Michael J. Slattery. 

National Council of Catholic Women — President, Mrs. Michael Gavin; 
Exec Sec'y., Miss Agnes G. Regan. 

National Catholic Service School for Women, Washington, D. C. — 
Director, Charles P. Neill; Dean, Miss Maud R. Cavanaugh. 

Bureau of Immigration — National Director, Bruce M. Mohler. 

105 East 22nd St, New York. Industrial, agricultural investigations. 
Works for improved laws and administration ; children's codes. Studies 
health, schools, recreation, dependency, delinquency, etc. Annual member- 
ship, $2, $5, $19, $25 and $100; includes quarterly, "The American Child." 


Powlison, gen. sec'y.; 70 Fifth Ave., New York. Originates and publishes! 
exhibit material which visualizes the principles and conditions affecting thel 
health, well being and education of children. Cooperates with educators.1 
public health agencies, and all child welfare groups in community, city or| 
state-wide service through exhibits, child welfare campaigns, etc. 

Walter B. James, pres. ; Dr. Thomas W. Salmon, med. dir. ; Associate; 
Medical Directors, Dr. Franlcwood E. Williams and Dr. V. V. Anderson; 
Clifford W. Beers, sec'y. ; 370 Seventh Avenue, New York Citv. Pamphlet/ 
on mental hygiene, nervous and mental disorders, feeble-mindednessJ 
epilepsy, inebriety, criminology, war neuroses and re-education, psychiatric* 
social service, backward children, surveys, state societies. Mental 

Hygiene;" quarterly, $2 • year. 

Pres., Boston; W. H. Parker, sec'y., 25 East Ninth Street, Cincinnat 
Ohio. The Conference is an organization to discuss the principles ol 
humanitarian effort and to increase the efficiency of social service agenciesf 
Each year it holds an annual meeting, publishes in permanent form th< 
Proceedings of this meeting, and issues a quarterly Bulletin. The forty-j 
ninth annual meeting, and Conference will be held in Providence, Rhc " 
Island, in June 22-29, 1922. Proceedings are sent free of charge to a ] 
members upon payment of a membership fee of five dollars. 

NESS — Edward M. Van Cleve, managing director; Lewis H. Carri 
field sec'yj Mrs. Winifred Hathaway, sec'y.; 130 E. 22nd St, New \or 
Objects: To furnish information, exhibits, lantern slides, lectures, publu 
literature of movement — samples free, quantities at coat Includes H 
York State Committee. 

Please mention The Sdbvey uhen writing to advertisers 


'pril 8, 1922 



NATIONAL CONSUMERS' LEAGUE— 44 £. 23rd St., New York. 

Mrs. Florence Kelley, gen'l sec'y. Promote! legislation for enlightened 
{Standards for women and minors in industry and for honest products; mini- 
1 mum wage commissions, eight hour day, no night work, federal regulation 

food and packing industries; "honest cloth legislation. Publications 


sec'y. ; 20 Union Park, Boston. Develops broad forms of comparative study 
and concerted action m city, state and nation, for meeting the fundamental 
problems disclosed by settlement work; seeks the higher and more demo- 
cratic organization of neighborhood life. 

THE NATIONAL HEALTH COUNCIL— Livingston Farrand, M. D., 
Chairman; Donald B. Armstrong, M. D., Executive Officer. For the 
study and correlation of national voluntary health activities. Publications 
include Federal and State health Legislative Bulletins, current Library 
Index, and Monthly Digest of news of ten voluntary member agencies 
and one official member; 370 Seventh Ave., New York City, and 411 18th 
Street, N. W., Washington, D. C. 

Member, National Health Council — Anne A. Stevens, R.N., Director, 370 
Seventh Avenue, New York. For development and standardization of 

Kublic health nursing. Maintains library and educational service. Official 
lagazine "Public Health Nurse." 

NATIONAL URBAN LEAGUE — For social service among Negroes. 
L. Hollingsworth Wood, pres. ; Eugene Kinckle Jones, exec, sec'y. ; 127 E. 
23rd St., New York. Establishes committees of white and colored people 
to work out community problems. Trains Negro social workers. 

A. Gordon, president. Headquarters, 1730 Chicago Avenue, Evanston, Illi- 
nois. To secure effective enforcement of the Eighteenth Amendment, to 
advance the welfare of the American people through the departments of 
Child Welfare, Women in Industry, Social Morality, Scientific Temperance 
Instruction, Americanization and other allied fields of endeavor. Official 
publication "The Union Signal," published at Headquarters. 

Robins, pres.; 311 South Ashland Blvd., Chicago, 111. Stands for self- 
government in the work shop through organization and also for the 
enactment of protective legislation. Information given. 

— 1 Madison Avenue, New York City. Joseph Lee, president; H. S. 
Braucher, secretary. Special attention given to organization of year-round 
municipal recreation systems. Information available on playground and 
community center activities and administration. 

sentation for all. C. G. Hoag, sec'y., 1417 Locust St., Philadelphia. 
Membership, $2, entitles to quarterly P. B_ Review. 


Conducted by 

The Appeal to Intelligence 

For a million ages the world has been ruled by force, and 
appetite has grown by what it fed upon — until recently. That 
is to say, for some three thousand years humanity has listened, 
more or less hopefully, to occasional appeals for something 
more permanent than force — sympathy, for example, or 
kindness or love. These appeals have accomplished a little. 
But even the advocates of this type of appeal admit that the 
full sway of sympathy and love implies and involves the re- 
making of human nature. Such remaking, barring accidents, 
implies and involves the use of intelligence. To overcome the 
rule of force we need the development of areas of sympathy 
and love. But if sympathy and love are to rule, we must clear 
the way for them by means of an intelligent remaking of hu- 
man nature and the world of social institutions. Are these 
things impossible? Let us appeal to intelligence. 

1 The Appeal to Unintelligence 

■*■ • What sort of doctrine is being spread in your community on 
the subject of industrial unrest? Of strikes? On social questions, 
in general, today? What are your newspapers saying about the 
coal strike? Whom are they blaming for it? Upon what do they 
base their charges of blame? What are your ministers saying about 
it? Your lawyers? Your teachers? Your leading business men? 
Have you any individuals, or groups, or institutions that are asking 
for investigations in the strike areas? Do any of your newspapers 
call for the application of intelligence to these questions? 

What attitudes are your public officials taking in these matters? 
Are they talking about "taking action"? What sort of action? 
"Drastic" or intelligent action? On which side of this question 
do you find the labor leaders? Do they want unintelligent action, 
or do they want intelligent action? 

the study of the causes of race degeneracy and means of race improve- 
ments. Its chief activities are the Race Betterment Conference, the Eu- 
Senics Registry, and lecture courses and various allied activities. J. H. 
iellogg, pres.; B. N. Colver, iec'y. 

RUSSELL SAGE FOUNDATION— For the Improvement of Living Con- 
ditions — John M. Glenn, dir. ; 130 E. 22nd St., New York. Departments: 
Charity Organization, Child-Helping, Education, Statistics, Recreation, 
Remedial Loans, Surveys and Exhibits, Industrial Studies, Library, South- 
ern Highland Division. The publications of the Russell Sage Foundation 
offer to the public in practical and inexpensive form some of the most 
important results of its work. Catalogue sent upon request. 

TUSKEGEE INSTITUTE — An institution for the training of Negro 
Youth ; an experiment in race adjustment in the Black Belt of the South ; 
furnishes information on all phases of the race problem and on the Tuske- 

See idea and methods. Robert R. Moton, prin. ; Warren Logan, treas. ; 
.. I. Holsey, acting sec'y, Tuskegee, Ala. 

Jr., Sec'y.; 445 West 33rd St. A clearing house for Workers' Education. 


Published weekly and copyright 1922 by Survey Associates, Inc., 
112 East 19 St., New York, a non-commercial cooperative society 
without shares or stockholders, Incorporated under the member- 
ship law of the State of New York, with 1,600 members. Robert 
W. deForest, president ; Henry R. Seager, V. Bverlt Macy, vice- 
presidents ; Arthur P. KeUogg, treasurer ; Ann Reed Brenner, 

Price 15 cents per copy, $5 per year, Canadian and Foreign postage 
65 cents extra. 

Entered as second-class matter, March 25, 1909, at the post office, 
New York, N. Y., under the act of March 3, 1879. Acceptance for 
mailing at a special rate of postage provided for In Section 1103, 
Act of October 3, 1917, authorized on June 26, 1918. 
Volume XLVIII, No. 2. 

2 Institutions That Play Fair 
• Can you get the facts about industrial or political disputes 
in your newspapers? Do they report all sides of a dispute? Do they 
quote labor leaders to the same extent that they quote operators and 
managers? Their political opponents to the same extent as their 
own side? What attitudes do you find in your courts? Are your 
judges impartial? Are your sheriffs and policemen taking sides in 
disputes involving political, economic or religious opinions? Where 
are the sympathies of the governmental officials in the case of strike 
or lockout — with the workers or with the operators? Can an official 
be neutral? Are strikers enemies of the nation? Are you getting 
the facts about industrial disputes? Or are you getting some biased 
account which prevents you from being fair in your judgment? 

3 The Growth of an Intelligent Group 
• Have you any nucleus of liberal opinion in your com- 
munity? Have you a single individual or group of individuals 
ready to demand fair play, whichever side in a dispute is dominant? 
Intelligent understanding of circumstances? Intelligent control of 
conditions in an area of unrest? What standing has such an in- 
dividual or group in your community? Is your community interested 
in getting facts? 


John Dewey. Human Nature and Conduct. Henry Holt & Co. 
Price, $2.25; with postage from the Survey, $2.35. 

Walter Lippmann. Public Opinion. Harcourt, Brace & Co. 
Price, $2.75 ; with postage from the Survey, $2.90. 

James H. Robinson. The Mind in the Making. Harper Bros. 
Price, $2.50 ; with postage from the Survey, $2.70. 

The Survey for March 25. This issue page 44. 

Please mention The Survey when writing to advertiser* 




^JLO^jU Yfyn 

Hcndrik IVillem Van Loon 


The Fordson and the Lizzie keep 

The Pump where Dobbin pondered and drank deep. 

— With Apologies to Omar Khayyam. 



No. 2 


&ne survey 


Robert W. DeForest, President 
Henry R. Seager ) Vice . Presidents 
V. Everit Macy ) 
Arthur P. Kellogg, Treasurer 
Ann Reed Brenner, Secretary 




Bruno Lasker Joseph K. Hart 

S. Adele Shaw Paul L. Benjamin 



In Quest of Romance 

NO more fiction magazines for the worn-out shop girl 
and the tired business man who seek relief from the 
depressing monotony of daily life! They are dull and 
insipid in comparison with the morning's news — "all the news 
that's fit to print " — of the world's return to normalcy. Here, 
for instance, in last Monday's New York Times, are all the 
elements that they could hope to find in best seller or prize 
winner of a short story contest. The day's chronicle begins 
with a woman's claim to a throne — a claim based on ancient 
precedents. A train is held up by masked bandits in approved 
western fashion on the picturesque Hudson line of the New 
York Central. The Washington Square home of a banker 
is ransacked in broad daylight by jewel robbers who hold up 
the servants in a wine cellar. There are French-speaking 
servants, and an apache imported from Paris figures in this 
piece. (Fiction writers have played with this theme and 
milieu for decades!) A legal problem play with a pictur- 
esque background arises from the death of the Siamese twins 
who, conveniently from the fiction writer's point of view, 
have left their money in such a way that the heir must prove 
against towering obstacles that he is descended from one and 
not from the other or from both. A man is murdered during 
a card game. An actress loses a fortune in gems to a thief 
who attacks her as, returning from the theater, she descends 
from the taxicab in front of her house ; and her partner chases 
the thief and regains her treasure. The member of a prom- 
inent family is run over in the street in such a way that, in 
spite of several witnesses, it remains a question whether a 
taxicab or a truck — the latter driven by a Russian — has 
passed over him first. A baby, in beautiful, hand-sewn 
linen, is left with a mother's pathetic note of appeal on 
the doorstep of a prominent citizen. Detectives discover 
opium concealed under loose floor-boards in the apart- 
ment of a rich Chinese in the. heart of Chinatown. Here 
the pretty young white wife of the Chinese figures in 
costly furs as the Queen of Chinatown. " Her word 
is law in the neighborhood." There are airmen in 
alpme storms, truant boys from an orphan asylum rescued 
from a watery grave in the Hudson, a rector held up by a 
homicidal madman, the guests of a fashionable hotel routed 
from their beds by poisonous gas, a man hidden at the bot- 
tom of an automobile to kill his wife, a League of Women 
Victims of Men is organized for mysterious purposes, an 
open safe found in a cemetery, a girl at a studio dance hurt 
by a poisoned African spear — but these are minor incidents 
in the happenings of a quiet and " so depressingly monot- 
onous " day since the return of normalcy. No wonder 
that a national coal strike in which half a million miners 
quit work without the slightest violence received but a sin- 
gle column of reporting on the front page. 

New Jersey's Fight on Vice 

THE vice repressive act, passed by the session of the 
New Jersey legislature just ended, was modeled on 
the federal standard law, which has been adopted by 
various states in the East, including Ohio, Maryland, Del- 
aware, Connecticut, Maine, New Hampshire and Vermont. 
In its concrete language this law may be readily understood 
by every one, including its violators, and it will serve to 
guide police officials as well as members of the Grand Jury. 
Its distinctive features are: 

1. It punishes exploiters of vice as well as common prostitutes, 
both male and female; 

2. It strikes at the go-between, including the "For Hire" auto- 

3. It makes both sexes equally guilty and/punishable; 

4. It makes no distinction between prostitution for hire or 
prostitution without hire. 

The need for such an act has been especially felt in New 
Jersey, where an Injunction and Abatement Act, passed 
largely through the efforts of women's organizations, has 
been declared unconstitutional. A recent vice crusade in 
Camden disclosed the necessity of checking in some way the 
taxi-cab assignations which flourish in the vicinity of the 
Philadelphia ferries. No existing law touched that situa- 
tion. It is hoped by the federal authorities that the area 
surrounding Camp Dix, in Burlington County, may be 
cleaned up under the new statute, and that test cases will 
be made before present interest grows cold. Henrietta 
Additon and Roy C. Risley, for the Interdepartmental 
Board of Social Hygiene, advocated the new measure at 
Trenton. The bill had a rather stormy career, and almost 
grounded on the rocks at the last. 

But Women's Toil . . . 

THE New Jersey law-makers were less kind to the no- 
night-work-for-women bill, an act presented in vain for 
several years at the instigation of the Consumers' 
League. This year there was more hope of its passage, as the 
platforms of both political parties carried planks concerning 
women's night work, and the governor's message also 
favored legislation on this matter. The Democratic plat- 
form went on record for " prohibition of night work for 
women in factories between the hours of 10 p. m. and 
6 A. M." The Republican Party, which was largely in the 
majority in this year's legislature, pledged itself to legisla- 
tion " limiting night work for women in industries whose 
continuance and service is not dependent upon a twenty- 
four-hour schedule." 

As introduced, the bill, which was to take effect immedi- 
ately, prohibited work for women in any manufacturing 
establishment, bakery or laundry before 6 a. m. or after 




April 8, 192 

10 P. M. It was forced through the House after its sponsors 
had refused two proposed amendments, one to permit the 
commissioner of labor to make exceptions in favor of indus- 
tries demonstrating the necessity for women's night work, 
and another delaying the effect of the law for a period of 
some months, so that both employers and employes might 
find time to adjust themselves to the new regime. In the 
Senate the bill was referred to the Committee on Labor, 
Industries and Social Welfare, whose chairman was Senator 
Horace M. Fooder, of Gloucester County, where, he said, 
" women are congenially employed at night doing light 
work in the glass factories." The bill was vigorously 
opposed, not only from that county, but also by the big tex- 
tile mills of Passaic and other counties. Senator Fooder, 
backed by a good percentage of the other twenty senators, 
refused to report the bill, and it died in committee. 

The Manufacturers' Association for New Jersey main- 
tained a powerful lobby. It gained its point, though it 
had a harder fight than ever before. New Jersey elects a 
governor next year, and it has been alleged that the politi- 
cians hesitated especially at this time to go on record against 
some of their most influential supporters. 

Where Social Workers Go Wrong 

EVEN social workers have faults. 
The members of the Monday Evening Club of Bos- 
ton are frankly trying to find out what their faults may 
be. For two monthly meetings they have invited criticism 
of social work methods and the social worker's attitude. 

The critics have been: a professor of sociology, an editor 
of a religious journal, a business man and a trade unionist. 
The professor said, " Read more." The editor said, " More 
discipline." The business man said, " Have facts and 
faith." The trade unionist said, " Form a union." 

" In order to have the proper perspective," said the pro- 
fessor, " social workers should have the proper background. 
They should read, constantly and systematically, the leading 
books in their field. There are certain books which should 
be part of every social worker's equipment." He recom- 
mended the following: 

Trend of the Race, by Holmes. 
Human Behavior, by Paton. 
Human Traits, by Edman. 
Mind in the Making, by Robinson. 
Principles of Sociology, by Ross. 
Social Adaptation, by Bristol. 

The editor said : " Not enthusiasm for humanity but the 
disciplining of humanity is the chief task for social workers." 

" Social workers," said Mr. Business Man, " must not 
worry about the insecurity of their jobs or the insecurity 
of their organizations. Leave that to the treasurer. In- 
stead, they must be cheerful; they must be proud of their 
work. They must, if they would have the moral and finan- 
cial support of the business man, know their facts and be 
able to make a specific report of what they have accom- 
plished and what remains to be done. Nothing so antag- 
onizes a business man as a whining appeal for funds." 

The trade unionist, when asked why he would have social 
workers form a union, replied, " So that they can demand 
a living wage " (heavy applause) " and, so that they can 
have the right to strike to get that wage." He doubted, 
however, if any group of social workers would have the 
courage to form a union, because of the financial support 
which they receive from employers of labor. He criticized 
the tactlessness with which case work is frequently done, 
and stated that the worker too often fails to consider the 
pride of the man or woman who is being helped. As an 
example, he cited the social worker who at union headquar- 
ters requested information about a man's strike benefits. 
The striker bitterly resented having his appeal for help thus 

betrayed to his union leader whose respect he wished tc 
keep. " Social w r orkers ask too many questions. What s 
man wants is food and fuel, not a cross-examination." 

One of the critics predicted that the members of the Mon- 
day Evening Club would resent the things that were said 
about them. He was wrong. 

Three Shifts versus Two Shifts 

IT was just a year ago that Elbert H. Gary, chairman of 
the board of directors of the United States Steel Corpora- 
tion, speaking before the annual meeting of the stock- 
holders on the Principles and Policies of the Corporation, 
announced that the seven-day week had been discontinued 
by " each and all " of the subsidiary companies. He added: 

The officers of the Corporation, the presidents of the subsidiary 
companies and a majority of others in positions of responsibility 
are in favor of abolishing the twelve-hour day, and for this reason 
and because of the public sentiment referred to it is our endeavor 
and expectation to decrease the working hours — we hope in the 
comparatively near future. 

Many within the steel industry took the statement to 
mean that experiments would be made at once with three 
shifts in continuous processes and with the shorter day in 
other departments of the industry. What progress has been 
made in the intervening twelve months will, it is antici- 
pated, be announced by Judge Gary at the 1922 meeting of 
stockholders to be held April 17. It is understood that the 
American Steel and Wire Company, a subsidiary, has virtu- 
ally all departments on eight hours, that the Carnegie Steel 
Company's mills at Homestead have gone on two shifts of 
ten hours each, and that experiments in three shifts are being 
made at the Duquesne mills of the same company. 

The important question is whether the steps that have been 
taken are merely emergency measures resorted to to spread 
labor during the time of depression in order that the working 
forces may be held together, or whether they are part of a 
permanent policy directed toward the elimination of the long 
day which will stand up under the crucial periods of heavy 
production and shortage of labor. Perhaps Judge Gary will 
clear up this point. 

Meanwhile, the Committee on Work Periods in Continu- 
ous Industries of the American Engineering Council an- 
nounces on the point of completion a survey of the forty or 
fifty continuous industries which represented, in the period 
preceding the depression, between 590,000 and 1,000,000 
workers, about 300,000 of whom were on twelve-hour shifts, 
half of them in the steel industry. Horace B. Drury, investi- 
gator for the Cabot Fund study of Three Shifts in Steel 
carried on in 1920-192 1 [see the Survey for March 5, 
192 1 ], has made the study for the engineers. 

Labor efficiency, the engineers found, is higher with three 
shifts of eight hours each than with two twelve-hour shifts. 
Results that have followed the substitution of three shifts for 
two shifts have varied greatly from plant to plant. Where 
efficiency has not resulted from the change it has been put 
down to the unsettled and unfavorable labor conditions of 
the past two years. Even so, the report states, the increase 
in cost due to three shifts has not apparently been large 
enough to be a serious handicap in competition. It says: 

Three-shift plants have maintained themselves in the same mar- 
kets with two-shift plants. And even during the very serious de- 
pression of 1920 and 1921, and the strong temptation and tendency 
to link reduced wage rates with lengthened hours, very few plants 
have gone back from eight-hour to twelve-hour shifts. . . . 

Taking the continuous plants as a whole, the long run — as op- 
posed to the immediate effect of going to three shifts — will prob- 
ably be a substantial increase in labor efficiency; but not so great 
an increase in efficiency — barring exceptional plants — as to permit 
the paying of as high weekly wages as men would receive for 
twelve-hour work, without increasing costs. But it would be pos- 
sible, without increasing costs, to pay the men a weekly wage 
which, once they had become used to the eight-hour shift, thev 
would much prefer to the alternative of a twelve-hour day and 
twelve-hour wage. 



<>ril 8, 1922 



y \l The committee further announces an engineering study 
, bf the problems of installation of the three-shift system in 
e steel industry to be undertaken by Stoughton Cooley, 
nsulting engineer of New York city. 

Industrial Relations in Norway 

<f~T\ HIRTY THOUSAND workingmen in Norway, dis- 
/ tributed over one hundred and twenty-three plants, 

- I are represented on committees with important functions 

( of management. A temporary law for the legal establish- 
] ments of such committees was passed in the summer of 1920 
I and was enforced without delay. It applies to private and 
public concerns regularly employing at least fifty wage-earners 
over eighteen years of age. The committees are elected each 
year by the employes over eighteen who may choose from 
two to ten representatives over twenty-one years old, prefer- 
ably among those employed for at least two years. The em- 
ployer, under this law, is obliged to seek the opinion of this 
committee before deciding on any question involving: 

Essential changes in the policies which concern labor conditions; 
General arrangements as regards wages, tariff agreements, work- 

ing hours, vacations and other conditions of employment, arrange- 
ment of labor under limited operation — unless agreement has been 
reached by direct negotiations between the employer and the em- 
ployes in question ; 

Working regulations and changes in them; 

Establishment or management of welfare services for the benefit 
of employes, including sick funds, savings institutions, houses for 
employes, etc. 

Further, the committee is entitled to arbitrate in disputes 
in which an employe is involved and which concern labor 
conditions or the dismissal of an employe. The committee, if 
required by one of the parties, is obliged to start arbitration 

Particulars concerning this law are contained in a hand- 
book recently issued by the Department of Sociology of the 
Norwegian government which gives an outline of all the 
social laws of the country in operation at the end of 1921. 
Among these are the renowned Castberg children's inherit- 
ance law and the widely discussed prohibition laws which 
put a ban on all sale of liquor containing more than 14 per 
cent of alcohol. The handbook, edited by G. Wiesener, may 
be had free of charge by application to the official press repre- 
sentative at the Norwegian legation, Washington. 


AT the annual meeting of the Inter- 
■* national League of Red Cross So- 
cieties in Geneva, end of last month, 
the American Red Cross, according to 
cabled news, made a strong demand 
that other nations give more adequate 
support to the maintenance of the in- 
ternational organization, about seven- 
eighths of which, amounting to a mil- 
lion and a quarter dollars in the last 
three years, it has hitherto contributed. 
An article in the latest issue of the In- 
ternational Revue of the Red Cross, 
from which the accompanying illustra- 
tion is reproduced, gives some interest- 
ing details of the methods by which the 
different national Red Cross societies 
finance their work. The French gov- 
ernment was the first to issue a special 
10 centimes Red Cross stamp with a 
five centimes surcharge. Over two mil- 
lion of these stamps were sold following 
their first issue in 1914. Later a spe- 
cial stamp was issued of which over 
thirty-three million were printed; and 
a larger stamp of the same imprint was 
issued in 1918. The Revue reprints 
about forty such special stamps which, 
ho doubt, will have an increasing scar- 
city value for philatelists, ranging as 
they do from issues by some of the great 
poivers to those of Tahiti, Tunis, 
Lourenzo-Marquez, Monaco, Lettonia 
and Martinique 



April 8, I92 J 
From the United States Geological Survey 

The Lay of the Land in the Coal Strike 

NATIONAL elections come around often enough 
so that most of us are sufficiently politically wise 
every four years to follow the election returns on 
the night of the first Tuesday after the first Mon- 
day in November. We do not get a thrill when Alabama 
mounts up a Democratic majority and Pennsylvania goes 
Republican. Those things are to be expected. The real news 
lies in the doubtful states. Old hands in newspaper offices 
in New York, Chicago, Detroit, Indianapolis and other cen- 
ters tot up the returns from county and city wards with equal 
discrimination and give us the state bulletins. 

In the economic field, when a great strike is on, the layman 
lacks such general clues to the situation; there are few in- 
dustrial experts in the newspaper offices; things move more 
slowly; a strike decision may be a matter of weeks, and not 
of hours. 

The coal strike bulletins in the daily press this month will 
be more understandable if we bear in mind the general lay 
of the producing fields of the United States and distinguish 
between the union, the partly organized and the non-union 

The crisis this spring is unique in that the men in both an- 
thracite and bituminous areas are out ; we are dealing with a 
national situation; but none the less it is necessary first of 
all to distinguish sharply between the two branches of the 
industry. This can be done parenthetically in a paragraph 
which will recapitulate points brought out in the special coal 
number of the Survey, for March 25. The anthracite in- 
dustry is confined to an area of 480 square miles in eastern 
Pennsylvania. Operators and men are both highly organized. 
They have been negotiating since March, and failing to 
reach an agreement by April 1, all of the hard coal mines 
are closed down under what is technically known as a 
suspension. Soft coal mining, on the other hand, is a great 

sprawling industry scattered in irregular patches over the 
458,000 square miles of land that is underlain by bituminous 
coal or lignite. The mines are developed to a capacity of 
at least 200,000,000 tons a year in excess of the country's re- 
quirements, and of the 600,000 workers at least 150,000 
could be released for other useful work if those remaining 
should be employed full time. 

With so great a capacity for overproduction, the bitumi- 
nous industry is intensely competitive. The competition is 
affected by quality of coal, by freight rates, by labor policy. 
So conflicting are the currents of interest between the lake 
shippers and those of Illinois, between long-haul and short- 
haul coal, and between union and non-union operation, that 
it is difficult to unite the trade on any national policy. It can 
be rallied to oppose federal regulation, but not on other mat- 
ters; and while taking the offensive in the present strike 
situation, the operators none the less present a divided front. 

What of the miners? The heart of the union strength is 
the great central competitive field, extending from the Pitts- 
burgh district west to Illinois, 100 per cent organized, with 
the traditions of unionism held as tenaciously as many a re- 
ligious belief. North and south of the central competitive 
field are its appendages, Michigan and the union half of 
western Kentucky. In the councils of the central competi- 
tive field the strongest single voice is the district leader of 
Illinois, for Illinois is " no per cent organized " and has a 
membership double that of any other district. Its revenues 
compare not unfavorably with those of the international or- 
ganization, and the cash in its treasury is one of the largest 
items in the assets of the mine workers. West of the Missis- 
sippi, in the prairie states from Iowa to the bituminous dis- 
trict of northern Texas, lies another stronghold of unionism. 
Its center is the Pittsburgh field of Kansas, long dominated 
by the personality of " Aleck " Howat. The northern states 


pril 8, 1922 



t the Rocky Mountains and Pacific Coast region, conspic- 

\ jous on the map but unimportant in production, were until 

cently solidly organized. The lignite areas of the Dakotas 

jnd Texas have not been organized, apparently because the 

uperior coal of the bituminous mines had little to fear from 

heir competition. 
East of the central competitive field lies the district of 

:entral Pennsylvania, also organized, second in numerical 

trength and less influential in the councils of the union than 
the districts of the central field. Around this center of union- 
ism the non-union fields lie in a broken crescent. The east- 
ern horn of the crescent thrusts north into Pennsylvania. 
There the Somerset, Irwin gas, and Connellsville coke dis- 
' tricts have long resisted organization. Years ago there was 
a union in the Connellsville region, but in 1891 it was 
worsted by the operators under the leadership of H. C. Frick, 
who later broke the steel workers' union in the Homestead 
strike and whose anti-union policy has prevailed in the steel 
industry since and in the mining territory subsidiary to the 
United States Steel Corporation. From Connellsville the 
non-union fields swing south along the Appalachians through 
West Virginia, eastern Kentucky and Tennessee down into 
Alabama. From there let your eye travel westward, if you 
will, and pick up the crescent in eastern Texas, and trace it 

(with breaks) through New Mexico and southern Colorado 
and up into Utah. With the opening of part of Washington 
on an open-shop basis last summer, the western horn of the 
crescent has now been carried to Puget Sound. 

Into this crescent the union organizers had made little 
headway prior to the war. They had penetrated the most 
accessible of the valleys of West Virginia — that of Kanawha 
River — and had established outposts in the Cabin Creek and 
adjacent fields. The Georges Creek field of Maryland was 
partly organized, and the union claimed members in certain 
other parts of West Virginia and in Alabama. 

In the period of prosperity and high prices that began in 
1916 and continued through 1920, the United Mine Work- 
ers made rapid progress. The operators of northern West 
Virginia signed a contract that included the check-off. The 
entire length of Kanawha and New rivers was organized. The 
by-product coal fields of Harlan and the Elkhorn in eastern 
Kentucky were partly organized, and in southeastern Ken- 
tucky and Tennessee a contract was accepted after a six 
weeks' strike in the summer of 191 7. Enough members were 
enrolled in Alabama to tie up half the capacity of that field 
in the first week of the strike of 19 19. In this work of or- 
ganization the union was assisted by the conciliatory attitude 
of the federal government which desired, above everything 
else, to prevent strikes and to maintain production. The last 
stroke in the campaign of organization was the effort to pen- 
etrate the Valley of Tug River, served by the Norfolk & 
Western Railway, out of which grew the recent trouble in 
Mingo and Logan counties, West Virginia. 

At the zenith of its power, in the strike of 19 19, the union 
could shut down mines representing 72 per cent of the out- 
put of the country. Since the depression it has lost ground, 
and close observers estimated that the general strike call of 
April would probably not close more than from 60 to 65 
per cent of the mines — depending upon what happens in dis- 
tricts like New River, southeastern Kentucky and Colorado, 
which had already accepted a wage reduction. 

The union that has built up this remarkable structure is 
the largest in numbers in the United States and one of the 
most successful. Its system of negotiating and carrying out 
two-year contracts is unique, and on the whole its record is 
distinctly creditable. Its success is due partly to the funda- 
mental " organizability " of the occupation of coal mining. 
Sixty per cent of the workers are paid by a complicated sys- 
tem of piece rates that offers many opportunities for dis- 
agreement between manager and employes. In such an indus- 
try the trade-union idea, as a mode of mutual protection, 

finds congenial soil. Another strong element is the type 
of practical leadership the miners have developed. With 
one exception all the district and national officers are men 
who have worked in the mines and risen from the ranks. 

From this general description of the mine fields from the 
standpoint of organization certain facts stand out. The first, 
of these is the completeness of the segregation of union an^ 
non-union mines, a condition all but unique in American ir. st 
dustry. In the building trades, for example, union and nonj 
union or open-shop establishments are often to be found side, 
by side in the community. Not so with soft coal. In dis-. 
tricts where the check-off is in force, every man in every 
mine is a paid-up member of the union. The reverse may 
be true in a non-union field. 

A second fact is the sharp line of cleavage between the 
territory north and south of the Ohio and Potomac. With 
the exception of the three districts centering about the Con- 
nellsville coke region, all the fields north of these rivers are 
unionized; until recently nearly all the fields south of the 
rivers were non-union. The difference is partly of physi- 
cal geography, partly one of civilization. In the open coun- 
try of the North and West, where the surface of the land 
was owned by farmers, freedom of speech and assembly was 
more secure, and the opposition of the mine owners availed 
little to prevent the spread of the gospel of trade unionism. 
In the mountains of West Virginia, eastern Kentucky, and 
the southern Appalachians all the land is owned by the min- 
ing companies, communications are difficult, and operators 
have found it possible for years to check the growth of union 
ideas. Moreover, in the North and West the spread of trade 
unions in other businesses would alone have made their entry 
into the mines inevitable. In the South, with no other com- 
peting business and with a backward wage-earning popula- 
tion, the task of organization is much more difficult. 

Fortunately for the success of the union propaganda the 
coal fields of the North and West were closest to the consum- 
ing markets. The heavy movements of coal are north and 
east ; or north and west across the Ohio to Detroit, Chicago, 
St. Louis, and beyond. No coal moves in the opposite di- 
rections because none is wanted. In like manner the unionized 
anthracite field and the bituminous district of central Penn- 
sylvania lie closer to the markets of New York and New 
England than their non-union competitors to the south. This 
marginal advantage of position enjoyed by the northern op- 
erators has been pushed to the limit by the union in its strug- 
gle to force up wages. Conversely the ability of the southern 
operators to reach the northern markets has rested in part on 
their ability to keep wages low. The operators of West Vir- 
ginia and Kentucky, however, have enjoyed other important 
advantages besides a flexible wage scale. They have paid 
low freight rates per ton-mile, and some of them produce a 
coal superior to any mined in union fields. Increasingly, as 
the strike goes on, this territory will be seen to be the' ful- 
crum on which many of the largest factors in the situation 

A Balance Wheel 

SAN FRANCISCO, through its recently created In- 
dustrial Association, is attempting an interesting ex- 
periment in the field of industrial relations. The asso- 
ciation sprang up last July during a bitterly contested 
industrial struggle in the building trades. This struggle 
was precipitated by the repudiation of the award of a perm- 
anent arbitration board for the building industry which had 
been jointly created through an agreement signed by the 
Builders' Exchange representing the employers, and the 
Building Trades' Council representing the employes, and 
which was to handle all disputes arising in the building 

When the men refused to return to work under the re- 


April 8, i J 

duction of 7^ per cent in wages decreed by the board, and 
when, a month later, in consequence of this step, the Build- 
ers' Exchange decided to abandon the closed shop principle 
in conducting building operations, the Industrial Association 
was formed by the Industrial Committee of the Chamber 
of Commerce to stabilize the situation and to conserve the 
nterests of the general public. 

The association first pledged itself to compel the building 
contractors to maintain the scale established on the basis 
of the award of the Arbitration Board. It also guaranteed 
to the workers the maintenance of an eight-hour day, 5^2- 
day week, time and a half penalties for week day over-time, 
and double time penalties for Sundays and holidays. On 
the other hand, it insisted on the elimination of all arbi- 
trary jurisdictional regulations which hampered the build- 
ing industry and of those practices which tended to restrict 
output and which were prejudicial to the interests of the 

While the association has not confined its efforts to the 
building industry, most of its activities to date have been 
in that field. Among its constructive undertakings, under 
way or contemplated, the following are the most significant : 
organization of apprentice training schools in certain build- 
ing crafts, such as plasterers' and plumbers'; the bringing 
about of reductions in prices of many building materials as 
the result of conferences with material men ; the creation of 
a procedure by which it is hoped employment in the building 
industry may be more nearly stabilized through registration 
of contracts and through planning and scheduling of work; 
the creation of an Impartial Wage Board of three prom- 
inent citizens and presided over by Archbishop Edward J. 
Hanna. This board held some twenty public hearings at 
which union officials, individual workers, employers and 
representatives of the public submitted evidence, and made 
a detailed survey of the existing industrial relations in all 
the important industries of the community. It rendered a 
new award for the building industry upon the expiration 
of the original temporary award of the first arbitration — 
an award which the association has pledged itself to main- 
tain for the calendar year 1922. 

The association is not antagonistic to organized labor. In 
fact, its staff is daily hearing complaints from the business 
agents of the several crafts in the building trades, and is 
working in consultation with representatives of organized 
labor on current problems. It takes the position that it is 
necessary for some impartial organization, with a construc- 
tive program, to represent the public in the industrial field 
and to prevent the development of unsound conditions under 
which either employers or employes can jeopardize the 
industrial welfare and security of the entire community. 

George L. Bell. 

More About the Klan 

SINCE spending a week in a town in Texas and shar- 
ing some of its impressions with the Survey [April 
I, p. 10], I have been hearing more about the Ku 
Klux Klan in Texas towns and in Louisiana, 
Arkansas, and Oklahoma. I still have no desire to white- 
wash its white robes — or to expose its already frequently 
exposed dark secrets. I have a feeling, however, that an un- 
prejudiced report of what representative people in this south- 
western country have to say about it may have interest for 
open-minded students of current social phenomena. 

I notice that there is rather more anti-Catholic sentiment 
in the complex than appeared to be the case in the first com- 
munity studied. Southwestern Baptists, Methodists, and 
other Protestants seem very generally to believe that there 
is a Roman Catholic menace to American institutions. A 
feeling which is chronic in the Masonic lodges, among the 
few socialists, and in many who are neither but who have 
a deeply ingrained denominational bias, flares into acute ex- 

22 _ 

pression in the new secret and masked order. Professors ii 
state university, men whose testimony would be regards 
anywhere as wholly trustworthy, tell me of a school print! 
pal in an important town who is losing his position, undj 
Ku Klux pressure, simply because he gratefully accepted til 
financial cooperation of the Knights of Columbus in coi 
tinuing certain public school evening courses for which thei 
was temporarily no appropriation. His own Protestantisi 
was unimpeached, and his qualifications in other respects un 
questioned ; but because he had dealings with a Catholic bodj 
he is driven unceremoniously from the public service. Ir 
two other states university men assured me the same thing 
might happen, probably would happen, in their own towns 
That the Ku Klux Klan capitalizes and exploits this wide- 1 
spread feeling is not so important as that it is there to be 
exploited; and to the searcher of causes the latter fact is of 
less significance than the reasons for it ; but into these we can- 
not here enter. I notice in the daily press that a southern 
Catholic bishop, without referring to the Ku Klux Klan, 
gives warning that a new wave of anti-Catholic feeling is 
arising. It is better to minimize than to exaggerate such 
emotional waves in public opinion, but it is not sensible to 
ignore them. 

On the other hand, further evidence confirms my first im- 
pressions that the Ku Klux movement hereabouts is not con- 
spicuously anti-Negro. The few Negroes with whom I have 
had an opportunity to talk are not greatly disturbed by it 
as far as the security of their own people is concerned. They 
say, as others do, that it is mainly an anti-bootlegging and 
anti-home-breaking organization, as far as they can see. Some 
of them would apparently even appeal to it for protection in 
case of a white sexual offender who tried to assault a respect- 
able colored girl. One Negro told me of threats made to 
colored porters of disorderly houses in which both inmates 
and patrons were white — warnings by the Klan in due form 
that they must get out of the disreputable business. I hear of 
one case in which a white prisoner was taken from the sheriff 
and lynched — by mistake. The crowd thought that it was a 
colored sex offender. The white prisoner was under arrest 
merely for having resisted an officer in connection with some 
minor difficulty. My informant believed that the lynching 
had been planned by the Ku Klux Klan. However that may 
be, apologies were offered to the widow, and the lawless up- 
holders of law satisfied their law-abiding conscience with the 
reflection that if the man had not been in the hands of the 
law the accident would not have happened. We must re- 
member that there have been other tragedies in which the 
public officials responsible have had no more valid consolation. 
Everywhere I hear, as I heard in my first Texas town, that 
" the best people " are among the Klansmen. It is a favorite 
stunt to parade in robes through the church aisles at the Sun- 
day evening service, leaving a contribution with some officially 
endorsed message. One preacher told me of such a visit in 
his church on the previous Sunday. The leader, in sepulchral 
voice — no other voice would have been so appropriate, of 
course, or so good a disguise — demanded of the minister 
whether he would read a letter the speaker held out to him. 
He would. He would have read the papal encyclical on labor 
or the shorter catechism, if so requested, though not familiar 
with either. The letter was the usual warning to evildoers, 
especially to violators of the Eighth Commandment and the 
Eighteenth Amendment; or, in more familiar language, 
homebreakers and bootleggers. Very likely the warning was 
more effective than those ordinarily heard in the course of 
the regular sermons of priests, rabbis, and clergymen. Mem- 
bers of the congregation knew that the county judge, the 
district attorney, the sheriff, members of the grand jury, 
might well be among those masked and white-robed march- 
ers. What they threatened through the unsteady voice of 
the young preacher they could in all probability execute 
through the ordinary channels of justice. It was uncanny; 
and it was no joke. 

April 8, 1922 THE SURVEY 43 

The relation between this unofficial but not unrepresenta- dents and professors, officers of civic clubs both for men and 

tive secret order and the authorities is suggested by resolutions for women, editors, lawyers, bankers and physicians, teachers 

published in the Dallas News on the day this is written. In and social workers. With the one exception all have taken 

the Mexia oil fields martial law has been in operation for pains to make it clear that they are not members, though sev- 

forty-seven days. On the day it ended the Mexia Ku Klux eral of them have expressed strong sympathy with the pur- 

Klan, No. 47 Realm of Texas, at a meeting held " somewhere poses of the Klan and some had given serious consideration 

in Mexia," endorsed the action of the governor of Texas in to an invitation to join. What has deterred them in the last 

establishing martial law and deplored the conditions which analysis is the mask, and the resort to what are politely called 

made this act necessary; approved and endorsed a plan sug- "extra-legal methods of upholding law and order" when 

gested by the commanding general " whereby we hope to re- the ordinary processes do not avail, or are not sufficiently 

gain and maintain our former position as a law-abiding peo- prompt and drastic. Those who defend the Klan insist that 

pie in the eyes of the world " ; and pledged their united efforts it does not often use such methods. Others say that without 

as an organization — " and our numbers are legion " — in up- the terrorizing of lynch-law in the background the whole 

holding the dignity of the law. Thus far the resolutions are movement would collapse, losing both its " moral " effect 

such as might be expected from any patriotic and law-abiding and its peculiar attraction to the large body of easy habitual 

body. The fourth paragraph reads as follows: " joiners " who make up most of its membership. Of course, 

We hereby serve notice on the lawless element of our population the commissions to be made by selling memberships must not 

that because of the withdrawal of the state constabulary forces, we be overlooked. The most conscientious Kleagle, failing to 

will not countenance any of the acts of lawlessness and violence secure the adhesion of the best minds, might be tempted to 

that was so prevalent jn our midst sixty days ago. If your acts are , i u ^ c • 1 ■ j • • 

such as merit court action we will see that you are carried to court. turn to the second-best, the financial inducement remaining 

// the courts cannot handle your case or will not do so, tve •will the same. But, again I plead, this is not another exposure, 

handle it ourselves in our oivn <way. but only an attempt at an objective account of how some 

If the last sentence is not in italics in the original it is respectable people, who may be assumed to be representative, 

only because it is unnecessary. It is the significant part of feel about a movement which is curious enough and influ- 

the message. ential enough to deserve further study. 

Notwithstanding the repeated assurance that " the best The most curious fact of all perhaps is that the sustained 

-oeople " join, it may not be entirely without significance that hostility of widely read and influential newspapers does not 

*n fact only one of all the " best people " whom I have hap- succeed in discrediting it, but seems rather to aid in propagat- 

pened to meet appears actually to have done so. I have talked ing it. The southwestern American may not be as unlike the 

with judges and other officials, college and university presi- Bostonian as he thinks he is. Edward T. Devine. 


WHO is it walks across the world today? 
A Christ or Buddha on the common way — 
This man of peace through whom all India draws 
Breathlessly near to the eternal will? 
Hush, what if on our earth is born again 
A leader who shall conquer by the sign 
Of one who went strange ways in Nazareth? 

Who is it sits within his prison cell 

The while his spirit goes astride the world? 

This age-fulfilling one through whom speak out 

The Vedas and Upanishads — who went 

Naked and hungry forth to find the place 

Where human woe is deepest and to feel 

The bitterest grief of India's tragic land? 

Whose is this peace that challenges a world, 

That calls divine resistance to a will 

No man upholds? Whose is this voice 

Through whom the Orient comes articulate? 

Whose love is this that is an unsheathed sword 

To pierce the body of hypocrisy? 

Whose silence this that calls across the world? 

In this strange leader are all races met; 
In his heart East and West are one immortally; 
Through him love sounds her clarion endlessly 
To millions prostrate who have lain age-long 
Beneath the oppressor's heel — unwearied saint 
Who gives them back the ancient memory 
Of a great dawn, a lost inheritance. 

* * * * 
In his deep prison there in India 
Somehow abreast with sun and sky he waits. if again a Christ is crucified 

By some reluctant Pilate — if again 
The blind enact their old Gethsemane? 

* * * * 
Tread softly, world, perhaps a Christ leads on 
Today in India. 

Mary Siegrist. 

Arbitration and Industrial Justice 

By Basil M. Manly 


SEVERAL years of intimate experience with arbitra- 
tion boards have convinced me that arbitration cannot 
and will not produce industrial justice. This is true 
regardless of how the board is constituted, what code 
of principles it may adopt, and what plan of procedure it 
may follow. Under present conditions, industrial arbitration 
is a game in which the cards are all stacked for one side, 
and in which there is hardly more than one chance in ten 
for labor to secure even an approximation to justice. 

The same factors which render arbitrations unfair to 
labor also make remote the chances of achieving justice by 
strikes. Labor is merely confronted by a choice of evils and 
has traditionally chosen the peaceful method wherever it 
was possible to secure a fair chance of impartial settlement. 
Organized labor, as a rule, has not opposed arbitration as 
a method of settling industrial disputes except in its com- 
pulsory forms, but it greatly prefers joint conferences, with 
mediation and conciliation as the means of compromising 
differences. Until quite recently employers' associations 
were so hostile to arbitration that the slogan "We have 
nothing to arbitrate " became almost a stereotyped formula. 
Even now it may be noted that the employers demand arbi- 
tration only in those industries where labor is strongly 
organized. There is no demand for its application to the 
steel and other great anti-union industries. The recent 
shift in the opinion of organized labor to suspicion of all 
forms of arbitration has been created primarily by the drive 
to secure compulsory arbitration. Labor does not draw nice 

The opposition of organized labor to compulsory arbitra- 
tion arises from its opposition to coercion by government. 
The case for this opposition is strong even when it is so 
limited, but it is conclusive if it can be shown that under 
existing conditions arbitration is unjust and inequitable. To 
compel men by law to submit to fair and impartial processes 
may be perhaps justified even though it smacks of autocracy, 
but to compel them to submit to unfair processes is tyranny. 

The Advantages of Possession 

The inequity of arbitration as a method of settling indus- 
trial disputes arises primarily out of the inequality in the 
relative positions of the two contestants. The degree of 
this inequality is forcefully expressed in the old adage, 
" possession is nine points of the law." 

In arbitration proceedings the employer always occupies 
the position of the possessor. He has control of the plants. 
He makes up the pay-roll. All changes in working condi- 
tions are made upon his orders. The employer, indeed, not 
only has all this advantage, but also the added one that 
with a little dexterity he can so control matters that the 
burden of proof falls on labor. If it is a period of advancing 
prices, labor must prove it before a decision will be rendered 
directing the employer to raise wages; in a period of falling 
prices the employer, possessing the power of initiative, reduces 
wages, and labor must again assume the burden of proof in 
order to prevent the wage cut. 

Possession also gives the employer an advantage in that 
he has control of all or a large part of the valid evidence. 
Either he or his fellow employers normally have possession 
of substantially all the provable facts upon which the arbitra- 
tion turns. The employers have possession of the pay-rolls 
in the particular establishment or industry, and in the other 
industries used for purposes of comparison. These they 
produce if they can be made to fit their own contentions 
and withhold if they are prejudicial to their case. Their 
fellow employers have possession of the up-to-date facts 


regarding prices of commodities and rents. At best labor 
has access only to the fragmentary, non-documentary evidence 
of its own members and to the compilations in government 
reports. These reports are always out of date, and so can 
frequently be discredited by a clever attorney for the em- 
ployers. This is not a matter of accident. _ One of the 
principal activities of the employers' associations is to see 
that neither the federal Bureau of Labor Statistics nor the 
state bureaus are given sufficient funds to enable them to 
keep in up-to-date and comprehensive form this information 
upon the basis of which hundreds of millions of dollars in 
wages are annually fixed. , 

The employers are, therefore, in possession of all the 
substantial evidence. Labor may suspect the truth, but can 
produce only secondary evidence. It is, of course, true that 
evidence may be subpoenaed, but this process can be used 
effectively only if the particular documents required are 
sufficiently well known to make possible an exact description 
•of what is desired. The employer may order the evidence 
that is in his possession prepared in any form he may wish. 
His statisticians may juggle the figures at will, and the 
burden is then on labor, generally without access to the 
original documents.-to prove its false or misleading character. 

Employers Evade Decisions with Impunity 

Finally, possession gives the employer power to carry out 
decisions or not as he sees fit. If an increase in wages or 
an improvement in working conditions is ordered, he may 
appeal the decision, haggle over its interpretation, delay 
putting it into effect, or even ignore it, with no penalty 
except a threatened strike, which can usually be avoided by 
any show of finesse. On the other hand, if a decrease in 
wages or a deterioration of working conditions is ordered 
by the arbitrators, the employer has the power to put such 
a decision into effect immediately. No amount of finesse 
can be used by the workers to prevent or delay such action. 
A strike against the decision of an arbitration board is almost 
always suicidal. 

I am informed that there are now seventy-two cases in 
which railroad corporations have refused to obey the findings 
of the Railway Labor Board, and only two cases in which 
the emploves have attempted resistance. In the seventy-two 
cases the employers have been uniformly successful because 
they have merely had to abstain from issuing the orders neces- 
sary to carry out the board's decisions, while in the two cases 
in which the railway workers attempted resistance the ad- 
verse decisions have been put into effect and the workers 
have succeeded only in somewhat embarrassing the railroad 
corporations. The fact that these decisions have not been 
carried out is not due to the personnel of the Railway Labor 
Board or to any special defect in the legislation which 
created it. Under the Erdman and Newlands acts it was 
the practice of the railroads to put into effect only those 
parts of the arbitration decisions which suited them and to 
haggle over the interpretation of the balance, or delay action 
for months or even years. There are also millions of dollars 
now owing to workers under the decisions of the War Labo- 
Board which can never be collected. 

This inability to secure speedy application of arbitrators 
decisions has been one of the principal grounds of labor' 
complaint against boards of arbitration. It may be said tha 
this is counterbalanced by labor's power to strike, but th 
strike is effective only in a period of exceptional activity 
when no substitutes or strike breakers are procurable. A 
any other time strikes against arbitrators' decisions are almos 
certain to be lost. 

April 8, 1922 



It is for this reason primarily that labor organizations 
have generally preferred the settlement of disputes by direct 
conference with employers, with public intervention in the 
form of mediation and conciliation rather than arbitration. 
In either case, labor secured an agreement the terms of which 
were arrived at by conference and phrased in the language 
familiar to the trade. Furthermore, even though such settle- 
ments did not result in a written and legally binding con- 
tract, there was at least an understanding backed by the 
good faith of employers and employes. Decisions of arbi- 
trators, on the other hand, are frequently written by persons 
unfamiliar with the trade, in ambiguous terms, and are less 
likely to be carried out than agreements voluntarily entered 
into or secured by mediation. 

The Myth of the Impartial Arbitrator 

In any event, the decisions of arbitration boards are likely 
to be arbitrary and to be influenced by prejudices and pre- 
conceptions rather than determined by evidence presented. 
The " impartial arbitrator " is largely a myth. Where 
personal and class interests are so largely involved in the 
determination of an issue as in the settlement of industrial 
disputes, it is almost inevitable that every member of an 
arbitration board should be biased in one direction or the 
other. It is also more than a probability that where a bias 
exists on the part of so-called impartial arbitrators it will 
be a bias tending strongly to favor the employer's point of 
view. These so-called impartial arbitrators are ordinarily 
drawn from the professional classes. As a rule, they are 
judges, lawyers, teachers or preachers. The fact that they 
are not directly interested in the particular industry under 
review is supposed to be a guarantee of their impartiality. 

There is a class consciousness on the part of all but 
a few exceptional individuals which inevitably influences 
their judgment. Their daily associations are confined almost 
entirely to the employing class. They hear daily in clubs, 
drawingrooms, offices and Pullman cars one-sided stories of 
/ the troubles which the employer has over labor inefficiency, 
union domination, restriction of output, and all the other 
difficulties experienced in his industrial relations, but they 
seldom hear at first hand of the troubles of the workers. The 
reading of the professional classes is confined almost entirely 
to the daily press and to other publications which, to say the 
least, are not edited with the object of presenting the 
workers' point of view in the most favorable light. Such 
associations and sources of information create almost indelible 
prejudices and preconceptions which it is very difficult to 
overcome even by the most impressive facts during the short 
period of an industrial arbitration. 

Equally important is the fact that the personal interests 
of an overwhelming proportion of the professional classes are 
directly or indirectly dependent upon the interests of the 
employers. Most professional men have investments in 
industrial enterprises. These investments may be only a 
few hundred or a few thousand dollars, but they tend to 
influence the judgment of those who hold them. 

Finally, there is the fact that the incomes of the great 
majority of professional men are dependent upon the favor 
of employers, and that only a small percentage are in any 
way affected by the disfavor of trade unions or individual 
workers. Among the lawyers there are a few individuals 
whose practices influence them in favor of labor, but their 
number is small, and they are usually so well known that 
the chance of their being selected as " impartial " arbitrators 
is remote. Nine-tenths of the lawyers are dependent upon 
corporation practice. Less directly, but none the less in- 
evitably, are the other professions dependent upon the favor 
of employers and corporations. 

Other influences which tend to create a bias among the 
classes from which impartial arbitrators are ordinarily drawn 
could be enumerated. In my opinion, however, the social 

influences of daily association are immensely more important 
than the more direct influence of self-interest. 

Even if every arbitrator came to his duties free from 
prejudices and preconceptions, there would still be one impor- 
tant though intangible influence against which labor would 
have to contend in presenting its case. For want of a better 
term, I call this the " judicial atmosphere " which usually 
surrounds arbitration boards. The fact that men are assumed 
to be acting as judges seems inevitably to endow them with 
some of the traditional attributes of judges, chief among 
which is extreme conservatism. Even the labor members of 
arbitration boards are frequently affected by this influence. 
This is accentuated by the fact that important arbitrations 
are generally held in federal courtrooms, the atmosphere of 
which is usually such as to chill the warmest heart. 

We must consider also the actual conditions existing at 
the present time. The appointing power in the federal 
government and in the majority of states is now in reac- 
tionary hands. Because of their associations and prejudices, 
I do not believe it would be possible for President Harding 
or Governor Miller of New York to appoint impartial arbi- 
trators, no matter how sincere they might be in their efforts. 
Such appointments are generally determined either by per- 
sonal acquaintance or by political status. President Harding's 
associations have been confined almost entirely to the con- 
servative wing of his own conservative party. Any appoint- 
ments to federal arbitration boards made by the present 
Administration are certain, therefore, to be ultra-conserva- 
tive, if not actually biased in favor of the employing interests. 
The same holds good of Governor Miller and other governors 
placed in office by the landslide of reaction in 1920. 

The Kenyon Bill 

With this background, we may briefly analyze the bill 
(S. 3147) introduced by Senator Kenyon on February 13 
to provide for the settlement of disputes between employers 
and employes in the coal mining industry. This bill creates 
a National Coal Mining Board, and provides that all dis- 
putes which cannot be decided by conferences between 
employers and employes shall be referred to this board. 
Although no penalties are provided either for failure to 
refer cases to the board or for failure to comply with its 
decisions, the purpose and effect of the bill is to create com- 
pulsory arbitration in the coal industry. 

The board is an arbitration board and not one of media- 
tion or conciliation. Its duty, as specified in the bill, is to 
decide every dispute referred to it and not merely to attempt 
to bring about a settlement by agreement between the 
parties. In this respect its functions and procedure are 
similar to those of the Railroad Labor Board. It differs 
from the boards created under the Erdman Act and other 
pre-war federal legislation, which acted as arbitrators only 
upon joint agreement of both parties to the controversy, who 
bound themselves to be governed by the board's decisions. 

The board is given large jurisdiction, but no judicial 
power. In this respect also it is like the Railroad Labor 
Board. The only provision for enforcing its decisions is 
contained in section 16, which provides that in case any 
decision is believed to be violated it may, " upon its own 
motion, after due notice and hearing to all persons directly 
interested in such violation, determine whether in its opinion 
such violation has occurred and make public its decision in 
such manner as it may determine." This is solemn nonsense 
and means merely that the board may, after hearings, inform 
the public that its decisions are being violated. 

The bill does not, therefore, provide for compulsory arbi- 
tration in the sense of punishing men or corporations for fail- 
ing to submit disputes to its jurisdiction or for violating its 
decrees. Compulsory arbitration is provided, however, in the 
sense of bringing all men and all corporations engaged in 
coal mining under the jurisdiction of the board and depend- 



April 8, 1922 

ing upon the coercive force of so-called " public opinion " 
to enforce its decrees. 

This form of compulsory arbitration is even more unfair 
and dangerous to the interests of the workers than genuine 
compulsory arbitration which is enforced by jail sentences 
and fines. " Public opinion," which is the coercive force in 
this case, is largely controlled by the news which it receives 
through the daily press. The press is also, though errone- 
ously, supposed to constitute a reliable expression of public 
opinion. For practical purposes, therefore, what we ordinar- 
ily mean by " public opinion " is merely what the newspapers 
say. American newspapers and periodicals are so largely 
biased, particularly in their editorial expressions, that public 
opinion based upon such sources is certain to be misinformed. 

The employes as a rule can violate the orders of a board 
only by interrupting the production of coal. The employer, 
on the other hand, can violate such decisions without affect- 
ing the welfare and comfort of the public, and therefore with- 
out incurring to any considerable extent the disfavor of the 
public. For example, he may refuse to raise wages as ordered 
by the board, and the public is not at all inconvenienced until 
the employes, in order to force compliance with the board's 
decision, cease to produce coal. Then the chances are very 
strong that the public, informed only that a strike is inter- 
fering with its coal supply, will visit its displeasure upon the 
employes, who are actually upholding the board's decision, 
rather than upon the employer, who is flagrantly violating it. 
Similarly, the employer may, against the board's orders, dis- 
charge every union miner in his employ and hire a non-union 
man in his place. If he can maintain his production of coal, 
the public is not inconvenienced and is not likely to manifest 
any concern unless and until the union employes, in order to 
uphold " the majesty of the law," begin throwing bricks at 
the non-union miners. Then " public opinion," acting upon 
reports of violence in the newspapers, is likely to demand that 
troops be sent immediately to suppress the union men and 
restore " law and order." Therefore, even if the board of 
arbitration were appointed in such a manner that its deci- 
sions were sure to be impartial, the results would inevitably 
be unfair. 

How the Board is Appointed 

As provided in the Kenyon bill, the arbitration board is 
to consist of nine members: three constituting the labor 
group, to be appointed by the President, with the advice and 
consent of the Senate, from not less than six nominees to be 
made by the United Mine Workers of America; three rep- 
resenting the employers, to be similarly appointed from not 
less than six nominees made by the National Coal Associa- 
tion and the Anthracite Coal Operators' Association; and 
three representing the public, to be appointed by the Presi- 
dent, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate. 

The two groups representing operators and miners, of 
course, neutralize each other. The actual deciding power is 
in the hands of the so-called public group, the appointment 
of which is entirely under the control of President Harding 
and a majority of the Senate. I have already discussed the 
possibility of President Harding's selecting impartial and 
unbiased arbitrators. I need scarcely add that confirmation 
by the Senate does not constitute an additional safeguard but 
merely divides responsibility. I would be willing to wager 
that a majority of the Senate would vote to confirm Judge 
Gary as an impartial arbitartor if he should be nominated 
by the President, and they would be able to find a splendid 
precedent for so doing in the fact that both Judge Gary and 
John D. Rockefeller, Jr., were members of the " public 
group " in President Wilson's Industrial Conference. 

Senator Kenyon's fundamental purpose was to improve 
conditions in the coal mining industry and not merely to 
attempt to enforce peace without justice. The Senator ap- 
parently believed that this could be insured by the inclusion 
in his bill by a code of industrial principles very much like 

those adopted by the National War Labor Board. I do not 
think it necessary to enter into a detailed discussion of this 
code. Most of the provisions are excellent, and their appli- 
cation to the industry as a whole would mean a great im- 
provement in labor conditions. Others would have the ef- 
fect of breaking down the United Mine Workers as at pres- 
ent constituted. 

Senator Kenyon's resignation from the Senate probably 
means that his bill will simply be forgotten, although there 
is a possibility that it may be revived in some modified 
form if a coal strike makes legislative action necessary. If 
so, it is sure to be bitterly fought by organized labor. 

The Strike an Instrument of Industrial Warfare 

The reader may draw the inference that the purpose of 
this article is to promulgate the doctrine, " Down with arbi- 
tration — up with the strike," but this is a false inference. 

The chances of securing industrial justice by strikes are 
remote. I do not mean to imply that the strike is not an 
effective industrial weapon. It is, both as a means of forc- 
ing employers to agree to compromises and, under certain 
conditions as a method of attaining revolutionary ends. The 
strike is in any case an instrument of industrial warfare and 
not a method of attaining industrial justice. Moreover, the 
same factors which make arbitrations inequitable operate in 
the case of strikes. The same fundamental point of pos- 
session applies to both. Suppose the workers in possession 
of the plant and the distribution of profits and the capitalist 
forced to make terms from the outside for the employment | 
of his capital. The mere suggestion is sufficient to enforce \ 
the point. Equally potent is the essential difference in the ! 
accumulated resources of the two parties to the conflict, and 
the fact that idle labor must eat while idle capital need not. 
Finally, there is the overshadowing control of the machinery 
of government by individuals, groups and parties friendly to, 
if not controlled by, the employing interests. In every big 
strike and in most of the small ones, this control of the police, 
the troops, the prosecuting attorneys and the courts is likely 
to be the decisive factor. If the chance for labor under ex- 
isting conditions to secure industrial justice by arbitration is 
no better than one in ten, the probability of securing it by 
strikes is certainly no greater. 

The strike is a weapon that is easily dulled by constant 
use. Nevertheless, many groups of workers, facing this choice 
of evils, will choose it for the same reason that soldiers under 
a withering fire that is sure to kill one in ten will almost 
invariably choose to risk . nnihilation in charging the enemy 
rather than stand still under fire. Furthermore, the great 
question of the morale of the organization must be consid- 
ered. As a rule, while strikes inflict terrible sufferings upon 
the individual members, they strengthen rather than weaken 
the organizations. A series of disastrous arbitrations, on the 
other hand, is almost certain to destroy even the most power- 
ful organization. In any event, the decision whether to 
strike is not ordinarily based upon a minute calculation of 
the chances of attaining industrial justice, but is usually 
influenced much more largely by compelling factors in the 
unending conflict between employers and employes. 

This may seem to be a gloomy and disheartening picture 
of the situation. There is, however, one good thing about 
the picture — it is incomplete. Between the Scylla of strikes 
and the Charybdis of arbitration, there are two rocky and 
tempestuous, but none the less navigable, channels — cooper- 
ation and political action. Something is already being done 
in both directions, but as yet only feebly. If anything real is 
to be accomplished, organized labor must learn to spend or 
invest in cooperation at least as much money as it now spends 
on arbitrations and strikes. The workers must learn also 
to put into these other movements some of the energy and 
determination that sometimes wins strikes even when the 
odds arc one hundred to one against their success. 



Conducted by 

Public Relief of Unemployment 

DETROIT last year spent over four times as much 
on home relief as either Boston or Cleveland, two 
cities of similar size in which there was also much 
According to the annual report for 1921 which has just 
been issued by the Department of Public Welfare of Detroit 
it was necessary for that city to provide relief for 20,268 
families composed of 83,360 individuals. The amount of 
relief granted, exclusive of staff and service expenses, was 
$1,808,044. The Overseers of the Poor in Boston expended 
$402,933 on family relief, exclusive of mothers' aid. The 
Associated Charities of Cleveland, a private agency gener- 
ously financed, expended $324,152 in the same period. 

In common with other American cities, Detroit last year 
passed through an industrial depression, the severity of 
which, in the great automobile center of the nation, can be 
measured by the reports of its Employers' Association. The 
79 factories which are members of this association had a 
working force numbering 200,000 at the peak of employ- 
ment in March and April of 1920. By the end of December 
of the same year, at a time when the two largest factories of 
the city were shut down and when only a skeleton working 
force remained in many others, the number of men at work 
was less than 30,000. Gradual recovery, beginning in Jan- 
uary, 192 1, brought the number employed in the 79 factories 
to 1 10,000 in the latter part of April, and it hovered between 
this number and 120,000 until the middle of December, 
1 92 1, when there was another brief seasonal drop. The 
Employers' Association represents about two-thirds of the 
inr 1 ustrial workers of the city. 

The report of the Department of Public Welfare illus- 
trates how the need of relief was directly due to the prevail- 
ing unemployment. "Out of work" was the gist of the story 
in 17,633 or 87 per cent of the families aided. The city has 
a registration bureau widely used by the social agencies, and 
an analysis of its records, many of which antedate the indus- 
trial depression of 19 14-15, reveals that during the months 
of February, March and April of 1921, 80 per cent of the 
families registered by the Department of Public Welfare 
were first applications and were not known to any of the 
other agencies registering. 

It was not necessary for unemployed men to be sold on 
auction blocks to rouse the city to a consciousness of the 
issues involved when the depression came. Mayor Couzens 
and the Common Council were quickly convinced of the 
necessity for drastic action. Detroit had welcomed these men 
and their families during the high tide of war and post-war 
prosperity. It was ready to provide for them in the day of 

The way for effective municipal action had been paved at 
the time that the new municipal charter was adopted in 19 18, 
when the Poor Commission was succeeded by the Depart- 
ment of Public Welfare. Instead of remaining a municipal 
department whose chief concern was the granting or refusal 
of relief, powers were conferred making possible the develop- 
ment of constructive work in behalf of families. The staff 
had been increased, and the Civil Service Commission, in 
qualifying employes, emphasized practical training for social 
work. Thomas E. Dolan, general superintendent of the de- 
partment, which includes several divisions of work in addi- 
tion to outdoor relief, had secured Harry L. Lurie as direc- 
tor of social service. Mr. Lurie is an able social worker with 
years of experience, first in Buffalo, and later on the staffs of 
the Associated Charities and the Community Union of 

Detroit. Public interest and public support of social work, 
whether under public or private auspices, had been stimu- 
lated by the organization of the Detroit Community Union 
and the Detroit Community Fund. 

This was the background when the crisis broke. With the 
backing of Mayor Couzens and the Common Council, the 
facilities of the Department of Public Welfare were rapidly 
extended. Instead of one central office from which all work 
was conducted, the city was divided into five districts with 
district offices. The staff was quadrupled in size. Funds ade- 
quate to meet demands were voted from time to time. The 
standards of relief observed in the work are best described by 
a direct quotation from the annual report : 

Application for assistance can be made either by the individual in 
person or in his behalf. If emergency help is necessary it is im- 
mediately given in the office to the extent of a $2 provision order, 
which can be redeemed at any grocery store in the city. As soon 
as possible, usually the following day, the individual is visited in 
his home by an investigator who has been selected for his intelligence 
and sympathy and his knowledge and experience in handling people. 
The investigator attempts wherever possible to get in touch with 
relatives who might be able to assist. He tries to verify the resources, 
or lack of them, claimed by the applicant, and to plan with the 
family for its needs. The previous employer, if the employment 
period was of some duration, is appealed to, asked for a verification 
of the work record, and urged to re-employ the man if possible. 
Many men are placed in this way. Thr applicant is then asked to 
register at the employment bureau of the Public Welfare Depart- 
ment and urged to report frequently for employment. He is also 
given a special card which shows the employment examiner that the 
statements of this man have been verified and that he is receiving 
assistance from the Public Welfare Department. Preference is of 
course given to the man whose unemployment has reduced him to 
destitution, although so far as possible the most competent men are 
sent to jobs. If no work has been obtained, temporary relief is 
given according to the budget standards prepared in the department. 
An order for groceries which can be cashed in any grocery in the 
city of Detroit is given weekly. Fuel, shoes, clothing, and rent are 
provided when necessary. Medical relief is given and every effort 
is rn^de by the social service department to restore the family to 

The Survey for February 18 [p. 798] outlined the efforts 
of the city in providing public work. This proved an unusual 
opportunity for the Department of Public Welfare both to 
secure work for the man without a job, and to furnish a 
work test for the man who might be "work shy." Aside 
from 17.175 jobs with pay supplied through the employment 
bureau of the department, 15,477 jobs were provided in ex- 
change for relief. These positions were furnished by other 
departments of the city government, such as the Department 
of Public Works and the Department of Parks and Boule- 
vards. The men were given such work three days every two 
or three weeks, with the opportunity to use the rest of the 
time in trying to secure regular positions for themselves. It 
is estimated that these men performed work for other city 
departments to a value equivalent to $167,150. 

An interesting method to promote the independence and 
self-respect of the unemployed workmen who received relief 
was followed. A letter signed by Mr. Dolan, the superin- 
tendent, was given the applicant, reading as follows : 

The Department of Public Welfare of the City of Detroit is 
furnishing you and your family with the necessary relief while you 
are unable to obtain work. We feel confident that you will desire 
to repay whatever amount has been given you as soon as you are 
on your feet and are again at work. 

The Department of Public Welfare wants you to feel that the 
help that is being extended to you is in the nature of a loan, based 
upon your needs and your character, which you are at liberty to 
repay without interest. 

May we suggest to you that within two months after you are again 




April 8, 1922 

at work you refund to the department in small amounts the help 
which has been given you. 

If you do this, your municipal record will appear as that of an 
independent citizen, who has received a loan from the City of Detroit 
during a period of distress. 

Sufficient time has not elapsed fully to evaluate the results 
of this policy. Some refunds are being made, although other 
debts, part-time work, in many instances reduced wages, and 
the well known difficulty on the part of a charitable organi- 
zation in securing repayments of loans, all militate against 
any considerable percentage being returned. 

Detroit is thoroughly cosmopolitan in the make-up of its 
population. Almost 30 per cent is foreign-born, and 35 per 
cent is native-born, but of foreign or mixed parentage. Old 
Detroit, and by that is meant Detroit prior to 1900, was 
composed in the main of native-born Americans and of large 
groups from Germany and Canada. The Detroit of 1922 is 
a Babel of tongues, with large additions to its population 
from Russia, Italy, Hungary, Austria and other European 
countries. The city also received many of the Negroes in 
their great movement to the North during the last decade; 
their number there increased from 5,741 in 1910 to 40,838 
in 1920. 

These more recent arrivals, coming to Detroit in response 
to the extraordinary demand for labor, have been hardest hit 
during the depression. The six largest groups represented in 
the families aided by the Department of Public Welfare, 
according to nativity, are as follows: 


United States (native white) 5,265 21,759 

United States (Negroes) 6,320 19,503 

Poland 2,380 12,462 

Italy 1,281 6,361 

Russia 1,103 5,497 

Austria 835 4,313 

As this article is written the industrial outlook in the city 
is greatly improved. The weekly report of the Employers' 
Association, the labor barometer for Detroit, shows 121,763 
men at work in the 79 factories of the association, as com- 
pared with 62,878 men at this time last year. In fact, the 
number now employed is larger than the number at work at 
any time in 192 1. If this improvement continues, and there 
is every reason to believe it will, the Department of Public 
Welfare should increasingly be able to shift its emphasis from 
emergency relief to intensive effort in behalf of family wel- 
fare. Friends of social work in the city hope that, with the 
backing of Mayor Couzens and a reform administration, to 
whom the city gave a vote of confidence at the election last 
fall, it may prove that a public department can develop the 
refinements of family case work, just as it has proven the 
capacity of public relief to adapt itself to the exigencies of an 
emergency. Fred R. Johnson. 

Associate Secretary, Detroit Community Union. 

The New Poor in Germany 

WHEN we speak of the poor in Germany nowadays we 
mean quite a different class from that which was called 
so in pre-war times. Poverty as it was formerly understood 
now hardly exists among the working classes proper, as most 
industries are in full swing and the trade unions have been 
able to raise wages in keeping with rising prices. The bur- 
den of poverty lies instead very heavily upon parts of the 
former upper middle classes, that is to say on men of science, 
artists, authors, former officers and officials or their widows, 
private teachers and on all those who in former times were 
able to live on their incomes and who if they are too old 
or too weak to earn their own living often fall into dire 
necessity. This is easily understood if we keep in mind that 
the purchasing power of German money is so much lower 
than it used to be that sums which in former times were 

sufficient to cover the household expenses of a whole year 
now hardly suffice to cover those of a month. All those who 
are unable to raise their incomes in relation to the dwindling 
value of money may be classed as " the new poor." 

This whole class is absolutely unaccustomed as yet to being 
the object of charity of any kind. Its members often prefer 
starving to taking alms, however delicately these may be 
given. Therefore, new ways and means have had to be found 
to help them. 

In several German towns, first of all at Frankfort am 
Main and at Hamburg, this new branch of social work has 
been taken up by women who knew from experience of the 
condition some of their friends were in. These women col- 
lected money to start a shop where valuable private property 
might change hands without losing in value. 

People find their way to the shop who in former times 
were able to wear costly lace, furs and jewelry, who used 
beautiful table linen, precious silver and crystal glass, whose 
homes are still provided with Persian carpets and rugs, paint- 
ings, etchings, color prints and other things appreciated by 
the new rich but of less value to their owners now, when 
they hardly know how to get the wherewithal to buy their 
daily bread. These can give their treasures in trust to a 
body of men and women who do not wish to gain by buying 
and selling — whose only aim is to get for the owners as much 
value as possible. 

' This work cannot be done by ordinary shopkeepers. It 
demands a knowledge of art and curiosities of which few 
people can boast. Jewelry and silver must of course be 
tested by experts, but there are many other things which 
only an experienced and cultivated woman can appraise at 
their real value. Besides, those who come to sell things 
have to be handled delicately. They must feel at once that 
those to whom they entrust their precious belongings under- 
stand and share their feelings. Most of the things brought to 
the shop have a history. Much tact and delicacy is required 
of those who receive the goods, which always seem valuable to 
their owners, though their chief value sometimes consists in 
the dear memories awakened by them. 

Those who come to the shop to sell often enter a little 
furtively, having had to suffer rebuffs or bitter disappoint- 
ments on their previous errands when they have bargained 
with professional second-hand dealers. At one of our " 
shops we met an old lady with a delicately wrought golden 
necklace. At the curiosity shop over the way she had been 
offered 300 marks, whereas at our place she got 1,800. We 
were told of the widow of a Russian general who of all her 
former belongings had saved nothing but an old lace scarf 
for which she received the sum of 20,000 marks; and of a 
young woman who was able to buy all hfr baby things for 
the money she got for a dinner-set inherited from her mother. 

The people who come to buy are of a very different de- 
scription. The shops are of course frequented by collectors 
of curiosities, German and foreign, who often find things 
they have looked for in vain at the ordinary dealers'. Be- 
sides there are the " new rich " who want to give their 
homes, smacking of the upholsterer, a certain cachet which 
only old and time-worn things can give. But among the 
buyers there are also a good many who come because they 
want to buy good ware at a comparatively cheap price. 
Newly married couples try to get table linen or carpets of 
pre-war quality for which they pay less than they would 
have to give for new things in the big stores. The person 
who wishes to make a particularly acceptable present to a 
friend comes to look around and often goes away with just 
the sort of thing in his bag he has been dreaming of. 

Of late, there are generally two separate departments, 
one for selling and one for buying, as most of those who 
wish to sell things do not like to be seen in public and are 
afraid of meeting people with whom they were friends in 
better times. 

April 8, 1922 




As it is to be feared that the 
pauperization of the German 
middle classes will go on, it will 
prove necessary to start similar 
branches of welfare work in all 
the larger German towns and, if 
possible, link them together in a 
large union. 

In some towns — generally the 
smaller ones — the welfare work 
for the former middle classes has 
taken a different form. It may 
be described as the establishment 
of a center for home work which 
is given out to people whose old 
age or state of health makes it 
impossible for them to take up 
work of any other kind. As the 
wages of home-workers are much 
higher now than they used to be 
before the revolution, and as the 
organizers of such centers natur- 
ally do not sweat their workers, 
skillful needlewomen are able to 
earn a good bit of money in this 
way. Some of the best linen 
drapers' shops already make use 
of the opportunity of getting 
highly skilled needlewomen for 
some of the very delicate work 
they have to give out, but mostly 
the task of finding work for the ever growing staff of mid- 
dle class homeworkers lies entirely in the hands of the 
organizers of such centers. 

Other ways of bringing help to the " new poor " will 
probably be found in the course of time. Whatever forms 
they may take, the rich of today ought to feel under the 
moral obligation to assist those who in former times always 
were ready to help others and to whom Germany owes a 
great many of the spiritual treasures she has acquired and 
is proud of. 

Elisabeth Altmann-Gottheimer, M. D. 


Divorce in Denmark 

MR. RYTTER, the minister of justice of Denmark, has 
introduced a bill before the Landsting concerning the 
marriage contract and its dissolution, the main features of 
which are in accordance with proposals made in 19 13 by the 
Danish Family Rights Commission, in cooperation with 
similar commissions in Norway and Sweden. It will be fol- 
lowed by another bill respecting marriage rights. 

The bill contains certain new provisions concerning en- 
gagements to marry. Where an engagement is broken off 
mainly on the responsibility of only one of the parties, the 
responsible party shall be liable to pay compensation to the 
other party for any loss sustained through preparatory meas- 
ures taken with a view to matrimony. This provision does 
not apply, however, to persons under age unless they have 
obtained consent to the engagement. It also stipulates that 
where a man who has completed his twenty-first year seduces 
his fiancee and the engagement has afterward been broken off 
mainly on his responsibility, he shall be liable to pay her 
adequate damages. 

Men under twenty-one years of age and women under 
eighteen are not allowed to marry. No marriage may be 
contracted between relatives in lineal ascent or descent or 
between persons of whom one has been married to a relative 
in lineal ascent or descent of the other. Exceptions from 
this regulation can be obtained on special license granted for 
special reasons. 

From Simplici88imu8 

" One can't have any relations with the 
They have nothing at all." 

new poor. 

While the marriage bills of the sessions 1918-19 and 1919- 
20, which were not passed into law, contained a provision 
about compulsory civil marriage, it is now proposed that civil 
and religious marriage should be placed on an equal footing. 

The bill contains a series of regulations dealing with cases 
where one of the parties is insane or suffers from sexual 
disease still in an infectious stage. Persons in an advanced 
state of imbecility are not allowed to marry. Insane persons 
can marry on special license, which is granted only when it 
is considered justifiable that marriage should take place. 

In its provisions concerning separation and divorce the bill 
has largely retained the existing administrative form of de- 
cision which, on account of its quickness, discretion and low 
costs, offers great advantages. When, owing to continuous 
incompatibility of temper, a married couple find it impos- 
sible to live together and agree to separate, a decree of sep- 
aration may be granted to them by a superior magisterial 
authority. The bill also retains the existing conciliation pro- 
visions and provides that before a petition for separation is 
filed every effort shall be made to effect a conciliation be- 
tween the parties. After the parties have lived apart for 
eighteen months following the separation, the marriage is dis- 
solvable by special decree if the parties agree regarding di- 
vorce and arrangements with regard to the children. After 
they have lived apart for two years either party may demand 
a decree of divorce. 

Either party can bring action for the dissolution of the 
marriage by the court when the other party has been guilty 
of bigamy, adultery or other equally grave immoral conduct, 
unless the petitioner has voluntarily conduced to such con- 
duct, has consented to it, or must be regarded to have waived 
his or her right in some other way ; or in case the other party 
has sought the petitioner's life or has been guilty of cruelty ; 
or in case the other party has been sentenced to confinement 
for two years or some more serious punishment unless the 
petitioner was voluntarily instrumental in the offence com- 
mitted or consented to it. 

In cases where a divorce can be demanded, the innocent 
party has the right to obtain a deed of separation instead of 
a divorce ; and where there is the right of obtaining a decree 



April 8, 1922 

for judicial separation or for divorce, the decision can be 
made in the form of an administrative order if both parties 
express a wish to that effect. The first of these provisions 
has been inserted on the ground that when the petitioner 
desires a separation instead of a divorce such demand will 
probably be based on a serious desire to avoid a dissolution 
of the marriage, a desire which must be protected by the au- 
thorities. Nor will the guilty party be wronged by such pro- 
cedure, for according to the rules of separation he or she can 
at any rate obtain a divorce after two years. 

Concerning the re-marriage of persons who have been sep- 
arated the bill stipulates that a woman must not re-marry 
within ten months after the dissolution of her previous mar- 
riage if she was pregnant at the time of the dissolution of 
such marriage, or unless there had been no co-habitation with 
her previous husband for ten months. A division of the prop- 
erty by the Probate Court must have been commenced or a 
private division been accomplished, before persons who have 
been previously married can re-marry. Where a separated 
couple resume co-habitation, the separation becomes null and 
void. In case of separation or divorce the property is divided 
according to the existing ordinary regulations. 

Where in the case of a decree of dissolution of marriage 
one party is proved to have been guilty of injury to the other, 
compensation may be awarded, due regard being had to the 
economic conditions of both parties and to the other circum- 
stances of the case. 

The court sits with closed doors in matrimonial cases, and 
the publication of the proceedings and of the judgments is 
prohibited unless both parties give their consent to such pub- 

Trends in Social Service 

THE new Community Council of St. Louis is already giv- 
ing signs of being a lusty youngster. It has initiated a 
campaign to lessen unemployment in the city. It is investi- 
gating the effect upon social work of federations and com- 
munity chests. One of its committees, under the supervision 
of George B. Mangold, director of the Missouri School of 
Social Economy, is making a study of illegitimate births in the 
city during the past three years. This will parallel a some- 
what similar study made by the school during 1914. The 
committee on the family is devising ways of giving better 
service to families under the care of agencies. 

THE preliminary program of the National Conference of 
Social Work to be held in Providence, Rhode Island, June 
22-29, has been announced in the Conference Bulletin. Rob- 
ert W. Kelso, president of the conference, has chosen as the 
subject of his address The Changing Fundamentals of Social 
Work. This will be given at the general session of the con- 
ference devoted to the section on the family, of which Frank 
J. Bruno is chairman this year. The other address at this 
meeting will be upon The Family as a Factor in Social Evo- 
lution. The general session on the child parallels somewhat 
that on the family, the subject for discussion being Neglected 
Fundamentals in Children's Work. The health section is 
also striking at root factors with the subject, Underlying 
Concepts in the World Movement for Health. The joint 
session on neighborhood and community life and industrial 
and economic problems will deal with the Future of a Com- 
munity in an Industrial Civilization. The divisions on the 
organization of social forces and public officials and adminis- 
tration are coming together to discuss the Functions of Public 
and Private Agencies in the Social Work of the Future. 
Racial Diversities and Social Development will be the theme 
at the general meeting given over to the immigrant. 

SEVEN out of every ten homeless men in New York are 
foreign-born, according to a recent article in Better Times. 

A committee composed of representatives of social agencies, 
of which Roy P. Gates, of the Joint Application Bureau, is 
the chairman, has recently completed a study of the conditions 
affecting homeless men in New York. 

Mr. Gates states that during the first six months of 1921 
s,ome 74,514 men applied for aid to the thirty agencies 
studied. Of these 68 per cent were foreign-born. The 
Poles and Russians led, with the Italian, Irish, Spanish, 
Austrian, German and Scandinavian following. Although 
only four of these thirty organizations have their own dormi- 
tories for lodging homeless men, practically all of them pro- 
cure shelter for the men whose cases they take up. During 
this half year six societies furnished 225,118 meals and 
*49>79 2 nights' lodging. In other words, they fed daily 
1,239 homeless men and housed 820. In regard to frequent 
criticism of the obligatory bath and medical examination at 
the municipal lodging house, Mr. Gates points out that only 
six of the social agencies required the men coming to them to 
takes baths and only seven provided them with medical ex- 

The agencies were of the opinion that much of the increase 
of homelessness in New York is due to " the widespread fame 
of New York as an easy place to pick up a living while enjoy- 
ing life." Mr. Gates stresses the need for a more thoughtful 
and uniform treatment of homeless men. He states : 

It is now possible for a man to whom an organization hare made 
its aid contingent on his acceptance of medical treatment for a 
communicable disease to be received by another society without 
question, and permitted to carry the menace of his disease to its 
other beneficiaries and to the public. 

As a result of this study, a central clearing or registration 
bureau has been established by the committee to keep the 
societies in touch with the men they have helped from time 
to time. 

latest towns to establish a community chest. According 
to North Carolina Community Progress, the management 
of the chest rests in a board of governors of not less than 
five nor more than nine members, to be appointed by the 
various civic organizations. Since the chief civic organi- 
zations in the city as listed elsewhere in the publication are 
the Rotary, the Kiwanis and the civic clubs, the Merchants' 
Association and the Chamber of Commerce, little provision 
seems to have been made for representation of the social 
agencies themselves. The objects of the association are 
to solicit, receive and apportion contributions to the various 
charitable and philanthropic organizations of Asheville. 
Little difficulty seems to have been encountered in reaching 
the goal of $85,000 decided upon for the social agencies. 
This was accomplished at a total expense of about $4,500. 
Interesting enough, although contributors were given the 
privilege of giving to the chest as a whole or of designating 
their gifts, practically $70,000 was undesignated. 

THE New York Charity Organization Society is starting a 
class for the " volunteer professional " — a new type of social 
worker. Mrs. Richard S. Childs, chairman of the society's 
committee on volunteers, believes that a volunteer should be 
" fired " for irregularity or poor work as quickly as a paW 
worker. She is likewise of the opinion that social organiza- 
tions have been partially to blame for the feeling upon the 
part of social workers that women volunteers are dilettantes. 
" Social work," says Mrs. Childs, " takes more than sym- 
pathy, intuition and judgment. It takes training." 

JOHN BARTON PAYNE, chairman of the American Red 
Cross, has issued a call for volunteers to help in the work 
to which the organization is pledged and also to help cut 
operating expenses. The Central Committee has asked the 
chairman to appoint a committee of fifteen volunteer Red 
Cross women to act in an advisory way on the enrollment 
and direction of a force of volunteers. 



A Workers' Health Bureau in Spain 

J~~\ URING last winter the experiment of a Workers' 
J^S Health Bureau has been tried out in New York. The 
organization was effected to plan, install and supervise a 
health service for trade unions and has been financed by the 
membership fees of the unions which it serves. The prin- 
cipal functions up to the present time have been investigatory 
and educational. The painters' union, for illustration, has 
retained the services of the bureau and is developing a pro- 
gram of health work among its members who are receiving 
medical examinations. This work of the bureau is, how- 
ever, still in an incipient stage. It has been organized on 
the theory that since the workers have sensed the importance 
of creating their own educational departments they must 
recognize the fact that guarding the health of their members 
is a function equally important and fundamental. 

While this attempt is being made here, it is timely to 
describe the way in which another group of workers have 
faced the health problem in Spain. 

FOR eighteen years the trade unions of Madrid have 
held in their own hands the facilities for taking care 
of the health of their members, and have freed the 
Madrilene mason and carpenter, driver and waiter, 
from the necessity of spending more than 52 pesetas (about 
$8) a year on doctors' bills. They have done this through 
their cooperative agency known as La Mutualidad Obrera, 
the Workers' Mutual Aid Society, an association which gives 
medical and pharmaceutical aid as well as burial benefits 
to its associates. 

Seven clinic-hospitals located in typical workers' districts, 
each fully equipped with from eight to eleven beds, small 
but adequate operating rooms, tiled and immaculate kitchens, 
dental parlors, consulting rooms for applicants, and gardens 
for convalescents, are now the boast of La Mutualidad. Each 
has its staff of physicians, surgeons and nurses. 

These little " houses of health," as they are sometimes 
called, are furnished in a manner so simple as to be, accord- 
ing to our standards, austere. But the Spaniard, keyed to 
sobriety in all his tastes, is content with a white-washed, 
uncarpeted bedroom, in an institution which also provides 
him with the luxuries of modern plumbing, modern toilet 
facilities, modern refrigerating apparatus, and operating and 
consulting rooms fitted with all the necessary contrivances 
for cleanliness and sterilization. 

Connected with each of these association hospitals and con- 
veniently accessible to them are the drug-stores of La Mu- 
tualidad, where its members may procure medicines free of 
charge and where non-members make purchases at the cur- 
rent market price. And near the Hospital del Norte, 
which, with its friendly brick facade and shady garden, is the 
particular pride of the society, is located the general cooper- 
ative provision store from which daily supplies are carted to 
.the seven hospitals. 

In the financial organization of the society, these drug and 
(provision stores play the most important part. They serve 
/as its main source of income, while the clinic-hospitals, 
/ through up-keep expense, constantly drain away its funds. 
Although society members have their prescriptions filled free 
J of charge, La Mutualidad drug stores, popular in their neigh- 
borhoods, make large sales to the general public. The pro- 
vision store, stocked as it is with wines, grains, vegetables, 
oils, meats, bread (besides the drugs for the society pharma- 
cies) , is also patronized by the public ; and while considerable 
money is made here through the purchases of individuals, 
even more comes in through large sales to trade union 

lunch rooms, milk stations and club rooms, which are fre- 
quently found in the larger Spanish cities. 

The conditions of membership within La Mutualidad are 
mainly these: The applicant must be a registered member 
of one of the unions affiliated with the Union General de 
Trabajadores, the conservative federation of labor in Spain 
which has its greatest strength — in fact one-fifth of its 
250,000 membership in Madrid. Furthermore, the ap- 
plicant must pay regularly his 4^ pesetas a month, 
and must keep the management informed of any change 
of address, for full records are kept of each case — 
"like in the United States," as the Spaniard proudly 
informs you. For these considerations the member is 
privileged, beyond the care of his health, to attend 
the regular meetings of the association, to be elected by gen- 
eral vote of the membership to a position on the central com- 
mittee, and to receive a hearing from that body on any com- 
plaint or suggestion which he has to make concerning the 
management of his association. Furthermore, in the com- 
plete range of medical benefits which are his — from major 
operations and emergency aid to mere sanitary advice — there 
is only one for which he pays an additional tax, and that is 
for the doubtful luxury of gold teeth. More, by registering 
as a " family member," his wife, daughters, and sons under 
eighteen may enjoy, for no extra charge, the same care and 
attention. And all have the assurance of receiving at death 
decent and proper interment. 

La Mutualidad is the showpiece — along constructive lines 
— of the Madrid workers. They are proud of its efficiency, 
its independence, and its membership of more than ten thou- 
sand. Francisco Largo Caballero, now president of the Union 
General de Trabajadores, and in 1904 one of the founders of 
La Mutualidad, is eager to have visitors see the institution. 
Its secretary-treasurer, Eduardo Alvarez Herrero, claims 
that except in Belgium there is no workers' health institution 
in the world to compare with it. Even the " coche " driver 
who deposited me at the door of the Hospital del Norte ex- 
plained, expansively and without solicitation, that four times 
during the past year he had profited by its health dealing 
beneficence. Its members all take pride in La Mutualidad 
because it is their own. They created it out of their own earn- 
ings, originally on a quite modest scale, but free from gov- 
ernmental employers' or charitable support. Under their 
management it has grown from a single hospital and phar- 
macy to its present size. 

La Mutualidad pays for itself, and every year for some 
years past there has been a considerable surplus which goes 
into the amortization of debts to labor organizations which 
originally helped to finance the project, into the sinking fund, 
or into expansion. A glance at the financial report which the 
society draws up and issues every six months, accounting for 
all its receipts and expenditures, shows for the semester 
ending June, 1920, one which seems sufficiently typical, re- 
ceipts of 478,597 pesetas and expenditures of 468,565, with 
a savings account of 10,031 pesetas. In a similar six months' 
period ending June, 1921, receipts amounting to 593,148.23 
pesetas, gave medical aid to 21,291 men, women and chil- 
dren; surgical aid to 20,710; examination to 1,382; instruc- 
tion in home sanitation to 1,204; assistance at 797 births; 
and burial to 334. During the same interval the coopera- 
tive drug stores handled 82,833 prescriptions. 

With the exception of the few hospitals run by foreign 
capital, those of La Mutualidad Obrera are the only ones in 
Spain where trained lay nurses instead of untrained Catholic 
nuns care for the patients. Mary Senior. 




April 8, 1922 


for the 


By Otto P. Geler, M.D. 


FIRST: We are living in an industrial country, in the, 
era of "The Iron Man " with the resulting problems of 
health and physical efficiency. 

Second: The industrial physician is the humanitarian 
answer of medicine to the health needs of all groups in 
this era. 

Third: A physician devoting his whole time to the health 
problems of industry will deliver more units of useful 
surgery, of diagnosis, of curative care, of preventive 
medicine, of educational hygiene both collective and in- 
dividual, than can possibly occur in the private individual- 
istic practice. 

Fourth: Placing a physician in industry, in stores, banks, 
etc., makes health a part of the work-a-day life — adds it 
to the cost of doing business — puts health matters on a 
business basis. 

Fifth: Consultation for diagnosis is encouraged by the 
industrial physician to a greater degree than by the prac- 
titioner because the industrial physician's failures stare 
him in the face daily; his uncured cases are advertised to 
all of the group, including management. 

Sixth: The industrial physician sees the human machine 
under a load test. He sees it gradually get out of align- 
ment and makes repairs before a complete breakdown 
occurs. Before and after an illness he adjusts the load 
to the ability of the weakened human machine. 

Seventh: In the supervising of as few as 5 per cent 
of those gainfully employed the industrial physician 
perhaps makes more physical examinations per year where 
no illness is involved than are made on the other 95 
per cent of the workers. * * * 

Eighth: Teaching the breadwinner the worth-whileness 
of personal hygiene, prompt attention to minor injury and 
illness and the value of physical examinations means that 
more money will be cheerfully spent on these same facilities 
for the members of the family for whom he or she provides. 

Ninth: In case of preventable illness or accidents under 
a system of industrial medicine the worker blames himself 
for the loss of wages and knows his employer is being 
robbed of production. In the other case, he usually curses 
his " bad luck " and feels that the physician in private 
practice is fattening on his God-sent misfortunes. 

Tenth: Industrial medicine is one of the safe, sane stop- 
gaps between whatever is unsatisfactory in the present 
system of medicine and that much heralded state medicine. 
It supplies the economical advantages of the organized 
treatment of large groups but preserves the real values 
of the individualistic competitive system of practice. Our 
statecraft is of such low grade that we should desist from 
overloading our ship of state until the present political 
leaks are stopped. 

Eleventh: Industrial medicine now supervising perhaps 
four million workers and employing the part or whole time 
of possibly two thousand physicians has developed in spite 
of the indifference of our medical leaders toward this new 
specialty and has attracted many good men despite the 
patronizing attitude of the profession at large. 

Twelfth: The sanitarian should be the strongest pro- 
ponent of the extension of industrial medicine, which is 
applying preventive medicine, collective and individual, 
in its most intense form — compelling periodic physical 
examination and demonstrating the value of the prompt 
seeking of medical attention and early diagnosis. Sani- 
tation and the detection of contagious diseases and of 
sources of occupational disease add further argument to 
the value of the industrial physician's work, to say noth- 
ing of his ability to furnish reliable morbidity statistics 
covering large groups. 

Thirteenth: If mortality and morbidity are to be reduced 
to the minimum it must be through the more direct appeal 
to individuals to observe the laws of personal hygiene, to 
avoid quacks and nostrums, and to seek the physician's aid 
early. If such interest be placed on an economic basis, as 
in industry, this program will be definitely accelerated. 

Posture and Fatigue 

PREVIOUS to the introduction of an intensive campaign 
for improvement of posture in the ladies' garment shops 
in New York city, the Joint Board of Sanitary Control of 
the industry has been making a survey of the seating and 
lighting conditions of two hundred representative shops. The 
study was begun in February, and is now nearly completed. 
The board, by reason of its function, has been in constant 
contact with the workers in the shops, and therefore con- 
versant with their physical environment; it has recognized 
the seriousness of improper seating, poor illumination and bad 
ventilation, as well as the importance of shop sanitation. 

Industrial physicians have proved that one of the leading 
factors contributing to fatigue in industry is the posture of 
the worker. Yet in the clothing industry, and particularly 
the ladies' garment branch, practically nothing has been done 
to cope with this phase of the problem. The question of the 
posture of the worker resolves itself into the way the worker 
sits at his machine as an operator, or works at the table as a 
finisher, or stands at the pressing board as a presser. The 
study of the health of the garment workers of New York 
City made in 19 15 by Dr. J. S. Scherewschevsky of the 
United States Public Health Service presented definite facts 
concerning the diseases of the worker attributable to bad pos- 
ture; yet of the eighty-five thousand workers in the trade, 
few have had their postural defects rectified, or have bene- 
fited at all by the recommendations made in this study. 

In the present survey interesting facts have been brought 
to light concerning conditions in the shops. 

The posture of the machine operator depends not only 
upon her chair but also upon the light in which the work is 
done. On account of poor illumination and the need for 
careful attention to her work, the operator is invariably 
found leaning forward, with shoulders rounded, trunk bent, 
eyes glued uppn the needle, and her whole weight resting 
upon the end of her spine. The old feeling persists that any 
seat will do ; and all manner of seats have been found : round 
stools, rough benches with padding on the seats, kitchen 
chairs reenforced by wire, folding camp chairs, and straight- 
back chairs — a heterogeneous mixture. Attempts have been 
made by the workers to adjust the seats to their particular 
heights so that chairs with legs unevenly sawed off are fre- 
quently found, as well as chairs with boxes or pillows on the 
seat to raise the height. In several instances where operators 
were sitting on rough benches in preference to kitchen chairs, 
they were asked why they preferred the former. The 
answers varied : " I am too tall and the chair is too short, 
so I'd rather have the bench "; or, " The chair rides around 
with the vibration of the machine"; or (from a man), "A 
bench is better for a man — we don't get a chance to use the 
back of a chair, anyway." 

The seating problem of the hand finisher is as serious as 
that of the operator, for there is even less chance for a varia- 
tion in her posture. The finisher sits at a long, narrow table 
at the bottom of which is a narrow strip of wood used for 
support. The table holds her needles, pins, hooks and eyes. 
She sits with her work in her lap, sometimes resting her feet 
on the narrow strip of wood, sometimes curling them on the 
rungs of the chair, but more frequently with her legs 
cramped and her body bent forward, with no support for 
her legs or back. To sit in such a position for eight hours a 
day without any possibility of relaxation is obviously detri- 
mental to health. Yet the situation is often complicated by 
a chair too short for the worker, or too high. It requires 
but a little forethought and a small expenditure to install 
comfortable, adjustable chairs and a properly adjusted sup- 
port upon which the feet can rest squarely and with comfort. 
The waste of energy' and strength in the present posture of 
the finisher could easily be rectified to the benefit of the 
worker and the efficiency of the business. 

April 8, 1922 



The occupation of the presser in its very nature compels 
him to stand all day at his work. This, in itself a hardship, 
is added to by the varying heights of pressing boards and 
weights of irons, and by the distance of the iron rest from 
the pressing board. Most serious of all is the constant stand- 
ing on a tin floor with no possibility of varying the position 
to secure relief. 

It is not to be wondered at that the faulty seating results 
in drooping shoulders, interference with the proper functions 
of the lungs, hernia, weakened abdominal muscles and flat 
feet. The Joint Board of Sanitary Control hopes to create 
an intelligent understanding of the seating problem in the 
industry. Furthermore, it hopes to educate the manufacturer 
co the realization that bad posture means fatigue and fatigue 
means inefficiency and that it is just as much a matter of good 
business for him to secure good illumination and comfortable 
adjustable seats for his workers, as it is to have the most 
modern machines. Theresa Wolfson. 

Industrial Health Laboratories 

THE organization of the Industrial Health Conservancy 
Laboratories of Cincinnati is the outgrowth of an un- 
successful attempt on the part of the University of Cin- 
cinnati to interest the manufacturer in industrial medicine, 
industrial hygiene and plant sanitation. The effort at the 
university seemed to show clearly that the average manufac- 
turer was antagonistic to the approach to his plant from a 
university department of industrial hygiene. Some of the 
workers formerly associated with the university enterprise 
therefore established the present organization on a commer- 
cial basis in order to overcome the prejudice of the manu- 

Headed by Dr. Carey P. McCord, a group of investi- 
gators, consultants and advisers are acting as a service bureau 
for manufacturers, for associations of employers and asso- 
ciations of employes. They offer service on the conduct of 
medical departments, advise on their organization, and con- 
duct special technical investigations. 

Although charges are made for services, the directors em- 
phasize that the work is not conducted primarily for 
monetary returns. At the present time two types of work 
are especially engaging the attention of the laboratories. 
The first grows out of the fact that heretofore industrial 
medicine has, for the most part, been limited to the large 
establishments employing one thousand workers or more. 
The majority of industrial plants are too small to warrant 
employing a full-time physician. Workers of the small plants 
of two or three hundred have been given scant health super- 
vision, and on the average, work conditions in these pHnts 
are at a much lower standard than in the large plants. One 
of the first experiments of the laboratories has therefore been 
in the conduct of a satisfactory health department for the 
small plant, through a group of industrial physicians, 
hygienists, safety engineers, and statisticians. These render 
to the small plant the amount and type of supervision needed. 
They spend a regular amount of time in the factory daily, 
and investigate the sanitary and safety conditions at intervals 
depending upon the condition of the plant. Thus the manu- 
facturer has the advantage of the services of a group of ex- 
perts no matter what the size of his plant may be. For 
emergencies one physician is always in attendance at the 
head office. 

The second problem now being dealt with centers about 
occupational diseases. Dr. McCord calls attention to the 
fact that if the average doctor is asked about occupational 
diseases, ordinarily his information is limited to four or five. 
However, there are over seven hundred different occupations 
and trade processes which carry with them definite, specific 
occupational disease hazards. The great frequency of such 
specific trade diseases and the enormous harm from them is 

little known to the workers, to the manufacturer, or to the 
medical profession. Such cases of occupational diseases as 
find their way into hospitals are (a few hospitals excepted) 
regarded just as "cases to be diagnosed and treated" and not 
as products of bad work conditions calling for betterment. 
Investigation and remedying of these occupational diseases 
are the job of the laboratory. 

The ultimate object is to protect the health of the worker ; 
but the results in efficiency and lessening of absenteeism are 
so great, according to Dr. McCord, that the medical depart- 
ment so organized pays for itself year by year. The labora- 
tories are as much interested in these questions from the 
worker's point of view as they are from that of the manu- 
facturer and they desire the opportunity to work with 
employe groups. 

Among investigations carried on by the organization has 
been one into zinc chloride poisoning — which broke out 
among workers in a wood preserving industry — and into 
the means of protecting the pregnant woman in industry, the 
results of which appeared in an article by Carty P. McCord 
and Dorothy K. Minster in the Journal of Industrial 
Hygiene for June, 192 1. 

Rag Towns 

SANITARY conditions in the average oil camp or oil 
boom town are so imperfect as to invite the visitation of 
a costly fire or an epidemic, according to a statement made by 
the United States Bureau of Mines in a report on the condi- 
tions that prevail in this type of community. The report says : 

Such communities usually have no water supply, or a wholly 
inadequate one. Garbage and decaying vegetable matter, tin cans, 
old rags and scrap paper are laid generally in small heaps about 
temporary structures or are strewn promiscuously over vacant lots. 
Flies swarm in legions and the atmosphere reeks with offensive odors. 

Many oil men employ the contract system of drilling, which elim- 
inates the tendency of companies to build camps or small towns 
over which they may exercise personal supervision as to housing 
and sanitation. In the contract system, the company bargains for 
the development of its holdings with a contractor who provides, at 
a stipulated price, the material and labor for drilling the wells. 
The system relieves the company of all responsibility except its 
financial obligations to the contractor. 

The contractor engages his drillers, tool dressers, and laborers. 
Most of them are brought from outside districts, and if oil is found 
and the field gives promise of commercial production, the oil workers 
are followed by freighters, jitney drivers, restaurant keepers, inn 
keepers, and the innumerable small trades people who, with their 
families, go to make up the population of such districts. So it is 
that a stretch of trackless prairie sometimes becomes, almost over- 
night, a community numbering thousands of people who establish 
themselves in temporary buildings, tents, dugouts, lean-to shelters, 
or even within four topless walls of burlap or in the open. These 
mushroom communities have been aptly termed " rag towns." 

Ranger, Desdemona, and Burk-Bennett, Texas, were towns of this 
type in 1919. While it is admitted that the sanitation conditions in 
such communities are deplorable, it has been argued that they are 
the results of extraneous circumstances and will be remedied as soon 
as conditions are normal ; but experience has shown that " normal " 
conditions are never attained until such a community has been 
visited by costly fires or epidemics. In fact " normal " conditions 
are not established until the field has been proved a success or 
failure, which often takes months or even years. 

While conditions such as these, according to the Bureau 
of Mines, prevail in the newer oil fields of little populated 
districts, the older oil fields show markedly better conditions. 
The responsibility for this betterment the bureau lays 
squarely at the door of the state governments which have, 
broadly speaking, adequate legislation to cope with such 
exigencies. It says: 

The enforcement of the law, however, is too often left to the com- 
munity itself and rests in the hands of a few men who either think 
that they cannot afford to run the risk of antagonizing their neighbors 
by the enforcement of ordinances, or who are so engrossed in business 
that they are indifferent to the responsibilities entrusted to them. 
Therefore the neglect of those in authority to meet these responsibil- 
ities brings hardship and unnecessary misery to a class of migratory 
workers who may be especially susceptible to the influences of social 



April 8, 1922 

Output and Hours of Work 

OUTPUT in relation to hours of work in the textile 
industry, a question now under debate in Rhode Is- 
land and New Hampshire where one of the issues of the 
cotton textile strike is the demand of the manufacturers for 
a return to the 54-hour week in mills on 48 hours, is dis- 
cussed at length in Industrial Fatigue and Efficiency, by 
H. M. Vernon, M. D., investigator for the Industrial 
Fatigue Research Board of England (E. P. Dutton & Co., 
New York). In this volume is gathered together present- 
day knowledge concerning industrial fatigue and its in- 
fluence on efficiency so far as workshop practice is concerned. 
Of the experience in the textile industry in the British Isles 
Dr. Vernon says: 

In Great Britain . . i the chief inspector of factories reports 
(1918) that when the hours were reduced from 55 to 49J4 a week, 
the output in some factories (at Macclesfield) showed a reduction 
proportionate to the reduction of hours, but at other factories it 
was proportionate to about half the reduction of hours, and in 
one factory there was practically no reduction in the output of the 
looms, as the weavers kept so much better time. In Scottish fac- 
tories, again, a similar reduction of hours caused an almost pro- 
portionate fall of output in carding, but a smaller fall in spinning, 
whilst in "finishing" there was no reduction of output. Time 
keeping was said to have improved greatly. At a Yorkshire 
thread works a reduction of hours from 55^2 to 49J4 at first 
caused output to fall in proportion to the reduction of hours, but 
it gradually rose during the four subsequent years till it reached 
the old maximum, which has been maintained ever- since. No in- 
formation is vouchsafed as to the cause of the very gradual rise 
of output, other than that time-keeping improved. Presumably 
there were some improvement of plant and organization, and some 
speeding up of machinery. 

In Wales a firm reduced the hours of work from 52J4 to 49^, 
and the result was so satisfactory in the weaving department that 
the system was extended to the spinning department. The day 
workers were told that if the output was not reduced their wages 
would be maintained at the old level. Time-keeping immediately 
improved, and it is considered that the output is now fully up to 
that previously obtained. On the other hand the Belfast employ- 
ers were universally of the opinion that the output of the spin- 
ners will be reduced almost pro rata to the reduction of hours, 
though the weavers are in very different case. 

It is to be remembered that the whole of the above-recorded evi- 
dence relating to cotton maufacture was furnished by employers, 
and in many instances it is undoubtedly vitiated by the fact that 
the comparison of output was made immediately after and before 
the change of hours. 

Coal Mine Fatalities 

THE death rate from coal mine accidents per thousand 
in the United States is on an average about three times 
that in Great Britain, according to the American Labor 
Legislation Review which also notes that, although the out- 
put of the United States is on the average more than double 
that of the United Kingdom, the number of workers em- 
ployed is considerably less. 

Two hundred and ten lives were lost through accidents 
in the coal mines of the United States during the month of 
February, according to reports received by the United States 
Bureau of Mines from the various state mine inspectors. 
This represents an increase of fifty fatalities or about 31 per 
cent over the corresponding month for 1921, while the pro- 
duction of coal for the month represents an increase of but 
25 per cent over February, 1921. 

Commissioner Connelley of the Workmen's Compensa- 
tion Bureau of Pennsylvania, in a recent report of the de- 
partment, presents figures to show that 62.6 per cent of 
the accidents in Pennsylvania industries are the result of 
carelessness, that 82.2 per cent are preventable, and that 25 
per cent of the compensation cases come from the anthracite 
coal field. Nearly two-thirds of the persons injured in ac- 
cidents reported for 1921 were citizens of the United States. 
Italians comprise the largest single group. The amount of 
wages lost because of accidents was $9,924,259; the number 
of days lost was 2,061,733. Of the 140,197 accidents, 6,210 

developed into blood poisoning cases; 108,598 persons were 
dependent upon those injured in accidents; there were 471 
accidents of minors under sixteen years of age. 

The effectiveness of first-aid work in the mining districts 
of Iowa, where 14,000 miners dig coal from under the 
prairie stretches, is emphasized by Dr. John M. Griffin, 
superintendent of the Miners' Hospital at Albia, Iowa. 
The idea that a man with a broken back is done for is out 
of date in that hospital where in recent years out of forty- 
four cases of broken backs among the coal miners operated 
upon nineteen have been able to return to productive labor 
in the mines. This salvaging of broken backs as well as the 
increased saving of eyes Dr. Griffin attributes to the proper 
handling of the cases at the time of injury by miners skilled 
in first-aid methods. 

Industrial Hygiene News 

UNDER its workingmen's compensation law, Oregon is 
reducing the number of unproductive crippled men 
whose injuries prevent them from returning to their former 
employment, with the aid of physical reconstruction and vo- 
cational retraining. In this way a considerable financial sav- 
ing for the state industrial fund is brought about. A thor- 
oughly equipped department of physiotherapy has been es- 
tablished in Portland and a smaller branch at Salem. In 
these clinics from seventy-five to one hundred men are daily 
treated for conditions resulting from serious industrial acci- 
dents. Vocational training is given through established 
vocational schools of the state, paid for by the workingmen's 
compensation commission, while the living expenses of the 
men and their families during the period of training are 
carried by the rehabilitation fund. 

THREE methods of testing whether conditions of work are 
favorable from a physiological aspect — as distinct from the 
health and safety aspects as usually limited — were advanced 
at a recent meeting of the Royal Society of Arts in England 
by D. R. Wilson, secretary of the Industrial Research 
Fatigue Board: First, when complete recovery from the 
fatigue of the day's work is impossible, the result inevitably 
will be sickness or time lost. A study of the time sheets 
therefore should provide at least an approximate index of 
this condition. Second, if the fatigue experienced stops short 
of the point of exhaustion, that is if rest after the day's work 
suffices to assure complete recovery, only subjective tests 
given at different times during the work period could 
indicate the variations of fatigue at different times of the 
day and their effect. Unfortunately, says Mr. Wilson, such 
a test has not so far been discovered, so that indirect methods 
of testing the physiological results of work have to be used. 
Third, efficiency tests may be applied to find whether workers 
are prevented by unfavorable conditions from putting forth 
their best effort. Efficiency in this connection is not, of 
course, merely productive efficiency as measured by 

The board has introduced five main tests of what it pre- 
fers to call " fitness " because of the misuse of the word 
" efficiency " : variation in output, sickness and mortality, 
labor turnover, lost time, and accident incidence. The diffi- 
culty in applying these or any other tests, he says, is the 
presence of many factors besides working conditions that 
can be controlled, such as temperature, humidity, light, con- 
ditions outside the factory, food, etc. Another difficulty is 
that the effect of working conditions over long periods may 
be different from that they have during the necessarily 
brief period of the test. At best it has been found quite a 
task to secure material for such studies in plants where 
different influences could be isolated and where records 
exist over a considerable length of time. 



By George B. Mangold. University of Missouri Studies. 209 
pp. Price $1.50; with postage from the Survey, $1.70. 
In this monograph Dr. Mangold has brought together the most 
valuable information we have on the problem of the unmarried 
mother and her child. His scope of discussion covers such topics 
as Illegitimacy in the United States, Underlying Causes and 
Conditions, Philanthropic and Commercial Agencies, The Out- 
come for the Child, and Legislative Reform. He shows the 
complexities of the problem, both individual and social, the 
hardships and handicaps which beset mother and infant, and 
the practical difficulties encountered in attempts to lessen these 
handicaps. Although he stresses the problem as it appears in 
the United States, he illuminates his discussion by comparisons 
with European figures and methods. 

In making his study Dr. Mangold has realized that he la- 
bored under two disadvantages: one that adequate and reliable 
statistics on his subject are wanting, the other that intensive 
study of typical groups of unmarried mothers has not been 

The lack of adequate and reliable statistics, especially in the 
United States, makes the subject of illegitimacy a hazardous 
one in which to draw conclusions. The author gives a number 
of selected tables of figures, certain of which would not be 
readily available to students or to lay readers, and he interprets 
this material readably and judicially. At the same time it some- 
what counts against the impression t»f cautious generalizing 
which the book as a whole produces that in one or two instances 
the qualifications of his statements as to causative factors should 
be so far separated from the statements themselves that their 
qualifying force may easily be overlooked. A case in point is 
Dr. Mangold's discussion of the bearing of low mentality on 
unmarried motherhood. In one passage he justly points out 
that " until a greater degree of accuracy appears among this 
class of investigators (a worker had claimed 98 per cent of 
feeblemindedness among unmarried mothers) and until a more 
definite line of cleavage between the normal and feebleminded 
can be established, the proportion of feebleminded which they 
discover in a community has only moderate value." Evident as 
it therefore is that Dr. Mangold is aware of the tentativencss 
if not actual unreliability of many figures about the feeble- 
trunded and of the reasons for this unreliability, his general tone 
in other places in his report does not bear out such cautious- 
ness. With the tests of mental defect and their social import 
still undergoing appraisal, he seems a little precipitate in recom- 
mending a law to forbid cohabitation with a feebleminded 
woman. Unless a woman is so defective that a layman can diag- 
nose her, how can he be held to a special responsibility because 
of her helplessness ? The recommendation would certainly sug- 
gest that the author thought of the line between feebleminded- 
ness and " normality " as clean-cut and obvious. Inconsistencies 
like this, however, are not numerous in the book. 

To a second handicap which an author feels in this subiect 
Dr. Mangold calls attention when he says, " In order to gain 
adequate knowledge of both the individual and social causes of 
unlawful motherhood, a careful and painstaking case investi- 
gation of typical groups of mothers in various localities should 
be made." In place of " investigation " any case worker would 
say " investigation and follow-up treatment." Such intensive 
study, if it is to yield results, must be done as a part of case 
work. It will entail a gradual change in our conception of case 
work and an ultimate change in the activities of case work 
agencies. Let us see how this is likely to come about. 

In describing the various methods of care for mother and 
child, Dr. Mangold faces frankly the practical difficulties. He 
says of the woman with an infant that "at least a year of 
supervision is necessary, and during this time frequent reports 
should be received and occasional visits made." Having in mind 
this ideal, to which the best equipped agencies would all sub- 
scribe, he remarks of the social service of municipal hospitals 
that " the task of follow-up work is so tremendous that little 
attention is paid to any woman after she has been placed for 
the first time." Such a statement could truthfully be made of 
many other agencies besides municipal hospitals. If cases are 
to be followed up for " at least a year," it will mean that with 
new appeals for assistance constantly coming in, the agency will 

find itself obliged to refuse new cases. The line of least resist- 
ance is often to reduce the amount of follow-up supervision. 
An additional difficulty in these cases is that they are expensive. 
Each case involves three people, any one or all of whom may 
need prolonged attention from the agency, and two of these 
people may require costly medical service. For this reason, and 
perhaps also because boards of directors look upon unmarried 
mothers as especially discouraging objects of concern, agencies 
other than maternity homes and hospitals at times show a re- 
luctance to accept new cases of this sort. 

Ths practical difficulties in caring for unmarried mothers 
and their infants raise a question as to whether agencies may 
not always have to limit what we technically describe as " in- 
tensive " case work to a few of the mothers. Actually this is 
w'thout doubt what happens at present. Certain cases, of course, 
are suitably disposed of without supervision, notably those of 
mothers who return to respectable relatives or who are de- 
ported. Yet even setting these cases aside, agencies still select 
a few out of many mothers for thorough supervision. Th ; s 
question of limiting intensive care applies not only to cases of 
illegitimacy but to all case work. Looked at- thus broadly, it 
leads us into the much debated subject of the function of private 
versus public agencies. 

Signs are becoming evident that this old topic, often fruit- 
lessly discussed, is turning in a new and practical direction. 
Discontent with the trend of private case-work agencies is 
appearing among young workers. It is expressed in such words 
as " case work has no vision," " social work does not get any- 
where," " agencies do not know what they are aiming at." The 
meaning of this attitude, unspoken because it might sound in- 
humane, is a dissatisfaction that a great amount of energy is 
spent on an unending succession of cases many of which show 
only a moderate hope of favorable outcome, and which are dealt 
with one by one, each as if it had no bearing on any others. 
It is, in short, an indication that we are moving away from 
the thought of cases of need in their individual aspect to a 
conception that they have important typical aspects not yet 

This dissatisfaction with an old point of view becomes mani- 
fest in the development of social work. Roughly, one might 
speak of three phases in social work, the first a period of un- 
organized benevolence, the second a period during which organ- 
ization has developed, the third the period into which we are 
just emerging. The second period has given us methods of or- 
ganization which have been tested out for different kinds of 
agency — child-placing, family welfare, etc. — has established such 
agencies in all parts of the country, and has also given us a 
technique of case work — altogether a very creditable showing. 
The routine procedure of this case work is based on a preoc- 
cupation with the individual needs of clients. During the last 
few years, however, the influence of schools of social work and 
of sociologists has been pressing us toward a different concep- 
tion of case work and of the function of private agencies. We 
are beginning to think of a future in which the concern with 
cases of need, while no less humane and sympathetic on the 
individual side, will stress the typical or social aspects of these 
cases, and in which case-work agencies — at any rate in the 
larger cities and in places where public authorities do fair work 
— will gradually become what may be described as social labora- 
tories. Since private agencies, because of limited funds, must 
perforce select their cases, why should they not make their se- 
lection on such a basis that study of these cases would give us 
a more explicit understanding of social ills than we can get 
at present ? This would mean that an agency would accept 
for care what Dr. Mangold calls some " typical group " of un- 
married mothers — a group of mothers under eighteen years of 
age, a group from broken homes, etc. Study of these cases 
would go on simultaneously with treatment. Work done in 
this way is what Dr. Strecker suggests in his article in The 
Family of December last. 

Such case work with its accompanying research should grad- 
ually give to our discussion of causative factors and of con- 
structive social measures an explicitness inevitably wanting in 
Dr. Mangold's book. " Broken homes," for example, is a recog- 
nized factor in delinquency of girls and we take it unques- 
tioningly as an explanation. Yet we know many broken homes 




April 8, 1922 

in which girls grow up respectably. What is it in certain 
instances of them that makes mischief? What are the social 
values missed by this or that girl, and why does the lack of those 
values work just as it does? Are all broken homes alike in the 
values missed or are there instructive differences between them? 
Since broken homes appear in all walks of life, the 'answers to 
such questions will have a general interest, and the case 
worker who can thus throw light on maladjustments common 
to mankind will feel her efforts worth while, even when her 
case shows a discouraging succession of individual misfortunes. 

Ada E. Sheffield. 

Director, Bureau 0)f Illegitimacy, 

Boston, Massachusetts. 


By Kenneth Macgowan. Bofii and Liveright. 302 pp. Price, 

$5.00; with postage from the Survey, $5.30. 
In spite of a title which is full of social significance, the larger 
part of Mr. Macgowan's book is devoted to the mechanician, the 
electrician, the painter and the director in the theater. It ac- 
complishes its purpose in setting forth the ideas behind the new 
stagecraft and the reforms in the physical playhouse. It gives 
very little space to the creative contribution of the playwright 
and the player. 

That he believes the " Eternal Theater " cannot be looking to 
its future fulfillment entirely through the mediums of sliding or 
swinging stage — to the question of adaptable prosceniums, or 
even through the magic of lighting, important as these develop- 
ments are in the newer ideas of production, is apparent. He 
points out that unquestionably the new art of the theater is 
to be a closer linking of many other arts; the dramatist of the 
future will think more in terms of color, design, movement, 
music, and less in words alone. In spite of the fact that during 
the past twenty-five years the largest part of the work toward 
the theater of tomorrow has been done in playhouses serving the 
most limited public, he expresses the belief that the theater of 
the future will be the theater of democracy; that either under 
industrial imperialism or revolutionary democracy there will be 
a gradual springing up of festival theaters in which the finest 
creative spirit of the community, exemplified in playwrights, 
artists and actors, can labor. It may come as the expression of 
a democracy thwarted in outward form, or it may come as the 
expression of a democracy which can never exist under the 
machinery of government and commerce, but which will flame 
out through communal art. In conclusion Mr. Macgowan says: 

" To write of the theater of the revolution and of life made 
whole brings me up sharp against the sense of danger of apoca- 
lyptic fervors. Yet it is impossible to deny a faith in the City 
of God." Ann Reed Brenner. 


By Edith Houghton Hooker. The Gorham Press; Boston. 
. 365 pp. Price, $5.00; with postage from the SURVEY, $5.25. 
The result of seventeen years' research, thought and practical 
work undertaken by Edith Houghton Hooker and her hus- 
band, Dr. D. R. Hooker, is here presented in a book of sane 
and serious purpose. Mrs. Hooker discusses problems of sex 
education, birth control, marriage, prostitution and venereal 
disease. With the political emancipation of women the first suc- 
cessful step toward solution in the tangled problems of sex has 
been taken, she feels. It is her point of departure and her final 
conclusion that before the less fundamental aspects of the sit- 
uation can be dealt with, the double standard of morals for 
men and women must go; and the essential element in this is 
the awakening sense of responsibility among American women. 

Pointing out that not so very long ago the medical profession 
treated tuberculosis as a disease which demanded a special at- 
titude on the part of the physician, not always in conformity 
with the laws of hygiene applied to other communicable diseases, 
she advocates that the public and the physician consider a sick 
person, regardless of the morality involved in the case, as a 
public menace, and for that reason as well as humane reasons 
to demand treatment according to strict hygienic principles. 
Ethical motives and hygienic ideals are not confused, but their 
common object emphasized in this consideration of the subject. 
The first and simplest approach to the problem, Mrs. Hooker 
observes, is the careful education of children. 

Ruth Metzger. 


By Franklin H. Oiddings. Macmillan Co. 308 pp. Price, $3.00 ; 
with postage from the Sdrvey, $3.15. 

Mr. Shaw's preface to Methuselah lends timely "interest to the 
historical chapters of Professor Giddings' latest book which 
trace the development of culture through the ages and dwell 
upon the influences of scientific discovery upon social theory in 
modern days. An analytical section discusses the concepts and 
problems involved in the ideas of social order and social progress, 
and a synthetic section expands the author's now well known 
theory of pluralistic behavior and gives a stimulating list of un- 
answered questions for the student of society. The book is de- 
cidedly not one for beginners. 


By Charles M. Fassett. Thomas Y. Croicell Co. 177 pp. Price, 
$1.50 ; with postage from the Survey, $1.60. 


• By Charles M. Fassett. Thomas Y. Crowell Co. 192 pp. Price, 
$1.50 ; with postage from the Survey, $1.60. 

The author's background is that of the engineer, the chamber 
of commerce and the mayoralty of an important western city. 
His book of assets is little more than a listing of problems that 
require the attention of the progressive community and of 
wholesome if not especially imaginative solutions for them. It 
offers a good general survey of the physical and educational con- 
siderations which ought to engage the attention of any group of 
citizens desirous of improving their city. The handbook in a 
similar way lists the political and financial desiderata of city 
government and seems to have been written more particularly 
for the education of new voters. Both books are conservatively 
progressive; that is, none of the measures they propose are 
violently original; yet, a community that carried them all into 
effect might pride itself upon being far in advance of the great 
majority of cities. So far as the newer theories of civic de- 
velopment are concerned, Mr. Fassett has nothing to contribute. 


By Gladys and Henry Bollman. Henry Holt & Co. 298 pp. Price, 
$2.00 ; with postage from the Survey, $2.15. 

The supply of motion pictures to schools has passed the stage 
of general propaganda and entered that of wide, practical adop- 
tion. Mr. and Mrs. Bollman have had unusual experience in 
meeting the demand and in this book, after a history of the edu- 
cational uses of motion pictures in America, present solutions 
for some of the difficulties of exhibitors — dealing in turn with 
finance, equipment, hall, projection, setting, selection and book- 
ing, advertising, music, and the like. One hundred suggested 
programs are added for schools, settlements, community cen- 
ters, clubs, libraries, industries, reformatories, etc. The legal 
aspects, operation, care of films and other important details are 
also discussed. 

By Theodore Schroeder. H. TV. Wilson Co. 247 pp. Price, $4.00 ; 
with postage from the Survey, $4.10. 

A remarkably complete bibliography by the secretary of the 
Free Speech League which purports to include " every discovered 
attitude toward the problem covering every method of trans- 
mitting ideas and of abridging their promulgation upon every 
subject-matter." Mr. Schroeder intends shortly to issue a sup- 
plement to this volume. The contents are grouped not by 
chronological nor alphabetical arrangement, but according to 
the motives, such as economic, personal, religious, seditious, 
which called forth the expression of opinion they represent. 
English, French, German and Italian publications are listed, 
from the time of Queen Elizabeth to the present day. 


By Charles A. Beard. Alfred A. Knopf. 99 pp. Price, $1.50; with 

postage from the Survey, $1.55. 

By H. C. Bherman and 8. L. Smith. The Chemical Catalogue Co. 

New York. 273 pp. Price, $4.00 ; with postage from the sdrvkt, 


April 8, 1922 




Southern Mountain Workers 

THE Southern Mountain Workers' Conference, which held 
its tenth annual session in Knoxville this week, is a confer- 
ence unique in personnel and scope. It is made up primarily of 
people who are directing or doing work for the southern high- 
lander. Here for two days officials and field workers of dif- 
ferent denominations met with one another, with independent 
workers and organizations and with state, federal and national 
forces, for a discussion of the various aspects of the rural work 
in which they are interested. 

The conference has grown largely out of the efforts of the 
late John C. Campbell, secretary of the Southern Highland 
Division of the Russell Sage Foundation, whose volume, The 
Southern Highlander and His Homeland, the foundation has 
recently issued. Mr. Campbell's study of the entire mountain 
field gave him a personal knowledge of the different agencies 
engaged in trying to help the highlander agencies whose workers 
widely scattered over a region stretching from western Mary- 
land and West Virginia to northern Alabama, hardly know of 
each other's existence. Many times they were unfamiliar even 
with other mountain work carried on by the very board under 
which they were working. 

From the first meeting in Atlanta in 1912, where only a few 
of the most interested were present, the number of delegates 
has increased until it averages about two hundred. They come 
from many states — from Maryland and West Virginia, from 
Georgia and Alabama — and represent twelve denominations, 
many independent schools, Red Cross chapters, state boards of 
education and colleges of agriculture, as well as national organ- 
izations. Many are shut away during a great part of the year 
in remote pockets of the mountains where they have no touch 
with the outside except through books, letters and an occasional 
visitor. With their small salaries, few are able to go to larger 
conventions, and while some denominations make a practice of 
yearly conferences, there is need of the inspiration that comes 
from touch with all denominations and agencies with their 
varying experiences and points of view. Some of the delegates 
have attended every one of the conferences during the last ten 
years,' and this often at their own expense even though this 
expense often meant the whole of a month's salary. 

The primary object of getting together was naturally mutual 
acquaintance. The programs were at first very informal and 
gave much opportunity for description of individual work, 
whether or not it had peculiar merit. As the groups became 
familiar with one another, description of the work of indi- 
viduals gave way to discussion of the problem in its larger as- 
pects — educational, economic, religious, health, etc. Methods 
were considered which had been tried out more or less success- 
fully in one place and might be adapted to others. The ques- 
tion of cooperation between all the different agencies became 
prominent, and more and more emphasis was laid upon means by 
which all might help the highlander to help himself. 

Something of the recognized value of the meetings may be 
inferred from the fact that their support is being taken over 
by those actually participating. This year practically all of the 
expenses have been underwritten by the denominations repre- 
sented on the advisory board, supplemented by voluntary regis- 
tration fees. Moreover, the program, made up from selected 
subjects and speakers suggested, in the main by board members 
and field workers, increasingly represents the need of knowledge 
felt by those who are doing the work. On it figured such ques- 
tions as: What should be the work of a school in the high- 
lands not supported by state funds? What should be the rela- 
tions of private schools to state institutions? What appeals 
should be used in raising money? Does mountain farm life 
pay? What is the agricultural problem of the highlands? 
What their welfare problems? How far can schools do 
social and community work? How may women and girls in 
the home be reached? What responsibility has the Christian 
for his community and his environment? 

Among those scheduled were such authorities as William 
H. Hutchins, of Berea College, George A. Hubbell, of the 
Lincoln Memorial University, Paul L. Vogt, of the Board 

Books as Easter Gifts 

In the February 2nd issue of THE CONTI- 
NENT, there is a list of the " Six Best Sell- 
ers ' ' in religious books during the five months 
beginning with July, 1921. Association Press 
takes second and third place with these two 
books : 

T. R. Glover— $1.90 

" Dr. Glover has faced and grappled with the 
most important question of all history — that of 
the power of Jesus over human life." — Conti- 


Harry Emerson Fosdick — $1.25 
Dr. Fosdick writes from a compelling impulse 
to meet a great human need, and makes re- 
ligion an inspiring reality in the lives of hun- 
dreds of thousands. 

The following six titles are among the sixty- 
four other popular religious books : 


Harry Emerson Fosdick — $1.35 
Clears away the misapprehension involved in 
the commonly accepted theories of faith. 


A. Bruce Curry, Jr. — $.65 
A study of the Gospel of Mark, approached 
from the problem viewpoint. 


S. M. Shoemaker, Jr.— $.90 
A vivid religious experience that came with 
novel and transforming force to a thoroughly 
modern person. 

E. I. Bosworth— $1.15 

Gives us many valuable conceptions of the 
Christian standard of life 

T. R. Glover— $1.50 

It is a book of genuine interest to the student 
of religion and to every Christian layman. 


Harrison S. Elliott— $.90 

The whole viewpoint of the approach to the life 
of Jesus is that of considering the issues he met. 

At your bookstore 
or from us 



lha mark of a book 
written to meet a need 


347 Madison Avenue New York 

Please mention The Subvet when writing to advertisers 



April 8, 1922 





Work Portraits 





-j'uiiuiiiinimiiMiimMUMiiuwuMM miiuiiuniimiuiwiB 


What Lies Back of It and What Lies Ahead 

The Board of Directors of Survey Associates 
Invite Members and Friends to a Dinner at 

Friday Evening, April 21, 1922, at 7 o'clock 

when this topic will be discussed by 

Mr. Harry A. Garfield 

President, Williams College, for- 
mer United States Fuel Adminis- 

Mr. Philip Murray 

Vice-President, United Mine 
Workers of America. 

Mr. Thomas H. Watkins 

Chairman of the Board of Direc- 
tors, Central Pennsylvania Coal 
Producers' Association, and Presi- 
dent of the Pennsylvania Coal and 
Coke Corporation, Cresson, Pa. 

Mr. Robert W. Bruere 

Director of the Bureau of Indus- 
trial Research. 

Tickets $3.50 
Checks to Survey Associates Inc., 112 East 19th Street. New York City 


balmed to look himself; the floral display was immense. Per- 
haps such devotion to the dog mate goes on the plea "the more 
I see of men, the better I like dogs." 

But the whimsy of spending so large a sum in disposing of 
the body of a canine friend gives pause to think. What are 
we coming to in funeral extravaganzas? Such a dog burial 
might shock sensible people and induce many to call a halt to 
useless parade and expense also at human funerals. Americans 
should learn the more excellent way practiced in European lands 
where municipal funeral management, public control of burial 
and communal ownership of cemeteries have become common. 

The annual sum spent in America on funeral costs alone is 
three hundred million dollars — the greater part of it burden- 
some waste and worse. Add to this what is spent on drugs and 
nostrums, said to be about half a billion yearly, and see what 
it means: the beginning of sorrows" due to last sickness and 
dying. It grows upon us that the curse of the poor is not 
their poverty, but that the foolishness of most of us is our 

Lombard, III. Quincy L. Dowd. 

[Mr. Dowd's book on Funeral Management and Costs [see 
the Survey for October 15, 1921] gives a detailed and graphic 
description of the waste to which he here draws attention 
and its cost in terms of human welfare. Jane Addams, in com- 
menting on it, said: "Those of us who have lived for many 
years among the poor are well aware of the extravagant sum? 
which are habitually spent upon funerals, and yet to insist 
upon reform in the individual cases is almost impossible." Mr. 
Dowd has presented in that book the only practical suggestions 
for a way out that have so far been offered. — The Editor.] 

An International University 

To the Editor: We are very thankful for the fine lines you 
have devoted to our great work of trying to build a " brain 
for the world." [See the Survey for December 10, page 390.] 
Americans alone are able to appreciate such an enterprise, and 
our hope was that the necessary help would have come from 
the western shores of the Atlantic. Some small, inadequate 
support came from the Carnegie Endowment. But since Sep- 
tember, 1914, that help was stopped 

At Geneva fortunately some sympathy was expressed, and 
the appreciation of such a man as Gilbert Murray was a 
compensation for the stupidity of others. Of course, there is 
some chance that the League of Nations will consecrate our 
long and patient effort of more than a quarter of a century. 
But we fear officialism, even international. Our desire is to 
be only loosely connected with the world administration; and co- 
operation, intellectual, material and financial, should be given 
from the outside. Our institution should be considered as acad- 
emies are inside of the nations which receive an effective sup- 
port from their governments and to which often large en- 
dowments are entrusted. 

What a tremendous amount of work could be performed if 
somewhere a man were to place at the disposal of the World 
Center an annual income of a million dollars. Billions have been 
collected to kill men. Where is the world citizen with a vision 
who would help pioneers to show mankind the splendid result! 
which are within its hand's grasp if it had one thought and 
one will? Perhaps what was written in the Survey will awaken 
echos. Let us hope! H. La Fontaine. 


?niiiiitiiiiiiiitiiiiiiniiiiniiniiin if imnrn iirniimnnninniiniiniiinniiTniiniii mn munn irmnnnrmnninninni nnnrnmninnrnmnn mn inn imi imi 11m mnnma 

of Home Missions of the Methodist Episcopal Church, W. H. 
Swift, of the National Child Labor Committee, Fred N. Koch, 
of the University of North Carolina, the Rev. Charles N. 
Lathrop, of the Department of Social Service of the Protestant 
Episcopal Church, and Warren H. Wilson, of the Church and 
Country Life Division of the Presbyterian Church. 

A Canine Funeral 

To the Editor: Recently the pictorial page of a metropoli- 
tan newspaper gave facts concerning the freakish burial of a 
prize bulldog who had died at Hoboken, New Jersey, and 
whose master, all but heartbroken at the loss, had prepared a 
sumptuous burial in a regular dog cemetery, " at a cost of 
fifty-two hundred dollars." Probably there is a mistake 
in this estimate and it should read fifty-two dollars. However, 
the picture shows a silk-lined coffin; Rex must have been em- 

To the Editor: Senator La Fontaine and Professor Otlet 
have been for years collecting data with reference to interna- 
tional affairs and activities. Moreover, two years ago they 
established in Brussels what was called an International Uni- 
versity. Its internationalism consists in having some students 
come from the various European countries to listen to some 
professors who also come from some of the European coun- 
tries. It is all in embryo, however, and somewhat vague. 
Whether it is to be a college on any one of the plans of na- 
tional institutions with faculty and degrees and similar adjuncts 
of the university, I do not know. 

I may also say that there are three or four other plans for 
international universities on my desk at the present time. 
Whether a really international university can ever be estab- 
lished is a question. Most nations are having difficulty enough 
in supporting national universities. Moreover, some of the na- 
tional universities have had an international aspect for a good 

April 8, 1922 





many years and would not wish to yield their prestige in that 
respect to favor the establishment of a really international uni- 
versity. I can understand the discouragement of a fine soul 
like La Fontaine at the slowness of the realization of his dream, 
for he is a true internationalist in every respect. 

His statement about the Carnegie Endowment is true. Be- 
fore the war they granted a subsidy to his institution. Natur- 
ally, when Belgium was invaded and remained under the Ger- 
mans for four years, they did not continue it, and they have not 
resumed it since the war because of the conflict of views as to 
what the International University should be, where it should be, 
how it should be controlled, how financed. 

Stephen P. Duggan. 

Institute of International Education, 

New York. 

On " Bettering " Oneself 

To the Editor: High Brow Hoboes by Henry Bentley and 
Democratic Control by P. L. B. in the Survey of March 11 are 
so full of discerning comment on several of the most perplexing 
professional problems facing social workers that one wishes each 
point might have its page in the open forum. " Class spirit," 
which Mr. Bentley says we have and are wont to deny, is de- 
veloping with surprising rapidity. And as it develops, the search- 
ing light of self-criticism must be turned on just such things as 
these two articles are concerned with. 

With Mr. Bentley's main point every one must, I think, agree. 
The daily mail of the American Association of Social Workers 
is ample evidence that social workers are an itinerant lot. With 
a membership of about two thousand, approximately one hundred 
and fifty addresses change each month. A situation like this is 
indeed a deterrent to that slow accumulation of personal con- 
tact and influence which is the essence of community leadership. 
With his contention that in the eyes of the public we are always 
impractical, one may perhaps quarrel, yet, " visionary," " im- 
practical," " reformer " are familiar terms to us all. Only last 
week one of our members complained in the bitterest of terms 
that his own board " treated him exactly as if he were a do- 
mestic servant." Social workers do not in the eyes of the com- 
munity command the respect that they should. 

But are boards of directors, as Mr. Bentley generously be- 
lieves, primarily responsible for the faulty personnel policies of 
many social organizations? Are executives alone to blame, as 
P. L. B. implies, for the lack of democracy within the ranks? 
Must not the rank and file of social workers themselves bear 
their share also? When conditions within an organization be- 
come unbearable, when salaries show no signs of progressing 
either with length of service or acknowledged achievements, it 
has been easier to take a new job than to stand one's ground in 
demanding that conditions be changed. 

Problems relating to the public understanding of professional 
social work, to personnel and salaries, to the status of the indi- 
vidual in relation to his organization, are essentially professional 
problems. They must be solved by the professional group, and 
our very failure, as Mr. Bentley points out, to recognize a group 
feeling which has actually been in existance for a long time, is 
in a large measure responsible for the situation which todav 

One must recognize the inevitable danger that a " class spirit " 
may become a " caste spirit " and guard against it with every 
possible precaution. Yet democracy was never handed down 
from above, and the recognition by social workers of such re- 
sponsibilities as these must inevitably bring with it renewed 
clarity in thinking and the better ability to make that thinking 
effective which comes from group association. J. B. Buell. 

American Association of Social Workers. 

The 48-Hour Bill in New Hampshire 

To the Editor: I have read with interest your article in 
the issue of March 4 regarding the New England textile 
strike. It contains this paragraph: 

" In New Hampshire last summer there was a trade-union 
movement on foot to introduce a 48-hour bill in the legislature. 
There was a general sentiment for it, and social workers be- 
lieved there would be no difficulty in its passage. The legal 
adviser to the Amoskeag mill, however, persuaded the union that 
such a law was but a waste of. time and money; that it would 
cluttter up the files with legal material and ' we now have the 

Please mention The Sdbvbt when writing to advertisers 


Training School for Social Work 

Attendance Officers 
Child Welfare Family Welfare 

Visiting Teachers Medical Social Work 
Probation Officers Psychiatric Social Work 

Community Service 

The Director, Smith College, Northampton, Mass. 


Can the principle of co-operation be applied to our banks? 
Thia question is discussed and answered in a new and original 
book by Russ Webb, "Now. What About Our Banks?" This 
book contains theory, plus practice; it combines the warmth of 
the reformer with the scholarly instructive, under the restraint 
of practical, every-day-world experience and sound Judgment. 
The N-th degree of sound progresslveness. Single copy, $1 post- 
paid. Independent Publisher, Fort Lapwai, Idaho, or any live 
book store. 

We assist in preparing special articles, papers, speeches, 
debates. Expert, scholarly service. Author's Research 
Bureau, 500 Fifth Avenue, New York. 

well done, with good materials, and gold letter- 
Survey — Natl. Geographic Magazine and 
other periodicalt, $1.65. Egoblinq Book-Bindert, 
East 13th St., New York City. Telephone, 
Stuyvesant 8912. 

Educate your friends and colleagues on the 
nf\ 1 I nlTHHnrn ins and outs of the coal strike by distributing 
LUAL INUIYiDLKI Survey Graphic for : April. Price, 3 

each, 25 cents each for 12 or more, 20 cents 
each for 100 or more. 


In the editorial section of this issue is a report 
of a meeting of a social workers' club, at which 
the head of a school of social work recommended 
six books as a necessary part of every social 
worker's equipment. 

These books can be purchased through the book 
department of The Survey at the prices below. 
If accompanied by a new subscription to The 
Survey (weekly, $5 a year), or Survey Graphic 
(monthly, $3 a year), they may be had at 20% 

Trend of the Race 

By Samuel J. Holmes $4.00 

Human Behavior 

" Stetvart Paton 


Human Traits and Their 

Social Significance 

" I. Edman 


The Mind in the Making 

" James H. Robinson 


Principles of Sociology 

" Edward A. Ross 


Social Adaptation 

" Lucius M. Bristol 


Book Dept., Survey Associates, Inc. 

112 East 19th St., New York, N. Y. 



April 8, 1922 


Fourteen American Novelists 

Think of 

Ike JNovel of 1 omorrow 
A Supplement to 

The C2& j\ew 


April 12th 
On all Newsstands Today 

Samuel Hopkins Adams Zona Gale 

" All respectable persons 
realize that life is wholly 
unfit for the consideration 
of the pure." 

Mary Austin 

" We have never known in 
the United States just 
which of us is hero and 
which villian." 

James Branch Cabell 

" The sole aim of the novel, 
I take it, is to divert." 

Willa Cathe 

" The novel for a long 
while has been over fur- 

Floyd Dell 

" Fiction still retains the 
function of the fairy-tale — 
to make our world emotion- 
ally intelligible." 

Theodore Dreiser 

" The author of Pluck and 
Luck is a craftsman, and 
if he has a following, what 
more by way of justifica- 
tion does he need?" 

Waldo Frank 

" The novelist's need of 
individual and social psy- 
chology is a pretty good 
analogue to the plastic 
artist's needs of physical 

" The American novel lacks 
organic beauty." 

Joseph Hergesheimer 

" In the United States the 
profession of novelist sim- 
ply does not exist. 

Robert Hernck 

"America is ready — or 
nearly ready — for a re- 
appraisement, a restate- 
ment of herself." 

Harvey (j Higgtns 

" A novel is a collabora- 
tion between the conscious 
and subconscious minds." 

Henry Kitcbell Webster 

" The novelist should give 
his work form and struc- 
ture enough to make it in- 
telligible to others than 

William Allen White 

" The novel is for the day, 
as the newspaper, the sky- 
scraper or the park monu- 
ment is." 

Edith Wyatt 

" ' Dreaming True,' the ex- 
perience of being somebody 
else, is the most profoundly 
entertaining experience fic- 
tion offers." 

A dollar bill brings The New Republic 

for 13 weeks and this notable Supplement 


The New Republic, 421 West 21st Street, New York City 

For the enclosed $1 send me The New Republic for 13 weeks, 
including the Supplement on the Novel. 

Name . . 

48-hour law in effect as it is.' The unions now see their mis- 
take in being too trustful." 

I do not know where you got the information on which this 
statement is based; but it certainly conveys a very erroneous 
idea of the facts, and the facts, as I understand it, are what 
we all want. 

The facts on this particular matter are as follows: 

The legislature of New Hampshire met in its regular biennial 
session in January, 1921. A 48-hour bill was introduced; and 
it was defeated in the House of Representatives by a vote of 
211 to 129, on its third reading. 

Only one county, Hillsboro, in which Manchester and Nashua 
are situated, recorded a majority in favor of the bill. The 
agricultural counties were almost solid against it. Since the 
strike began, the governor and council have been petitioned by 
Mayor Waldron of Dover and others to call a special ses- 
sion of the legislature (which would be composed of the same 
members) to consider again the passage of such a law. To 
which Governor Brown has replied, in substance, that, in his 
judgment, such a course would be futile, in view of the over- 
whelming defeat which the measure sustained one year ago; 
and in further view of the fact that present public opinion as 
appraised by him and the members of his council, has not 
changed substantially James P. Richardson. 

Dartmouth College. 

[The Survey's informant, a resident of Manchester for one 
year, while her statements regarding the situation in the mills 
were based on first-hand information, evidently unintentionally 
misplaced the emphasis on the facts regarding the 48-hour bill. 
We are glad to quote further on this point from a letter from 
the Rev. Herbert Atchinson Jump, pastor of the First Con- 
gregational Church, Manchester, who writes: 

"As to the status of the 48-hour law in New Hampshire: 
the communication from Professor Richardson of Dartmouth 
College corresponds very closely to the facts, I should say. 
Our legislature meets only once in two years, and its season 
never reaches on into the summer. The Amoskeag did fight 
the 48-hour law, but the state of mind of our New Hampshire 
farmers probably defeated the measure much more than the 
pleading of any corporation attorney. It will be a long struggle 
to secure that legislation in this state. Not only does the agri- 
culturist feel that he works more than eight hours, but he is 
also convinced that he has to pay a lot more for a pair of shoes 
because some factory operative works only fight hours. I regret 
to say that the information which comes to me from a friend 
of mine, an editor of a country weekly, is to the fact that most 
of the people in the country are siding with the corporation, 
and not with the operatives in the present struggle. 

" The Amoskeag spent nearly $1,000 in sending a half-page ad 
of its side of the case to every one of the forty country news- 
papers of New Hampshire. Excellent advertising publicity is 
being run now by the unions in our Manchester newspapers, 
but the unions probably have not enough money to copy these 
advertisements in all of the country papers. If the struggle for 
a 48-hour law is to be launched next January it will have to be 
very vigorously prosecuted by social-minded persons in the 
state until they overcome the prejudices of the agricultural ele- 
ment." — The Editor.] 

Medical Social Service 

To The Editor: Except for three mistakes, the little article 
about the Social Service Department of Indiana University in the 
Survey for March 4 [page 899I is the best statement concern- 
ing our work which I have ever seen. The department is a 
teaching department of the College of Liberal Arts of the 
university and only closely associated and geographically con- 
nected with the School of Medicine. Nor does it teach only 
medical social work, though it is true that so far its best results 
have been in that field. An omission which I should like to 
correct is that of the name of Robert E. Neff, who has been the 
director of the department since August, 1921. 

Edna G. Henry. 

Social Service Department, 

School of Medicine, 

Indiana I 'ni;\ rsity. 

[Sic! — Editor.] 

Pleanc mention The Survey uhen writing to advertisers 

April 8, 1922 




FURNITURE guilds are the latest embodi- 
ment of the guild idea in Great Britain. 
It is perhaps no coincidence that the first 
furniture guild, like the first building guild, 
was formed in Manchester and began opera- 
tions without capital. About $1,250 was 
collected painfully from members of the 
unions in the furniture trades; with about 
$750 of this an army hut was taken over 
and fitted out; and the rest of the money 
was spent on materials. The immediate 
success of the venture came as a surprise, 
not least to the workers themselves. Orders 
both for repairs and new work came in 
such number from the start that the hut was 
at once inadequate, and larger quarters were 
rented from another union. The Furnishing 
Trades Association has lent the guild $5,000; 
but the money does not go far enough, ac- 
cording to latest reports, to capitalize all 
the work that could be had from would-be 
customers and to develop branch guilds in 
other cities. Since the most round-about 
method of finance seems somehow to be an 
article of faith with the guild fraternity, 
the further extensions of the work are not 
to be financed by the simple process of tak- 
ing up a loan from the bank but by the issue 
of a million penny (two-cent) stamps. 
Whether these bear interest or not is not 

THAT love of art cannot be developed in 
the abstract is an axiom that would seem 
self-evident, were it not for the continued 
efforts of schools and other educational in- 
stitutions to call it forth without the use of 
works of art. The Fellowship of the 
Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts, an 
organization of former students of the 
academy, is setting a good example to 
similar groups by the step just taken to 
help educators in the accomplishment of this 
task. At the close of their recent exhibition, 
they selected three groups of paintings and 
sent them to two public schools and one 
settlement in Philadelphia where they will 
remain on view for four weeks, to be moved, 
at the end of that period, to other schools 
and settlements for exhibition. In this way 
more than twelve thousand children and 
thei* teachers (especially those in the re- 
mote parts of the city have been selected! 
will have the opportunity of seeing good 
pictures. The same fellowship makes edu- 
cational use of the pictures bought for its 
permanent collection by lending them to 
schools and community centers, the Y.W.C.A. 
and the Business Men's League. 

NEARLY all the recommendations of the 
first international labor conference (Wash- 
ington, 1919) have been embodied in the 
latest Indian Factories Amendment Act 
which prescribes a maximum working 
week of sixty hours and working day of 
twelve hours, with maximum working 
hours for minors as six per day. A legal 
mid-day rest period of one hour — with 
certain exceptions— and Sunday closing of 
factories are also embodied. The mini- 
mum age of employment is raised from 
nine to twelve years. 

in New York city was the object of vigor- 
ous attack at a joint meeting of six medi- 
cal societies of the state at the Academy of 
Medicine last week. This clinic was 
opened last November [see the Survey for 
November 5, page 202] to serve people 
who, though they do not wish to accept 
charity, cannot afford the high fees of 

specialists and, with its varied schedules 
of moderate charges, it has since become 
one of the most popular medical institu- 
tions in the city. One of the antagonists 
declared that its " pauperization of the 
middle classes is one of the greatest 
crimes ever committed," while another 
stated it was " pauperizing the doctor." 
" Socialistic," " incompetent," and " service 
given under false pretenses " were other 
epithets hurled at Dr. Walter L. Niles, 
dean of the Cornell Medical College, who 
tried in vain to convince his irate col- 
leagues of the social value of the institu- 
tion to both the patients and the practition- 
ers of the metropolis. 

SERVING as an intermediary between 
capital and labor, the new Labor Office re- 
cently created by the government of Bombay 
is expected to make notable contributions to 
the economic and social welfare of the peo- 
ple. But the important posts have been 
filled by non-Indians, another fact to arouse 
the antagonism of native reformers. " It is 
true," says the Social Service Quarterly, 
organ of the Bombay Social Service League, 
" that there are not many Indians who have 
actual experience of statistical work of the 
kind with which the Labor Office will have 
to deal. But what counts far more than 
experience in another country is the knowl- 
edge of the language and the lives of the 
people among whom work has to be con- 
ducted, and on this ground the government 
should have associated with the office some 
Indians drawn from the increasing number 
of young men who are interesting themselves 
in socio-economic problems and the welfare 
of labor." 

"THAT every organization, whether be- 
nevolent, social, fraternal or political, that 
uses the postal facilities of the United 
States, file with the postmaster general and 
the local postmaster a complete list of its 
members, together with their addresses " Is 
the main paragraph of a resolution intro- 
duced in Congress last week by Repre- 
sentative Thomas J. Ryan, of New York. 
The resolution is aimed against the Ku 
Klux Klan, or rather against those indi- 
viduals who under its protection and 
anonymity have, as Mr. Ryan says, 
" spread a reign of terror by their ruth- 
lessness and unjustifiable attacks upon 
helpless citizens." He states, and other 
congressmen support him in this view, that 
no reputable organization would object to 
publishing the names of its members. The 
Department of Justice and the Post Office 
Department have hitherto taken the stand 
that the activities of the Klan are concerns 
of the states concerned and not of the fed- 
eral government. 

WITH the exception of a few institutions 
such as the New York School of Social Work 
and the Pennsylvania School for Social 
Service, all of the schools of social work in 
the United States are departments of a col- 
lege or university. Now Wisconsin is plan- 
ning a school of a somewhat different type. 
On the first of May, the Wisconsin Confer- 
ence of Social Work will open a training 
school for policewomen, probation officers, 
deputy sheriffs, family social workers, visit- 
ing teachers, public relief officials, travelers' 
aid and other social workers. The initial 
course will last four months and will con- 
sist of lectures and supervised field work. 
This is probably the first school undertaken 
by a state conference of social work as a co- 
operative venture with other agencies. The 
Wisconsin Anti-Tuberculosis Association is 
furnishing the building, the extension divi- 
sion of the University of Wisconsin and 
other organizations the services, the Milwau- 
kee Associated Charities, and the Juvenile 

Protective Association, and other societies 
the field work. 

CONSIDERING the age-old animosity be- 
tween Russians and Bulgarians, it is in- 
dicative of the spirit of the times that 
the Bulgarian government has appropri- 
ated funds to take care of twenty thousand 
Russian children. Five thousand of these 
were brought from the refuge camps at 
Constantinople. In Czecho-Slovakia, also, 
much is being done to aid Russian chil- 
dren. In January, the government and the 
Red Cross sent a train to the Russian bor- 
der and brought back six hundred children 
who were to be boarded with private fami- 
lies. The Italian government, in the 
same month, appropriated six million lire 
for Russian relief, one third of which was 
to be used on behalf of children. In 
Serbia a large national committee for Rus- 
sian relief, recently formed, found its pur- 
poses anticipated by a students' commit- 
tee for such relief " without regard to poli- 
tics " and by a nation-wide organization 
of school children for the collection of 
money and clothing sent to aid Russian 

UNDER the Item, The Searchlight on 
Amoskeag, in the Survey for April 1, page 
7, column 1, line No. 28, a sentence as it 
stands is ambiguous. It should read: Since 
1906 the capitalization has been increased 
from $4,000,000 to $44,500,000, "not one 
dollar " of which has been put into the 
business " except from profits." 


HENRY S. DENNISON, president of the 
Dennison Manufacturing Company, has 
been appointed by Postmaster General 
Hubert Work to the office of welfare di- 
rector recently relinquished by Dr. Lee K. 
Frankel owing to the pressure of other 
duties. Mr. Dennison is known the world 
over as an employer who has pioneered in 
the introduction of industrial welfare meth- 
ods that are not only humane and efficient 
but helpful rather than impeditive — as 
welfare work so often is — to growing re- 
sponsibility on the part of labor for the 
success of the productive departments. Dr. 
Frankel's interest is retained by his asso- 
ciation with the department in the capacity 
of advisory welfare director. 

A DISTINGUISHED architect who, during 
the war, wrote an enlightening and inspir- 
ing essay on the modest beginnings of a 
characteristically democratic art of archi- 
tecture in America, in reply to a request for 
an amplification of his views on this sub- 
ject, writes: "I see little light on the archi- 
tectural horizon at the present time. We are 
still in the evil aftermath of the war, and 
while there are regenerative forces at work, 
they are as yet subterraneous. There is no 
hope for any new departure in architecture 
until a change of consciousness takes place. 
Such a new departure would be, in point of 
fact, the phenomenalization of such a 
change of consciousness. I feel that we are 
in for some terrible 'jolt,' some great purga- 
tion which will open our spiritual eyes. 
Until that happens — if it happens — I have 
nothing to say." 

AN American Red Cross nurse, Susan S. 
Rosenstiel, according to a report received 
from her, has had to get down to rock bot- 
tom facts in health talks given by her in 
Albania, where people still dress as they did 
a thousand years ago ; a country where four- 
fifths of the babies die every year, and where 



April 8, 1922 

almost all children have intestinal para- 
sites; where families sleep on the dirt floor 
of one-room shelters; where fruits and veg- 
etables may be washed in water from the 
gutters of the town; and where soap is, 
to many families, a foreign substance. Her 
list of " don'ts " needs mentioning in this 
country only in the most backward communi- 
ties where sickness is still regarded as an 
unrelated curse sent by evil powers. They 
project a picture into one's mind of the diffi- 
culties the American Red Cross encounters 
in its services. Albania, where modern hy- 
gienic concepts have not yet penetrated, suf- 
fers from "diseases of pure dirt," as Miss 
Rosenstiel told them. She looks forward to 
a time when the ignorance of centuries will 
be overthrown by sun, soap, fresh air and 
modern plumbing, and Albania will become 
a new Switzerland or Belgium. 

DR. JAROSLAV KOSE, of Prague, inter- 
national secretary of the Czecho-Slovak 
Student Renaissance Movement, is in this 
country to compare the experiences of the 
youth in his country during and since the 
war with those of the young men of 
America. A little pamphlet of his (in 
English) on American social effort in 
Czecho-Slovakia can be obtained from the 
International Committee of Young Men's 
Christian Associations (347 Madison Ave- 
nue, New York). It contains some inter- 
esting information on the work done, with 
the help of foreign agencies, on behalf of 
university students, including the building 
of student homes by the students them- 

and administrator of the land settlement 
system of California [See the Survey for 
January 28], with other members of that 
state's Commission on Agricultural Educa- 
tion, is visiting a number of the leading 
agricultural colleges to gather informa- 
tion and opinions on agricultural instruc- 
tion and research which will be used in 
preparing plans for the development of 
the agricultural college in California. The 
diversitv of California's agricultural and 
horticultural products and the diversity of 
the conditions of production in that state 
make the task of creating for it a complete 
system of agricultural instruction and re- 
search one of particular complexity ana 
interest. Professor Mead expects to visit 
Honolulu next June as adviser of the Ha- 
waiian Land Settlement Commission; and 
his advice is also increasingly sought by 
those in different states who have become 
impressed with the success of the Cali- 
fornian land settlement scheme and wish 
to promote the organization of new com- 
munities on a similar plan. 

ELEANOR WOOD, the new director of the 
Home Service Section of the St. Louis chap- 
ter of the American Red Cross, submitted 
the following " pedigree " to the Community 
Courier, published by the Community Coun- 
cil of that city. 

Here follows the checkered but chaste 
career of one E. Wood, in five moves : 

1. January 1917-June 1918, under guard- 
ianship of Dr. Mangold, Missouri School of 
Social Economy; paroled to B. Renard, A. 
R C H. S.. February, 1919. 

'2. September 1918-May 1919, battle of 
Chaumont. Red Cross hut France. 

3 Holding down war brides, May 1919- 
August 1919. Assistant Executive Port and 
Transport Work Y. W. C. A., Paris, France. 

4 Sending supplies to starving secretaries 
and' beating the baggage man at his own 
came Executive Transportation and Sup- 
plies Y. W. C. A., Paris, October 1919-Sep- 

CI 5 Drafting affidavits and urging tonsillec- 
tomies. A. R. C, V. S. Veterans' Bureau, 
District No. 2, New York, Jan. 1921-Decem- 
ber, 1921. 



The Foreman and His Responsibility to 
His Men. By Elisha Lee, Vice-President 
Eastern Region, Pennsylvania System. The 
HarrisburgU Shop Foreman's Club, Harris- 
burgh, Pa. 
Police Administration. Part III. By Ray- 
mond B. Fosdick. Survey of Criminal Jus- 
tice in Cleveland, Cleveland Foundation, 
Cleveland, Ohio. Price, $1.00. 
Democracy and Service. By George Whar- 
ton Pepper. Municipal, Court, City Hall, 
The Value of Probation. By the Rev. Rus- 
sell H. Conwell. National Development 
of Probation. By Charles L. Chute. 
Muncipal Court, City Hall, Philadelphia. 
The Morals Court of Chicago. By George 
E. Worthington and Ruth Topping. Re- 
print, American Social Hygiene Society, 105 
West 40 St., New York. 
Industrial Rehabilitation Services of Ad- 
visement and Cooperation. Bulletin 70, 
Series 3, Oct., 1921. Federal Board of Vo- 
cational Education, Washington. 
Vocational Rehabilitation in Rural Com- 
munities. Bulletin 72, Series 4. Federal 
Board of Vocational Education, Washington. 
Small Loan Legislation, Progress and Im- 
provement. By Arthur H. Ham. Division 
of Remedial Loans, Russell Sage Founda- 
tion, 130 East 22 St., New York. Price, 
10 cents. _ _ 

Minimum Standards of Probation. By Her- 
bert C Parsons and Edith N. Burleigh. 
New York State Probation Commission, 
Albany, New York. 
An Unemployment Fund in the Men s 
Clothing Industry. A Proposal. By Leo 
Wolman, Chief, Research Department, 
Amalgamated Clothing Workers of Amer- 
ica. 31 Union Square, New York. Price, 
10 cents. 
Trailing Behind: How Pennsylvania com- 
pares with other states in protective legis- 
lation for working women and children. 
Prepared by A. Estelle Lauder. For the 
Joint Legislative Committee of the East 
Central Field Committee, the Y. W. C. A., 
the Women's Trade Union League, the Con- 
sumers' League of Eastern Pennsylvania. 
Educating the Superior Child. By Donald 
A. Laird. Reprint, Yale Review, March. 
Yale Publishing Association, New Haven, 
The Wage Question. Educational Commit- 
tee, Commission on the Church and Social 
Service Federal Council of the Churches 
of Christ in America. Bulletin 1. Price 
10 cents. 
Work of the Public Health Service in 
the Care of Disabled Veterans of the 
World War. By Hugh S. Cumming, Sur- 
geon General, U. S. Public Health Service. 
Reprint 682, Public Health Reports. Aug- 
ust 12, 1921. United States Public Health 
Service. Government Printing Office, 
Washington. Price 5 cents. 
A Church and Community Survey of 
Pend Oreille County, Washington. Made 
under the direction of Edmund de S. Brun- 
ner. Committee on Social and Religious 
Surveys. George H. Doran Co., New York. 
A Church and Community Survey of Salem 
County, New Jersey. Made under the 
direction of Edmund de S. Brunner. Com- 
mittee on Social and Religious surveys. 
George H. Doran Co., New York. 
The Workers and Peasants of Russia : How 
They Live. By Augustine Souchy In- 
dustrial Workers of the World, 1001 W. 
Madison St., Chicago. Price 30 cents. 
The Social Opportunity of the Church. 
Bv Charles K. Gilbert and Charles N. Lath- 
rop Department of Christian Social Serv- 
ice, 281 Fourth Ave., New York. 
Anticipating Crime. The Boys' Court Re- 
port by Judge Daniel P. Trude. Municipal 
Court of Chicago. 
Smallpox Incidence and Measures of Con- 
trol in American and Canadian Cities 
1919 and 1920. By Lee K. Frankel, Third 
Vice-President, Metropolitan Life Insurance 
Company, New York. Report of an inquiry 
conducted by that company. Reprint from 
the American Journal of Public Health, 
November, 1921. 
The Medical profession and the Tubercu- 
lous Ex-Servicb Patient By Charles 1 M. 
Montgomery, Surgeon US Pub c Hea lth 
Service Reprint number 712 Public Heaitn 
Reports, December 2, 1921. U S Public 
Health Service. Government Printing 
The Supreme Social Message of the Pul- 
pit. [See Author's communication to the 
editor of the Survey, March 4.] »£ t£e 
Bev Chester Charles Kemp, Bad Axe, Mich. 

Tennessee Conference of Social Work : 
Annual Convention, May 3-6. Chatta- 
nooga. Mrs. Claude D. Sullivan, 901 Acklen 
Ave., Nashville, Tenn., Secretary. 

National Hospital Day : May 12, Celebrat- 
ing the anniversary of the birth of Florence 
Nightingale. Announced by U. S. Public 
Health Service. 

Workers' Education Bureau of America : 
Annual Conference. April 22-23. New 
School for Social Research, 465 W. 22 St., 
New York. 

The Situation in India : April 11. 8.30 p.m. 
The Town Hall, 121 W. 43 St., New York. 
Joint discussion by Alayne Ireland, S. K. 
Ratcliffe, Suud Hossain. 


24-28. Louisville, Ky. Address Allene 
Seaton. 2128 Cherokee Parkway, Louisville. 

Pan-American Conference of Women : 
Called by the National League of Women 
Voters. Baltimore, Maryland, April 20-29. 
918 Munsey Building, Washington. 

National Committee on Prisons and Prison 
Labor : Annual Meeting, April 10. Secre- 
tary, J. K. Jaffray, Broadway and 116 St., 
New York. 

Young Women's Christian Associations : 
National Conference. April 20-27. Hot 
Springs, Arkansas. National Board, Young 
Women's Christian Association, 600 Lex- 
ington Ave., New York. 

Fellowship of Reconciliation : Informal 
meeting at Our Cafeteria, 52 E. 25 St., New 
York, every Friday at 6 p.m. 

An Exhibition of Work Portraits by 
Lewis Hinb (Including those done for 
Survey Graphic) : Sunwise Turn Book- 
shop, 61 E. 44 St., New York, until April 

International Conference on Maternity 
and Infant Care : Paris, July, 1922. Apply 
Committee, 67 Avenue de la Toison d'Or, 
Brussels, Belgium. 

Women's International League for Peace 
and Freedom : Annual Meeting April 28- 
30. Grace Dodge Hotel, 20 E St., N. W.. 
Washington. Chairman, Mrs. George T. 
Odell, Blackstone Building, 14 and H St., 
N. W., Washington. 


liittingt fifty cent* a line, four weekly inser- 
tions ; copy unchanged throughout the month. 


bbss. Publication of the National Council of 
Agencies Engaged In Rural Social Work. 94 
pages. Programs of work of 24 national agen- 
cies; objectives of the country life movement, 
et cetera. Price, 20 cents. B. O. Llndeman, 
Sec.. Greensboro. N. O. 

Fall In. Call of Christian ministry written 
by four recent college graduates of Hart- 
ford Theological Seminary, representing 
three leading denominations. Hartford 
Seminary Press, Hartford, Conn. 

The Swobd ob thb Cbobs, by Klrby Page. An 
examination of war in the light of Jesus' Way 
of Life. Highly commended by the Nation, the 
World Tomorrow, the Christian Century, Harry 
Emerson Fosdick, Bishop McOonnell, John Haynes 
Holmes, Norman Thomas and others. Regular 
edition $1.20. Special paper edition IB cents - 
net. George H. Doran Oe., New York. 


Week — a weekly budget plan. Records kept in 
tbe Weekly Allowance Book. Am. School of 
Home Economics, S19 W. 69th St, Chicago. 
Price, 10 cents each. 

Ten Cbnt Meals, by Florence Nesbltt. Minimum 
cost diet. 44 pp. Am. School of Home Econo- 
mics, 619 W. 69 St,, Chicago. Price, 10 cents. 

Credit Union. Complete free Information on re- 
quest to Roy F. Bergengren, 6 Park Square, 
Boston, Mass. 


Fifty tenti a lint per month, four toeektv toner- 

tiont ; copy unchenaei throughout the month. 

The American Journal of Nursing shows tbe 
part which trained nurses are taking In the bet- 
terment of tbe world. Pot it In your library. 
$3.00 a year. 19 W. Main St.. Rochester. N. t. 

contains main articles on social problems by 
authorities from all parts of the United 
States, besides social work notes, book 
notes and other features. Editor, Emory 8. 
Bogardua. Published bi-monthly ($1.50 per 
year) University of Southern California, 
8667 University Ave.. Los Angeles. Oal. 

Mental Hygiene; quarterly; $2.00 a year; 
published by tbe National Committee for Men- 
tal Hygiene. $70 Seventh Avenue. New Tartu 

April 8, 1922 




RATES: Display advertisements, 25 cents per agate line, 14 lines to the inch. 
Want advertisements, 8 cents per word or initial, including the address or box 
number, for each insertion, minimum charge, $1.50. Discounts on three or more 
consecutive insertions. Cash with orders. 

Address Advertising 


112 East 19th Street 
New York City 


(MATRON, Jewish, assistant to superin- 
ndent in orphanage, to supervise the gen- 
al welfare of the children, also to take 
(large of culinary and household depart- 
(ents. Send application, including age, 
lalifications and experience, to A. D. 
iber, Jewish Foster Home, Station G, 
liladelphia, Pa. 

ospital of 100 beds in New York City, 
ssistant provided. Splendid opportunity 
ith a growing institution. Write stating 
lalifications, experience, salary expected, 
e. 4151 Survey. 

Placement Bureau for employer and em- 
loyee: superintendents, housekeepers, ma- 
jons, secretaries, governesses, dietitians, 
(others' helpers. 51 Trowbridge St., Cam- 
bridge, Mass. 

/ SUPERVISOR wanted for Jewish Family 
Hare Agency. Must be trained case 
worker with supervisory experience. Also 
:rained Home Economics Worker. Must 
ipeak Yiddish. 4153 Survey. 

Service League, Easton, Pa. Applicants 
lay address J. S. Heberling, c/o Social 
ervice League, Easton, Pa., stating quali- 
cations, experience and present salary. 

HOSPITALS, Industrials, communities, 
ceding social workers, dietitians, house- 
feepers, secretaries, address Miss Richards, 
frovidence, R. I., Box 5, East Side. Boston 
MFice, Trinity Court, 16 Jackson Hall. Fri- 
ays 11 to 1. Address Providence. 

WANTED: Professionally trained and 
ixperienced social service medical worker in 
pnnection with Children's Home and Hos- 
ital in middle west. Give specific infor- 
mation in first letter. 4147 Survey. 

WANTED: Jewish Case worker to take 
large of department dealing with delin- 

Cent girls. Must have exceptional training 
d experience. State full particulars. 
133 Survey. 

GRADUATE NURSES, dietitians, labora- 

iry technicians for excellent hospital posi- 

fons everywhere. Write for free book now. 

Lznoe's Central Registry for Nurses, 30 

Mich. Ave., Chicago, Illinois. 

LWANTED: By small Jewish Home for 

Iiildren woman to take physical care of 

[ildren five years of age and under. 4075 


DISTRICT WORKER wanted for Jew- 
Family Care Agency. 4154 Survey. 

WANTED : Jewish woman, with a sym- 

thetic understanding of young working 

men, as Dormitory Secretary — preferably 

h institutional experience. 4159 Survey. 

WANTED: Jewish woman as a resi- 
dent matron at the Hebrew Children's 
Sheltering Home. One with institutional 
experience preferred. Communicate with 
United Hebrew Charities, 688 High St., 
Newark, N. J. 

WANTED: A»Jewish woman as house- 
keeper, one who has had experience in In- 
stitutional work, to assume charge of the 
culinary and household department. Send 
applications, stating qualifications, age and 
experience to Saul Drucker, Superintendent, 
Home for Jewish Children, 160 Canter- 
bury St., Dorchester, Mass. 


TEACHERS wanted for public and private 
schools, colleges and universities. Education 
Service, Steger Building, Chicago. 


EXECUTIVE with twenty years' exten- 
sive and intensive experience in work with 
delinquent, dependent and under privileged 
boys desires correspondence with organiza- 
tions having use for such a man. Indus- 
trial schools or large orphanages preferred. 
At present congenially and permanently em- 
ployed in executive capacity. Best of rea- 
sons for considering possibility of change. 
4144 Survey. 

MAN of 35 wishes Executive Secretaryship 
or other administrative position in Social 
Welfare work. A connection of this kind 
with a Civic League, or other similar or- 
ganization, would be desirable. Any section 
of the country considered. 4156 Survey. 

YOUNG MAN, seven years' experience 
in settlement, institutional and Y. M. C. A. 
work, desires a position. Ready to report 
at once. 4149 Survey. 

WANTED: Position in Social Service 
Work by trained and experienced worker. 
Graduate of National Service School, Wash- 
ington, D. C. References. 4150 Survey. 

TRAINED social and case worker, four- 
teen years' experience, good personality, ex- 
cellent references, desires position with hos- 
pital or social organization. 4146 Survey. 

experience in institutional and playground 
work desires a position in a New York 
settlement house for the summer of 1922. 
4126 Survey. 

COLLEGE WOMAN— Executive, organ- 
izer; family case work; industrial and com- 
munity welfare; training of workers; lec- 
turer, editor, publicist. Coast-to-coast en- 
dorsements. 4162 Survey. 

WANTED: After June 1st, position in 
mountains with opportunity for initiative 
and constructive work by lady, college grad- 
uate, experienced teacher and community 
worker. 4158 Survey. 

BOYS' SUPERVISOR; Single; Settle- 
ment; institutional; juvenile delinquents; 
printing; athletics; desires connection at 
once with child-caring organization.. Any- 
where. Best references. 4137 Survey. 


UNUSUALLY desirable stationery for 
any type of correspondence. 200 sheets 
high grade note paper and 100 envelopes 
printed with your name and address post- 
paid $1.50. Samples on request Lewis, 
283 Second Ave., Troy, N. Y. 

THIRSTY blotters sent free on request, 
also samples of excellent stationery for per- 
sonal and professional use. Franklin Print- 
ery, Warner, New Hampshire. 


EARN $25 weekly, spare time, writing 
for newspapers, magazines. Experience un- 
necessary, details Free. Press Syndicate, 964, 
St. Louis, Mo. 

wanted for publication. Submit Mss. or 
write Literary Bureau, 509 Hannibal, Mo. 


AMBITIOUS WRITERS of photoplays, 
short stories, songs, poems, newspaper 
articles, send today for FREE helpful book- 
let, " Successful Writing." Writer's Digest, 
S-694 Butler Bldg., Cincinnati, O. 


Three business women living in six 
room apartment, centrally located, wish 
fourth person to share apartment and living 
expenses. 4161 Survey. 


YOUNG business woman, Jewish, wishes 
reasonable room with refined family vicin- 
ity between Second and Seventh Avenues, 
15th and 60th Streets. Refereces ex- 
changed. 4156 Survey. 


A Plea and a Plan 

(for the effective Org'n of Am. Clerks and Pro 
fessional Employees) : Part 1, 30c. ; Pt. 2, 35c 
Will you help to make America safe for them . . 
When? MASMALGA SERVICE, Brooklyn,) 
N. T. t Stat. " S," Box 18. 

"Home-Making as a Profession" 

Is a 100-pp. ill. handbook — it's FREE. 
Home study Domestic Science courses, 
fitting for many well-paid positions or 
for home-making efficiency. 
An. School of Home Economics, 519 W. 69th St„ Chicago 

WANTED: Issues of The Survey for 
January 7 and March 4, 1922. Unexpected 
demand has wiped out our stock. Subscrib- 
ers who do not need their issues for future 
use will confer a real favor by returning 
them to us for the use of libraries and col- 
leges. The Survey, 112 E. 19 St., New York. 




We specialize in books on social, civic and 

economic subjects, but we handle 

all current publications 

Please mention The Survey when writing to advertisers 



Survey readers are invited on two 
special cruises which have been ar- 
ranged for groups of congenial people 


120 Days for $1000 and Up 

Starting Jan. 23, 1923, from New York 

on the 

S. S. Empress of France 

The largest passenger ship to encircle the globe. A 
Canadian-Pacific having every comfort and luxury. 

You Will Visit 

Havana Manila 

Panama Singapore 

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Honolulu Bombay- 

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and other ports 


65 Days for $600 and Up 

Starting Feb. 3, 1923, from New York 

on the 

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A Canadian-Pacific ship exquisitely appointed. 
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Optional stop-overs. No bother, no worry about any of your travel 
1 arrangements. Every detail carefully planned ahead for your 
enjoyment, educational advantage and rest. 

Make Your Plans Now! 

You will think a year is a long time ahead to make your plans, but the 
1922 Mediterranean Cruise was filled within eight weeks. It is important 
that reservations be made immediately, while there is an opportunity to 
book at the price you want to pay. 

People are writing in every day. 

Which Tour Are You Interested In? 
Write for Free Illustrated Booklet 

Address Clark Cruise, Care of The Survey, 112 East 19th Street, New York 



y c v / *-i> ■ 3 



APRIL 15, 1922 



Books and the Color Line 

Ernestine Ross 

Moliere: Social Reformer 

Louise Fargo Brown 

What to Read on Some 
Questions of the Day: 

In the Wake of Freud 

Restricted Immigration 

Wages and Their Settlement 

The Housing Shortage 

Can Human Nature Be Changed? 

Book Reviews 


Speaking of Books — To a Man of Peace — A Policewoman on Trial — 
A Difficult Financial Year — A Mental Deficiency Bill — An Easter 
Message — A Leipzig in Miniature — Pennsylvania's Bootleggers — 
Nine Cents' Worth of Culture — Easter Fashions — Where Shall I 
Send It, Madam? — The Non-Union Coal Field 


Cents a Copy $5.00 a Year 


April 15, if 



RS — Miss Ida M. Cannon, pres. ; Social Service Department, Masaachu- 
tts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts. Misa Ruth V. Emerson, 
c'y ; National Headquarters, American Red Cross, _ Washington, D. C. 
ganization to promote development of social work in hospitals and dis- 
nsaries. Annual meeting with National Conference oi Social Work. 

AMERICA — Constituted by 30 Protestant denominations. Rev. Chaa 
Macfarland, Rev. S. M. Cavort, gen'l. sec'ys. ; 105 E. 22 St., New Yor 
Commission on the Church and Social Service — Rev. Worth M. Ti| 

exec, sec'y. ; Rev. F. Ernest Johnson, research sec'y . ; Agnes H. Ca 

bell, research ass't ; Ines M. Cavert, librarian. 

WORK — Mrs. John M. Glenn, chairman; Francis H. McLean, field director; 
David H. Holbrook, executive director, 130 E. 22d Street, New York. 
Advice in organization problems of family social work societies (Associated 
Charities) in the United States and Canada. 

tional Social Workers' Exchange) — Graham Romeyn Taylor, director, 130 
East 22nd Street, New York City. An organization of professional social 
workers devoted to raising social work standards and requirements. Mem- 
bership open to qualified social workers. 

HAMPTON INSTITUTE— J. E. Gregg, principal: G. P. Phenix, v 
pnn. ; F. H. Rogers, treas.: W. H. Scoville, sec'y. ; Hampton, Va. Tr 
Indian and Negro youth. Neither a State nor a Government school. 1 

illustrated literature. 

Culbert Paries, dir., 245 E. 23rd St, New York. Maintains free indui 
training classes and employment bureau; makes artificial limbs and a 
ances; publishes literature on work for the handicapped: gives advic 
suitable means for rehabilitation of disabled persons ana cooperates 
other special agencies in plans to put the disabled man " back on the 1 

TALITY— Gertrude B. Knipp, sec'y; 1211 Cathedral St., Baltimore. Urges 

Socialist Society) — Harry W. Laidler, secretary; Room 931, 70 Fifth Ave 
New York City. Object— Education for • new social order, based 

prenatal, obstetrical and infant care; birth registration; maternal nursing: «ew York Cit,. ~_, — 

infant welfare consultations ; care of children of pre-school age and school P j^°JL lo £ " ,e . and no . t for Pjo&t. Annual membership, $3.00, $ 


and $25.00. Special rates for students. 

dent; A. R. Mann, vice president; E. C. Lindeman, executive secretary; 
Nat T. Frame, Morgantown, West Virginia, field secretary. Emphasizes 
the human aspect of country life. Membership $3.00 

Cooper, sec'y; Battle Creek Sanitarium. Battle Creek, Mich. Organized 
for betterment of conditions in home, schools, institutions and co mmun ity. 
Publishes Journal of Home Economics. 1211 Cathedral St., Baltimore, Md. 

AMERICAN PEACE SOCIETY— Founded 1828, labors for an interna- 
tional peace of justice. Its official organ is the Advocate of Peace, $2.00 
a year. Arthur Deerin Call, secretary and editor, 612-414 Colorado Build- 
ing, Washington, D. C. 

AMERICAN PRISON ASSOCIATION— Annual Congress of American 
penologists, criminologists, social workers in delinquency. Next Congress 
Detroit, Michigan, October, 1921. E. R. Cass, general secretary, 135 
East 15 Street. New York City. 

J. Osborne, exec, sec'y.; 35 W. 45th St., New York. To disseminate 
knowledge concerning symptoms, diagnosis, treatment and prevention. 
Publication free on request. Annual membership dues, |5. 

Ave., New York. For the conservation of the family, the repression of 
prostitution, the reduction of venereal diseases, and the promotion of sound 
sex education. Information and catalogue of pamphlets upon request. 
Annual membership dues, $2. Membership includes quarterly magazine and 
monthly bulletin. William F. Snow, ML)., gen. dir. 

New York. Dr. L. Emmett Holt, chairman; Sally Lucas Jean, director. 
To arouse public interest in the health of school children; to encourage 
the systematic teaching of health in the schools; to develop new methods 
of interesting children in the forming of health habits ; to publish and dis- 
tribute pamphlets for teachers and public health workers and health liter- 
ature for children; to advise in organization of local child health programs. 

CHILD WELFARE LEAGUE OF AMERICA— A league of agencies to 
secure a better understanding of child welfare problems, to improve stand- 
ards and methods in the different fields of work with children and to make 
available in any part of the field the assured results of successful effort 
The League will be glad to consult with any agency, with a view to assist- 
ing it in organizing or reorganizing its children's work. C. C. Carsten's, 
director, 130 E. 22nd St., New York. 

COUNCIL OF JEWISH WOMEN— 305 W. 98th St. New York. Miss 
Rose Brenner, pres. ; Mrs. Harry Sternberger, ex. sec y. Promotes civic 
cooperation, education, religion and social welfare in the United States, 
Canada, Cuba, Europe. 

Department of Immigrant Aid — 799 Broadway, Mrs. S. J. Rosensohn. 
chairman. For the protection and education of immigrant women and 

York City. Joseph Lee, president; H. S. Braucher, secretary. Citizenship 
through right use of leisure. A national civic organization which on request 
helps local communities to work out a leisure time prograr* 

EUGENICS REGISTRY— Battle Creek Mich. Chancellor David Starr 
Jordan, pres.; Dr. J. H. Kellogg, sec'y.; Prof. O. C. Glaser, exec sec'y. 
A public service for knowledge about human inheritances, hereditary in- 
vtntory and eugenic possibilities. Literature free. 

ORED PEOPLE— Moorfield Storey, pres.; James Weldon Johnson, sec 
70 Fifth Ave., New York. To secure to colored Americans the comr 
rights of American ci ti z en sh i p. Furnishes information regarding race pt 

lems, lynchings, etc. Membership 90,000, with 350 branches. Meml 
ship, fl upward. 

BOCIATIONS— 600 Lexington Ave., New York. To advance physi 
social, intellectual, moral and spiritual interests of young women. M 
tains National Training School which offers through its nine mon 
graduate course professional training to women wishing to fit themse 
for executive positions within the movement. Recommendation to {> 
tions made through Personnel Division, Placement Section. 

Body of the Catholic Organizations of the country. 

National Executive Offices, 1312 Massachusetts Avenue, N.W., Wa 

ington, D. C 
General Secretary, Rev. John J. Burke, ' C.S.P. 
Department of Education — Rev. James H. Ryan, Exec lec'y. 
Bureau of Education — A. C. Monahan, Director. 
Department of Laws and Legislation — William J. Cochran. 
Department of Social Action — Directors, John A. Ryan and John a. La 
Department of Press and Publicity — Director, Justin MoGrath; As 

Director, Michael Williams. 
National Council of Catholic Men — President, Rear-Admiral William 

Benson; Exec. Sec'y., Michael J. Slattery. 
National Council of Catholic Women — President, Mrs. Michael Gav 

Exec Sec'y., Miss Agnes G. Regan. 
National Catholic Service School for Women, Washington, D. C 

Director, Charles P. NeiU ; Dean, Miss Maud R. Cavanaugh. 
Bureau of Immigration — National Director, Bruce M. Mohler. 

105 East 22nd St, New York. Industrial, agricultural investigate 
Works for improved laws and administration ; children's codes, stud, 
health, schools, recreation, dependency, delinquency, etc. Annual membi 
ship, $2, $5, |lt, $25 and $1M; Includes quarterly, "The American Child 


Powlison, gen. sec'y. ; 70 Fifth Ave, New York. Originates and publish 
exhibit material which visualizes the principles and conditions affecting t 
health, well being and education of children. Cooperates with educato 
public health agencies, and all child welfare groups in community, city 
state-wide service through exhibits, child welfare campaigns, etc 


Walter B. James, pres.; Dr. Thomas W. Salmon, med. dir.; Associ 
Medical Directors, Dr. Frankwood E. Williams and Dr. V. V. Anders* 
Clifford W. Beers, sec'y. ; 370 Seventh Avenue, New York City. Pamphl 
on mental hygiene, nervous and mental disorders, feeble-mindedne 
epilepsy, inebriety, criminology, war neuroses and re-education, psvehiat 
social service, backward children, surveys, state societies. Men 

Hygiene;" quarterly, $2 a year. 

Pres., Boston: W. H. Parker, sec'y., 25 East Ninth Street Cincino 
Ohio. The Conference is an organization to discuss the principles 
humanitarian effort and to increase the efficiency of social service agenc 
Each year it holds an annual meeting, publishes in permanent form 
Proceedings of this meeting, and issues a quarterly Bulletin. The for 
ninth annual meeting, and Conference will be held in Providence, Rh 
Island, June 22-29, 1922. Proceedings are sent free of charge tc 
members upon payment of a membership fee of five dollars. 

NESS — Edward M. Van Cleve, managing director; Lewis H. Ca 
field sec^j Mrs. Winifred Hathaway, sec'y.; 130 E. 22nd St, New Y 
Objects: To furnish information, exhibits, lantern slides, lectures, pu 
literature of movement — samples free, quantities at cost Includes 
York State Committee. 

Please mention The Sdbvey when writing to advertiser* 


'pril 15, 1922 





Ira. Florence Kelley, gen'l sec'y. Promote* legislation for enlightened 
andards for women and minors in industry and for honest products; mini- 

age commissions, eight hour day, no night work, federal regulation 

nri narlfintr ifiHiiQtn*Q - "llnneat rlnth lf»mnlatinn_ Pnhliratinnfl 


:c'y. ; 20 Union Park, Boston. Develops broad forms of comparative study 
ad concerted action in city, state and nation, for meeting the fundamental 
oblems disclosed by settlement work; seeks the higher and more demo 
atic organization of neighborhood life. 

HE NATIONAL HEALTH COUNCIL— Livingston Farrand, M. D., 
hairman; Donald B. Armstrong, M. D., Executive Officer. For the 
udy and correlation of national voluntary health activities. Publications 
dude Federal and State health Legislative Bulletins, current Library 
dex, and Monthly Digest of news of ten voluntary member agencies 
d one official member; 370 Seventh Ave., New York City, and 411 18th 
eet, N. W., Washington, D. C. 

in * 

tlltJ ember, National Health Council — Anne A. Stevens, R.N., Director, 370 
the- ;venttl Avenue, New York. For development and standardization of 
n iblic health nursing. Maintains library and educational service. Official 
OU1 agazine "Public Health Nurse." 

TIONAL URBAN LEAGUE— For social service among Negroes. 
Hollingsworth Wood, pres. ; Eugene Kinckle Jones, exec, sec'y. ; 127 E. 
rd St., New York. Establishes committees of white and colored people 
work out community problems. Trains Negro social workers. 

T Gordon, president, Headquarters, 1730 Chicago Avenue, Evanston, Illi- 
ois. To secure effective enforcement of the Eighteenth Amendment, to 
ivance the welfare of the American people through the departments of 
hild Welfare, Women in Industry. Social Morality, Scientific Temperance 
A istruction, Americanization and other allied fields of endeavor. Official 
VAiblication "The Union Signal," published at Headquarters. 


obins, pres.; 311 South Ashland Blvd., Chicago, 111. Stands for self- 
S"Svernment in the work shop through organization and also for the 
Ilia actment of protective legislation. Information given. 


rjfa'S-l Madison Avenue, New York City. Joseph Lee, president; H. S. 
iraucher, secretary. Special attention given to organization of year-round 
mnicipal recreation systems. Information available on playground and 
thfommunity center activities and administration. 


sentation for all. C. G. Hoag, sec'y., 1417 Locust St., Philadelphia. 
('Membership, $2, entitles to quarterly P. R. Review. 

I the study of the causes of race degeneracy and means of race improve- 
1 ments. Its chief activities are the Race Betterment Conference, the Eu- 

Senics Registry, and lecture courses and various allied activities. J. H. 
iellogg, pres.; B. N. Colver, sec'y. 

RUSSELL SAGE FOUNDATION— For the Improvement of Living Con 
iditions— John M. Glenn, dir. ; 130 E. 22nd St., New York. Departments: 
Charity Organization, Child-Helping, Education, Statistics, Recreation, 
Remedial Loans, Surveys and Exhibits, Industrial Studies, Library, South- 
J era Highland Division. The publications of the Russell Sage Foundation 
offer to the public in practical and inexpensive form some of the most 
important results of its work. Catalogue sent upon request. 

TUSKEGEE INSTITUTE — An institution for the training of Negro 
Youth ; an experiment in race adjustment in the Black Belt of the South ; 
furnishes information on all phases of the race problem and on the Tuske- 
gee idea and methods. Robert R. Moton, prin. ; Warren Logan, treas. ; 
\. I. Holsey, acting sec'y, Tuskegee, Ala. 

jr., Sec'y.; 465 West 23rd St. A clearing-house for Workers' Education. 


Published weekly and copyright 1922 by Survey Associates, Inc., 
112 East 19 St., New York, a non-commercial cooperative society 
without shares or stockholders, incorporated under the member- 
ship law of the State of New York, with 1,600 members. Robert 
W. deForest, president ; Henry R. Seager, V. Bverit Macy, vice- 
presidents ; Arthur P. Kellogg, treasurer ; Ann Reed Brenner, 

Price 15 cents per copy, $5 per year, Canadian and Foreign postage 
65 cents extra. 

Entered as second-class matter, March 25, 1909, at the post office, 
New York, N. Y„ under the act of March 3, 1879. Acceptance for 
mailing at a special rate of postage provided for In Section 1103, 
Act of October 3, 1917, authorized on June 26, 1918. 
Volume XLVIII, No. 3. 


Conducted by 

Have You Read . . . 

Librarians, making herculean efforts to organize thei 
materials in utilizable ways, have worked out various sys 
terns of classification for books and knowledge. One of thest 
systems, the widely used Dewey Decimal Classification 
divides human knowledge into nine great groups of interests 
as follows: philosophy, religion, social science, philology 
natural science, applied science, fine arts, literature, history 
It is true that very few people feel even a fraction of an 
interest in more than one or two of these groups. Specializa- 
tion is the rule today with, at most, some avocational interest 
as a sort of hobby. But specialization is a deadly sort of 
disease. Certainly all social students must have more than 
a narrowly specialized outlook on the world of human 
activities and interests; more than a narrow acquaintance 
with books. 

In The New Machiaevelli, H. G. Wells speaks of teachers 
and social workers who are like some houses in London: 
they are right on the sidewalks; they are all front; they 
have no back yards, no Hinterland. He says the teacher or 
social worker who lives everything he knows, who has no 
interest in anything but the narrow job, who professionalizes 
his human relationships, lives too much on the sidewalk. He 
needs scope, enlargement, development of a back yard in 
which he can be human, with people who are not teachers or 
social workers. Should not every one of us read some worth 
while books in each of these nine great divisions of human 
interest and knowledge every now and then ? For instance, 

Have you read — 

1. John Dewey, Reconstruction in Philosophy. Henry Holt 
Co. Price, $1.60; with postage from the Survey, $1.80. 

2. William E. Hocking, Human Nature and Its Remaking. Yal 
University Press. Price, $3.00; with postage from the Survey, $3.2 

3. R. H. Tawney, Acquisitive Society. Harcourt, Brace & G 
Price, $1.40; with postage from the Survey, $1.50. 

4. Charles H. Grandgent, Old and New. Harvard Univers^t 
Press. Price, $1.50; with postage from the Survey, $1.65. K 

5. John Mills, Within the Atom. Van Nostrand k Co. P We 
$2.00; with postage from the Survey, $2.15. % 

6. Edward E. Slosson, Creative Chemistry. Century Co. P'Hcf 
$2.50; with postage from the Survey, $2.70. / 

7. Clive Bell, Art. Fred. Stokes & Co. Price, $2.00; with 
postage from the Survey, $2.20. 

8. Arthur T. Quiller-Couch, On the Art of Reading. G. P. 
Putnam's Sons. Price, $2.75; with postage from the Survey, $3.00. 

9. Robert Lowie, Primitive Society. Boni & Liveright. Price 
$3.00; with postage from the Survey, $3.30. 


in 202 colleges and high schools have used The 
Survey the past year as a looseleaf textbook of 
sociology, economics, labor problems, civics and re- 
lated subjects. There's nothing quite like it, for 
no book and no other periodical even attempts to 
present the facts of social and industrial relations 
without bias and with no color beyond clear writing 
and pictures which really illustrate. Special student 
rates will be sent on request. The Survey, 112 
East 19 Street, New York. 

Please mention The Survey when writing to advertisers 


Lt \ 

In a town of a hundred 
thousand inhabitants the 
eager literary life teas re- 
stricted to the neirs stands 

This pained the wise men who ruled the 
city. They said, " Let us have a library " 


And so they began a 
newspaper campaign 

PUM foR OuR k-l^RA^M 

1 i\ n n it 



Villa S*iS(^ till) ««T i^ULt 

f* ft c h i -r -a cTs 

A noted firm of architects worked up a plan 

The entire city peti- 
tioned the Carnegie 
Foundation, asking, 
for help and assls- 1 

i 8 i; i tl^ 


The board of aldermen most disinterestedly looked at differ- 
ent sites for the purpose of building 

They spent a year examining different sorts of tables. They 

' iin 

bought half a million worth of tables and chairs and fixtures 


^j$a s t i n i 


Q n i) n 

>.••■ >- 

i Finally, they opened a magnificent building twice as 
CH large as planned and costing ten million dollars 





27iey put in luxurious rest rooms and a 
dining room 

They installed a scientific ventilator 
costing another half million 

They bought three hundred thousand dol- 
lars' worth of filing cabinets 

And then they paid their librarians 
eighteen hundred dollars a year 

A*^-cA. y>V 

Hendrik Willem Van Loon 


III — They Built a Library in Our Town 




No. 3 


Robert W. DeForest, President 
Henry R. Seager ) Vice _p residenU 


Arthur P. Kellogg, Treasurer 
Ann Reed Brenner, Secretary 


Bruno Lasker Joseph K. Hart 

S. Adele Shaw Paul L. Benjamin 


in Rod 
ence bt 


the gof 

in the 


Speaking of Books — 


TN the 

I the larg 

To a Man of Peace 

AMES ROWAN is a student in Western College. He 

likes books — on the library shelves, arranged in rows. 

Not long ago he had occasion to call on Mr. Green, 

professor of English. Mr. Green was not at home; 

but the elderly father of the professor met James at the 

door and invited him into the study to wait. " My son will 

1 soon be back, I think," he said. 

... _ They talked of books desultorily while they waited. 

1 That is an interesting book you have in your hands," said 

t .Lames. 

.j " Yes, it is an interesting book," said the other. " It is 

(railed ' Is America Worth Saving? ' and it was written by 

j' .Olicholas Murray Butler. You know Butler's books, do 
r^aruo « ,, 

y Tr 

the "Butler? Butler? " said James hesitatingly. " It seems 
1 me I know that name. Isn't he the man who wrote 
^ Pigs is Pigs'?" 


presence of some five thousand men and women, 

gest assembly ever gathered at Tuskegee, the monu 

ment to Booker T. Washington, here re- 

S>roduced, was unveiled last week at the great 
iducational institution which he called into 
life. Wallace Buttrick, president of the 
ju Tjeneral Education Board, delivered the 
/■ .^founder's day address and summarized 
I?* "Sooker Washington's contribution to Ameri- 
^ n Van education and to the fostering of good- 
a m Vill and cooperation between the races. 
tutl < Governor Kilby of Alabama telegraphed 
e £ ce *>m Indiana that he hoped and believed the 
* Jly would not be far distant when Alabama 
^ *Hd other states, bearing in mind Booker 
oc lJashington's figure of speech, " In all things 
on Irely social separate as the fingers, yet one 
• l J the hand in all things essential to mutual 
es * a Togress," would fully realize the economic 
. Vantage and justice of doing more for the 
catlo Aication of their Negro citizens, 
tionjrj,. George Cleveland Hall, a prominent 
*? r . flored physician of Chicago, enlarged on 
lsloI \shington's example as a practical thinker, 
laW ^Jan of endurance and courage, who knew 

. contagion of goodwill. 

t0 '•The Tuskegee alumni gave seventy- five 

trato u c and dollars in cash and p'edges to the 

1 loyalty fund for the endowment 

Visitors were shown five new trade 

school buildings, a new dormitory for girls, new agricultural 
buildings, and were told of the broadened and enriched 
courses of study introduced under the administration of 
Robert R. Moton, the present principal. 

The statue by Charles Keck shows Booker Washington, 
erect under the heavy burden of his race, pulling back the 
pall of ignorance from a strong black man who is surrounded 
by the implements of agriculture and industry and holding 
fast to the book of knowledge. About one hundred thousand 
Negroes in every part of the United States subscribed toward 
the cost of this monument. 

A Policewoman on Trial 

MINA VAN WINKLE, director of the Woman's 
Bureau of the Washington Police Department, one 
of the first and best known women police officials in 
the United States and head of the International Police- 
women's Association, has successfully come out of a trial 
which, during the last few weeks, has become one of growing 
national interest. For in the charge was involved not onl> 
the relative position of the policewoman in the police depart- 
ment but the whole procedure governing her work that has 
gradually been developed, in which Mrs 
Van Winkle's own standards have been th 
model for many other police departments. 

Lieutenant Mina Van Winkle had bet 
charged with insubordination, and while tl 
Trial Board, on April 7, found her " nt 
guilty of the charge and specification," 
added that she did not appear to have 
proper conception of the cardinal principl 
of discipline. This statement is very mucl 
resented by some of those who, knowing th< 
facts of the case, had anticipated Mrs. Vai 
Winkle's exoneration and who regard this 
rider as an affront to justice and intelligence 
The events that led up to the charge are as 

On February 25, the chief of police issued 
an order, effective March 1, whereby " all 
matters relating to cases of lost children and 
cases of females of whatever age found wan- 
dering abroad and unable to give proper 
account of themselves and against whom no 
charge is to be placed will be handled by the 
Woman's Bureau exclusively and not by the 
Detective Bureau, as heretofore." 

On March "o, two girls, aged fourtee 
and fifrr left their Brooklyn hom 
dressed in boys' clothes, carrying " dangero 



April 15, 1922 

weapons -K)ne a loaded revolver and each an efficient 
knife — and, after three days and two nights ,of travel 
and wandering abroad, telegraphed their fathers from Wash- 
ington the news of their whereabouts and of the inconvenient 
fact that they were " dead broke." The Washington police 
department was notified from New York, and police detec- 
tives went to Union Station, where they picked up the girls, 
thence taking them first to the Detective Bureau, where they 
were detained for an hour or more, and where the details 
of their story were elicited that made interesting reading in 
the newspapers of the nation next day. At 1 130 a.m. the 
girls were delivered to the detention home for women and 
girls, in charge of the Woman's Bureau. Here they were 
put to bed at once without the usual preliminary " taking of 
history," on account of the late hour and their fatigue. 

Meanwhile the fathers of the two girls had taken a mid- 
night train from New York and appeared early in the morn- 
ing at detective headquarters. At seven o'clock Lieutenant 
Van Winkle, who had not previously known of the arrival 
of the Young Visiters, was called on the telephone by her 
subordinate at the detention home to pass on the question 
whether the two girls ought to be released to two gentlemen 
purporting to be their fathers, in accordance with a demand 
to that effect brought from the Detective Bureau by a ser- 
geant. Lieutenant Van Winkle decided the girls could not 
be released until she had seen the two men who represented 
themselves as the fathers, obtained the necessary records in 
the case, and provided her charges with clothing that was 
clean and appertaining to their sex. A second message to 
Mrs. Van Winkle from the house of detention explained that 
it was an inspector who had so ordered and devised in the 
previous instance. Mrs. Van Winkle thereupon telephoned 


n the recommendation of the Finance Committee of the legisla- 
■re, the French government has recently decided to cut its civil 
rvice list by the dismissal of fifty thousand functionaries. That, 
according to M. Bokanowski, chairman of that committee, would 
still leave one hundred and forty-seven thousand civil servants more 
than were employed before the war. The Ministry of Finance, 
according to the Christian Science Monitor's Paris correspondent, 
opposed even this proposed reduction on the ground that it would 
only create so much more unemployment. L 'Atelier, organ of the 
rade unions, and very much concerned about unemployment just 
>w, evidently does not take this view. The caption to this car- 
, n, reproduced from it, reads: 
"And what's this?" 
"This is the Secret Service." 
, "Good, then that's where we'll put our p ^aes!" 

to the inspector named and told him of her attitude regarding 
the social needs of the case, receiving no instructions from 
him, as she stated in her version of the affair, but merely an 
inquiry as to the time when she would be down, to which she 
replied she was coming at once. 

The waiting fathers, fed by promises ex suis juris of the 
Detective Bureau, could not conceive of the lack of perspi- 
cacity that failed to recognize through the void their iden- 
tities. One of them, though a simple Brooklynite, unversed 
in Capitol politics, was guided — was it by his unerring 
instinct? — to communicate with strategic personages, includ- 
ing his logical political champion in the Senate, and forthwith 
set the wires pounding with thunderbolts of wrath. As a 
result, the head of the Women's Bureau was ordered to be 
" tried on charges." The simple Brooklyn citizen, if he had 
not become a Jove, was made Jove's mouthpiece. 

For this was not the first attack on Mrs. Van Winkle and 
her work for wayward girls. Washingtonians have observed 
that one of the city's newspapers has consistently endeavored 
to make hard sledding for her administration ever since it 
started. Statements in its columns are said to have been the 
cause, a year or so ago, of a congressional investigation which 
resulted in a complete vindication of Mrs. Van Winkle and 
a general, relatively speaking, very substantial raise of salaries 
for the members of her force. It is also a matter of record 
that the paper's defeated candidate for chief of police is now 
head of the Detective Bureau. 

Social workers have interested themselves in this present 
case because of its direct bearing on the functions of a 
woman police department not only in Washington but in 
many other cities. They ask these questions: Why was not- 
the Detective Bureau charged with disobedience for takingl/f 
the runaway girls into custody instead of transmitting thefj 
message from New York to the policewoman who was on/ 
duty and whose place it was to go after the pair? Why was 
the Detective Bureau permitted to interfere at all ? Wh\w 
should an inspector be upheld in an alleged issuance of orders [ 
which he had no power to make, since they were controvertive *"~ 
of a written department order? Supposing Mrs. Van Winkle y 
had chosen to obey the alleged behest of the inspector and » 
not the order of the chief of police, would she not have been 
brought up on " charges " as inevitably ? Why .should the 
head of a policewoman's bureau be answerable to the head 
of a detective bureau? They feel that this — if it became a 
general form of organization — would be about as logical as ' 
putting a captain of infantry and his regiment under the 
orders of a squadron commander of the fleet merely because 
the latter was of higher rank. A detective bureau, whose 
functions are those of Nemesis in the law, and a police- 
woman's bureau, whose functions are those of protection for 
the young, are fully as widely apart as the army and navy in 
their types of service. They believe, moreover, that a distinct 
disservice has been done to the cause of social hygiene by 
making these charges, amounting to official degradation ii 
advance, against a responsible agent who performed her dut 
according to principles in which any competent judge woulc 
uphold her. What would have happened had Lieutcnan 
Van Winkle discharged the girls without investigation t< 
men who turned out not to be their fathers? 

A Difficult Financial Year 

THE Courier, the monthly bulletin of the Communit 
Council of St. Louis, publishes in its April issue t 
results of an inquiry concerning the current experier. 
of community chests in forty-one cities. Most of the larg — 
towns in which there is any general plan for joint financial 
of the social agencies are included, but among the omissions- 
probably because the executives were too busy to fill o 
questionnaires — are Baltimore, Buffalo, Dayton, Tolec 
Des Moines, Erie, Dallas, and Grand Rapids. The <~u 
paigns for funds were held mainly in the autumn of 
thouph som* were earlier, and three were in 1922. 



April 15, 1922 



This year has been a difficult one financially for charitable 
agencies. Their needs have been great because of unemploy- 
ment, and giving has been harder because of diminished in- 
comes. Eighteen of the community chests have raised less 
than the amount set as the goal for their campaigns, by 
amounts which range from twelve thousand dollars in Rock- 
ford, Illinois, to nearly two million dollars in Philadelphia. 
Leaving out the exceptional case of Philadelphia, it appears 
that seventeen other cities have had an aggregate shortage 
of about eight hundred thousand dollars — which is a large 
sum, but is only 8 per cent of the aggregate amount for 
which they appealed. In other words, even these seventeen 
cities with deficits have raised over go per cent of the entire 
amount of the approved budgets of the agencies, plus the 
amounts desired for expenses and emergency funds. In 
eleven cities the amount raised exceeded the goal set by 
amounts ranging from two thousand dollars in Springfield, 
Massachusetts, to one hundred and twenty thousand dollars 
in Rochester, New York. The reasons for the wide differ- 
ence between the two millions raised in Philadelphia and 
the goa? of four millions have already been discussed in the 
Survey [January 14]. The total raised by the same agencies 
in the year before the chest was organized in that city, it 
must be recalled, was about $1,600,000. 

The most interesting part of the study made by the St. 
Louis council is to be found in the facts as to which agencies 
are not included, the increase of interest in social work in the 
several communities, the increase of gifts by former givers 
to the separate agencies, the effect of joint finance on the 
budgets o ] f the agencies, the starting of new agencies to fill 
needs not formerly met, the arguments encountered in various 
cities against federation and the answers to these objections, 
the opinions of the managers of the chests as to the reasons 
for the.' defects in the operation of the chests and their esti- 
mates' of beneficial results, and the policies as to capital ex- 
per;zse — for building, etc. — and as to designation by donors of 
r/articular agencies as beneficiaries. 

This bulletin, which can be obtained without expense from 
the Community Council, 511 Locust Street, St. Louis, should 
be very useful to the large number who in other cities 
throughout the country are investigating the subject or are 
already initiating similar plans for the joint financing of 
welfare agencies. 

A Mental Deficiency Bill 

SOCIAL workers throughout the country who have found 
mental deficiency an important factor in case work are 
much interested in the forward step taken in New York 
at the session of the legislature which has just adjourned. 
The state Commission on Mental Defectives caused a bill to 
be introduced amending generally the mental deficiency law. 
Under the present law there is no practicable means by which 

\ mental defective can be committed to an appropriate insti- 
•-.ion even for purposes of preliminary mental observation, 
xept upon the consent and application of the parents or of 
the mental deficient himself. 

Recognizing this situation, the Charity Organization 
Society preesnted it to the members of the State Commission 
on Mental Defectives, who included in a bill being prepared 
at their instance by the attorney general a provision which 
^ establishes a simple procedure enabling social workers and 
I others having a legitimate interest in a family to make appli- 
I cation to a magistrate and start proceedings for an examina- 
tion. It should be understood that only those persons " who 
for their own welfare or the welfare of others require super- 
vision, control or care " are " mental defectives" under the 

The particular provision of the amending bill here referred 
to (section 23-a) has been severely attacked by some adminis- 
trators and newspapers as giving too much power to a magis- 
trate to commit a person at the instigation of an informer to 




Thousands of these posters are carrying their Easter season mes- 
sage from the National Council for Reduction of Armaments. 
" Everywhere the earth is seeking to renew its life in the path of 
the great war's devastation. Men themselves are again taking hope 
and daring to feel the promise and joy in life. Not my life nor 
your life, but all life — its hope, its promise, its opportunity for the 
realization of the longing in the souls of men, is sacred. War is 
the great blasphemy against life." This is the thought that the 
council hopes the Easter season will leave uppermost in the minds 
of all men and women, according to Frederick J. Libby, its executive 
secretary, in a recent Washington interview 

the local health officer — in the case of New York city, certain 
hospital trustees — without previous medical examination. 
The New York World adds: 

Once adjudged deficient, an adult person can be committed to an 
institution or assigned to a guardian, who may be a relative or a 
person or corporation designated by the court. Thereafter the 
guardianship is similar to that of a minor child — except that the 
child grows up; the defective does not. In such permanent guard- 
ianship, sometimes exercised by persons not relatives, over wards 
capable of productive labor, there are grave dangers of peonage 
and other abuses. 

In reply, sponsors of the bill declare that all that this sec- 
tion of the bill does is to permit a person who has 
interest in a mental defective to file a statement 
magistrate to the effect that the person is apparently 
defective; whereupon if the magistrate thinks there 
thing to the statement he may in his discretion issue 
mons asking the person in question to come before h: 
may issue a warrant in case of failure to appear. If, when 
the person appears, the magistrate thinks from talking with 
him that he may be a mental defective, then the magistrate 
is to commit the person temporarily, for purposes of observa- 
tion only, to a city hospital to be examined. If two com- 
petent psychiatrists report, as provided by law, that the 



April 15, 1922, 

person is a mental defective, then the commissioner of public 
welfare makes application to a court of record for the com- 
mitment of the mental defective to an appropriate institution, 
following in every respect the present procedure of the law. 

All the procedure and provisions of section 23-a that have 
been objected to are taken almost word for word from similar 
provisions of the New York insanity laws which have been 
in force and effect for thirteen years, which have never been 
abused and which, social workers attest, have worked well in 
practice. Indeed, the respective provisions of the insanity 
law are more drastic; for there the magistrate has no dis- 
cretion, but must issue a warrant. 

Pressure is being brought on the governor by opponents of 
the bill to veto it; and at a hearing on April 7 expert testi- 
mony was given for and against it. 

A Leipzig in Miniature 

THERE are thousands of homes where the only contact 
the family makes with the world of literature and cul- 
tural leisure is through the book agent. Marjorie 
Schuler, in an article in the Review of Reviews, tells of 
the effective efforts made by the women of Corvallis, Oregon, 
who felt that their town was suffering from a want of good 
books — not the kind the book agent sells. When the agricul- 
tural fair came around they chartered the largest church in 
the town for a book fair. This was not a bargain sale but a 
regular sample fair for exhibition and demonstration. Nine 
thousand people came to see and handle the books which the 
women had collected ; there were sets of well-known authors, 
first editions and all manner of good books arranged in 
twenty-six sections, each section attended by people who could 
talk intelligently about it: travel, history, fiction, home eco- 
nomics, industry, poetry and so on. And each person went 
away with a list of books from which he could choose and 
order at a later time. The sale of books in that town has 
increased fourfold since that fair. Another immediate re- 
sult of this enriching event, as they called it in Corvallis, was 
the introduction of a regular book review department in the 
local newspaper, and a wider interest in good books, which 
meant that not only the quantity but also the quality of books 
read has measurably improved. And so Corvallis is on the 
way to rival Leipzig as a book fair of international fame. 

Pennsylvania's Bootleggers 

BOTH ends of Pennsylvania are agog over non-enforce- 
ment of prohibition. In the east, T. Henry Walnut, 
special assistant United States district attorney, who 
was bent on prosecuting men " higher up," was dropped by 
his superior. [See the Survey for April 1, page 12.] 
Church people in and about Pittsburgh are, for the opposite 
reason, up in arms against Walter Lyon, United States 
attorney for the Western Pennsylvania District. A meeting 
on April 3, attended by nearly five hundred ministers from 
Pittsburgh and vicinity, unanimously adopted resolutions 
demanding his removal from office. Not a voice was heard 
or a vote given in his support. The issue has been taken up 
generally, and petitions for his removal are going to Wash- 
ington from all over the district. 

The action of the Pittsburgh ministers followed a report 
federated Temperance Committee in which an attack 
le on Mr. Lyon, whose " inefficiency, indifference and 
" were declared to be blocking efforts at law enforce- 
The report declares that upon Mr. Lyon and his first 
:, W. Heber Dithrich, must be placed the responsi- 
unuy ror the long delay in bringing cases to trial and the 
non-prosecution of important indictments against offenders 
with political influence. All this, it says, has contributed to 
the spirit of defiance with which the bootlegger and rum- 
runner now regard the law. 

Back of this report and the drastic action taken is a long 
record of lack of accomplishment in suppressing lawlessness 

which began to develop in and about Pittsburgh in the sum- 
mer of 1920. In the fall the Federated Temperance Com- 
mittee sent representatives to Washington demanding a 
change in the enforcement office. Commissioner Kramer 
went into the situation promptly and shortly afterward ap- 
pointed John N. English head of the enforcement service in 
Pittsburgh. Mr. English had a strong record of many years 
as attorney for the Temperance Committee in the license 
court. He took charge of the office on January 1, 1921, and 
in three months secured evidence as a result of which the 
criminal docket for the May term of the court contained 
approximately four hundred cases of liquor law violations, 
many of them involving persons close to the inner circles of 
powerful political and liquor interests. 

In April Mr. English was taken ill and obliged to resign. 
Then the wet politicians seized their opportunity. A now 
national administration had come in. District Attorruey 
Driscoll had been removed and Walter Lyon, former 'lieu- 
tenant-governor, was appointed in his stead. An ine.vperi- 
enced young attorney was appointed an assistant to specialize 
in liquor cases. All these cases, however, would come,, up for 
trial under direction of Mr. Lyon. 

When the May term of court was about to open "the com- 
mittee waited on this assistant and called his attentio^n to the 
large number of liquor cases on the docket — about tv v -o-thirds 
of the entire criminal list — and far more than ccould pos- 
sibly be tried that term. They suggested that he coi ifer with 
Mr. English with a view to picking out some of . the more 
important ones to be put early on the trial list. Su' ch a con- 
ference was held, and six cases were selected in whicl 1, in Mr. 
English's judgment, convictions could reasonably be expected 
and which involved offenders whose punishment wo', uld have 
a particularly salutary effect on the community. 1 he size 
and importance of these cases is indicated by the fau :t that 
together they involved over a million dollars in differt.cntial 
taxes alone. ,;. 

Mr. Lyon, however, placed only one of them on the earlri' 
trial list and agreed to a continuance of it on motion of the 
defendant's attorney. During the entire term only three 
insignificant liquor cases were tried, not one of which had 
been prepared by the government office under English. In 
the November term only six cases were tried and in the 
March term just closed seven, none of them very important. 
The important cases selected by Mr. English have not been 
brought to trial. 

The temperance people became most aroused, however, 
when, as they allege, Mr. Lyon, in violation of the rules of 
the department, proceeded to nolle pros scores of the English 
cases, including most of the ones involving people of high 
political influence. This he did on the ground that there was 
not sufficient evidence, though in most cases the witnesses of 
the temperance people were not called in to find out what 
evidence they had to offer. Some of these cases, it now de- 
velops, were nolle prossed months ago. Among the cases 
dropped by Mr. Lyon was one involving the sons of promi- 
nent local politicians who were accused of securing a permit 
by perjury and of attempting to bribe the government officers 
(a stock of liquor valued at three hundred thousand dollars 
was at stake) ; a case involving a distillery from which over 
forty thousand gallons of whiskey were secured, it is alleged, 
on false and fraudulent permits, ostensibly to be used for 
medicinal purposes in a hamlet of less than two hundred 
people ; a case against the political club of a former city 
official, a booze joint, at which operators had purchased 
whiskey; and one involving another distillery, which had to 
do with the alleged shipment of eighty-four barrels of whiskey 
to the South Side " billed as empty barrels, with distillery 
seals on the cars." 

On March 8, representatives of the committee made 
the last of a number of trips to Washington, in which they 
demanded of the attorney general's office that something be 
done to correct a condition under which bootleggers were, as 

. 1 j the o. 
Ooed, then that s 1*,. 

April 15, 1922 



they said, operating with the utmost confidence of immunity 
from punishment. They were given to understand, they 
reported back, that Mr. Lyon, because of his political 
strength, could not be displaced. They were assured, how- 
ever, of three things: that there would be no more nolle 
prossing without authorization from Washington, that the 
important cases of which they complained would be put back 
on the lists, and that another assistant would be appointed 
who would be acceptable to the temperance forces and be 
given a free hand in prosecuting such cases. Mr. Lyon was 
then summoned to Washington to arrange the appointment ; 
but as yet it has not been made. 

The temperance forces claim that by this long delay Mr. 
Lyon has probably already insured immunity for most of the 
offenders arrested under Mr. English. They contend that as 
long as he remains in office bootleggers will ply their trade 
with confidence, government agents will continue in discour- 
agement because of the probability that their work will be 
brought to naught through his office. Along with the recent 
indictment of William C. McConnell, state prohibition 
director of Pennsylvania, this attack on Mr. Lyon is likely to 
become a factor in the coming state election. 

Nine Cents' Worth of Culture 

ANNE PIERCE, librarian of the Charlotte, North 
Carolina, public library, has learned how to make 
books work. With a total number of ten thousand 
volumes in the library, of which four thousand are reference 
books, 66,264 were in circulation last year, a turnover which 
comes very near being a record. The actual weight of read- 
ing matter the people of Charlotte toted back and forth 
during that time was some sixty-six tons. Some of it, you 
may think, was pretty light-weight stuff ; as a matter of fact, 
however, the increase in the circulation of non-fiction ex- 
ceeded very materially that of fiction. On the other hand, 
although Charlotte people state that their city ranks second 
in the world in the proportion of its church-going folk, the 
residents do not give the proof of this in the number of 
books on religious subjects which they draw from the library. 
Such books gather dust on the shelves. Only some six hun- 
dred calls were made for them during the year. 

Miss Pierce has done all this on the beggarly budget of 
five thousand dollars a year. On this she has bought the 
best books, such as Queen Victoria, the Outline of History, 
The Education of Henry Adams — books that cost real money 
— has employed a full-time staff of three people in addition 
to herself and has purchased a wide range of magazines. 
Meanwhile the city is spending less than nine cents per capita 
each year on the biggest educational force next to the schools, 
— less than the price of a single admission to a movie. 

Easter Fashions 

WITH the renewal of the agreement between the 
clothing manufacturers and the Amalgamated Cloth- 
ing Workers in Chicago, the forty thousand garment 
workers there have passed the crucial test of the period of 
depression without strike. They have come out willing to 
accept a 10 per cent wage cut but unwilling to compromise 
principles of the agreement which, during the three years it 
has been in force, so stabilized the Chicago clothing trade 
that not a strike has occurred. Continuance of the experi- 
ment in industrial government is now assured for another 
period of three years. The principal provisions of the new 
agreement are: 

The forty-four hour week; 
Time and one-half for overtime; 
The preferential union shop ; 
Equal division of work during slack season; 
Impartial arbitration machinery, jointly supported by the union 
and the manufacturers, to adjust grievances and complaints, review 

cases of discipline and discharge, and to interpret the provisions 
of the agreement; 

Lockouts and stoppages prohibited; 

A 10 per cent reduction in existing piece work rates and week 
workers' wages. 

Moreover, the way was left open for the beginning of nego- 
tiations for an unemployment insurance fund. 

Commenting upon the new agreement Advance, organ of 
the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America, says: 

The employers' demand for a wage reduction was compro- 
mised; the union accepted a wage cut of 10 per cent, but the 
union's voice in the industry, the workers' rights in the factory re- 
main as heretofore. Our rights were vindicated without the necessity 
of resorting to a test of strength. Our position is greatly strengthened 
today by the workers' greater confidence in their collective power 
and wisdom. 

Where Shall I Send It, Madam? 

THE housewife in a 
well-to-do neigh- 
borhood who buys 
ten dollars' worth of 
groceries a week pays 
$22.36 a year for having 
those goods delivered 
and for the privilege of 
paying by cheque every 
month or so. This is 
one of several interesting 
findings of an investiga- 
tion of certain problems 
of the retail grocer the 
results of which have 
just been published by the New York State Department of 
Farms and Markets. The investigation was made on an 
extensive scale in New York city, but four years ago, so 
that allowance has to be made for the somewhat unusual 
conditions which existed during the war. 

Perhaps the most important fact which emerged was that, 
at least at that time, most of the money invested by the house- 
wife in food went into pretty solid and worth-while com- 
modities, notwithstanding the general charge of extravagance. 
As the accompanying diagram shows, over a quarter of every 
dollar spent by the grocer in purchasing stocks was for butter 
and eggs ; and, including milk, dairy products came to more 
than one-third. 

Very remarkable are the variations in the profits of grocers 
on different commodities. On butter, during the war period, 
they were 7.84 per cent of the selling price ; on canned toma- 
toes 20.31 per cent; on onions — which a popular cartoon at 
the time pictured strung around the neck of an overdressed 
lady, because their price threatened to exceed that of pearls — 
40 per cent! The gross profit (in percentage of gross sales) 
was 16.2 per cent in middle-class stores, 18.9 per cent in 
wealthy-class stores, and 15.2 per cent in poor-class stores. 
The expenses of retailing averaged 14.1 per cent of the turn- 
over, and the net return, after payment of salaries, 2.3 per 

The assumption often made that the poor are " exploited " 
most by the middleman is somewhat confirmed, though not 
strikingly, by the data gathered. Taking separately the cash- 
and-carry and the credit-and-delivery systems, the 
of profit for the retailer is highest in the wel 
lowest in the poor neighborhoods; but in actual 
proportions are reversed. The reason for this s 
that though the proportion of goods sold on credi 
in the poor neighborhoods, the losses from the e 
credit are relatively larger and have, of course, to be covered 
in the general range of prices. 

The consumer who demands delivery and credit, in every 
case, puts an extra cost not only on the goods bought by her- 
self but also on those bought by her more thrifty neighbors 
who take home their groceries themselves and pay cash for 



April 15, 1922 

them. On the other hand, the savings effected by the cash- 
and-carry system, it would appear, are not as great as they 
have been made out to be by its sponsors during the war-time 
economy campaign. The report concludes: 

Credit-and-delivery represents but one leak in the poor Ship of 
the High Cost of Living, and not until we have the sum total of 
the leaks shall we find a large reason for high prices. . . . Suffice 
it to say that the demand for goods put up in small fancy packages — 
quarter-pound bricks of butter and six-ounce jugs of olive oil — 
fastidious tastes for foods out of season, the customer's indifference 
to receiving his just weight and measure, and uneconomical buying 
practices on the part of the retail merchant — all these are sources 
of increase in cost to the consumer worthy of consideration and 
research. The sum total percentage of such wastes would in all 
probability surprise the consumer who disregards any one of them 
as being too trivial or too inapplicable to affect her own mode of 

The Non-Union Coal Field 

THE dramatic point of interest during the first week 
of the coal strike has been the walkout in the non- 
union fields where, union leaders claim, seventy thou- 
sand men had left their work by the end of the seven days. 
The Connellsville district of Pennsylvania carries the great- 
est significance because of its relation to the steel industry 
of Pittsburgh. There are the mines of the H. C. Frick 
Coke Company, a subsidiary of the United States Steel Cor- 
poration, which has successfully fought the union for twenty 
years. Union organizers now claim a total of eighty- 
three mines closed in Connellsville, Uniontown and West- 
moreland county districts and approximately forty thousand 
men out. The effect on the steel mills may be estimated by 
the advance in the price of coke — fifty cents a ton for the 
best grade and twenty-five cents for inferior grades — an- 
nounced during the week. Meanwhile union activities in 
the winding gulf coal fields of southern West Virginia have 
been stopped by an injunction issued April 8 by Judge 
George W. McClintic of the Federal Court. 

The non-union fields are crucial not only to the outcome of 
the strike as a test of organized strength, but also as a factor 
in arriving at a settlement by negotiation or arbitration. The 
situation has been well summed up bji one of the keenest 
observers of the country along the following lines: 

Even if the union operators and the union men could 
agree to assemble in an interstate conference, their task 
would be difficult. It would be difficult because there are 
two other parties to the controversy who hold it in their 
power to break any agreement concluded by the negotiators. 
These silent factors in a permanent settlement are the non- 
union operators and the non-union men. To this observer, at 
least, it seems unlikely that any just settlement can be reached 
until all four interests can meet around a conference table. 
The union employers and employes can no more settle it 
alone in the present depressed condition of the market than 
two nations can disarm alone, leaving their enemies armed. 
The competition of non-union coal in 1921 has been exag- 
gerated. It is not true that non-union districts have been 
prosperous, for there is not a field in the country that has 
not reported to the Geological Survey mines closed down 
for lack of market. A few of the non-union districts — 
Logan Countv. West Virginia, and the Hazard and Harlan 
1 Kentucky — shipped more coal than in the 
?ely because their car supply was extraordi- 
:hat year. In most of the non-union fields 
ease, but a decrease less marked than in com- 
ds. It is by no means certain that the earn- 
ings ui nun- union miners, working more days at a lower 
wage rate, were as high as the earnings of union miners in 
some of the union districts. It is doubtful if the earnings 
of Alabama mine workers in 1921 compared favorably with 
those of the workers in Illinois and Indiana. But it is true 
that beginning early in the summer a shift in business from 
union to non-union mines set in, small at first but progress- 

ing as the year advanced and as the wage scales in the non- 
union fields were reduced. The facts may be unpleasant to 
the union supporters, but they are there. One finds them in 
the record of production by districts, in the percentages of 
time worked reported to the Geological Survey, in the dis- 
tribution records of the railroads. 

The pressure of non-union competition rested very un- 
equally upon the union districts. In union fields immediately 
adjacent to non-union districts, producing the same type of 
coal and competing in the same markets, the pressure was 
hard. In the month of December the Kanawha field aver- 
aged 14 per cent of full time. Its non-union competitor 
across the mountains — the Logan district — reported 38 per 
cent. The unionized Fairmont district of northern West 
Virginia averaged 36 per cent, and its non-union competitor 
— Somerset — was doing 54. There can be no doubt that the 
primary cause of this difference is the inequality in cost of 
production. So acute did the pressure on the New River 
field become that the operators succeeded in forcing a revi- 
sion of the contract, and most of that field (before the strike) 
was working at reduced rates under a new agreement. On 
the other hand, the Illinois district, protected by a greater 
freight differential and possessing certain other advantages, 
has done fairly well, all things considered. 

Non-union competition must be met if the union districts 
are not to lose more and more of the business now offered. 
But the dilemma of the union leaders is that if they accept 
one wage cut it will be only a matter of time before another 
becomes necessary. The situation is essentially unstable. The 
trouble is not merely that union scales are high, but that 
they are rigid. The real advantage of the non-union opera- 
tor lies in the flexibility of his costs — he can put them where 
he has to in order to get the business. Simply reducing union 
wages from one fixed and rigid level to a lower but still fixed 
and rigid level is not likely to restore equilibrium. The 
union leaders feel that if they accept 191 7 rates, which would 
carry them, as can be seen, below the present cost of living, 
the non-union operator would drop to the rates of 191 3 or 
lower. In fact, it is hard to conceive any level of rates upon 
which the union operators and men may agree that cannot 
be undercut by the non-union fields. 

So long as the trend of prices and wages was generally 
upward, as it was for the twenty-five years ending in 1920, 
the union and non-union fields were in rough equilibrium, 
for the non-union operator could not reduce wages below a 
certain level set by the demand of other industries for labor. 
But now the situation has changed — there is no bottom to 
the labor market in the unorganized fields. Alabama is pay- 
ing $2 a day to unskilled, able-bodied men underground and, 
to quote from an Alabama operator, " doesn't have to pay 
that much." [See the Survey for March 18, page 946.] 
Until the market changes we are likely to see the sort of 
sweat-shop bargaining that existed in the Middle West be- 
fore the adoption of the present system of contracts. A mine 
has no orders. The operator goes out and gets a contract 
which he can fill only by reducing his labor costs. He goes 
back and tells the boys that the alternative is a wage cut or 
no work. This is what the Alabama operators have done. 
They justified the last cut by a promise to try to get five 
days' work, and sought contracts from the Southern Railway 
and the Illinois Central at reduced prices. 

The intensity of present competition may be judged when 
it is remembered that at the end of 1920 the mines had a 
developed capacity and labor force sufficient to produce 
800,000,000 tons and that the country could absorb last year 
only 400,000,000 tons. 

Until the market revives, in the estimate of the observer 
whose appraisal of the situation has been outlined here, there 
is only one way to bring about a permanent settlement of 
the wage controversy, and that is to obtain some sort of 
agreement as to minimum wage rates in non-union mines. 


and the 

Color Line 

By Ernestine Ross 

IT might reward the interested observer, standing on the 
corner of 135 Street and Lenox Avenue in New York, 
to watch the varieties of black folk who stream into the 
library building which serves the book needs of that 
colored section of the city — black and yellow, stately Hindoo, 
proud West Indian, mulatto American, little black picka- 
ninny, turbanned mammy, porter, college professor, nurse- 
maid, student. > 

Then let this observer step inside and ask the librarian 
who these people are. As he listens every profession and 
trade and a bewildering variety of occupations pass before 
his eyes. Incongruities strike his eye. Here is a medical 
student who takes a waiter's tips in the Pennsylvania Station, 
a bookseller who supports a precarious business on a Pullman 
porter's fees, an artist who all night runs an elevator up and 
down, an art connoisseur of national reputation who passes 
bills in a bank. The application desk of a public library 
serves as a doorway into the " other half " of many lives, the 
half which lives while not working for a living, the half 
which thinks, aspires and endures. 

Through the open doorway our interested observer wan- 
ders, eager to learn more of this unknown life. The book 
truck outside the desk offers him a fund of information. 
What books feed this " other half " of the black working- 
man's life? History, sociology, philosophy, poetry, the deep 
wells from which the spirit of man everywhere always has 
drawn refreshment. They testify to desire for knowledge, 
the aspiration toward a higher level of thought. Near them 
one sees books in what the librarian calls "useful arts" — engi- 
neering, carpentering, tailoring, automobile mechanics, hair- 
dressing, business advertising, cooking. The black man's 
ambition speaks aloud through them. Here also are books 
of music, Negro spirituals beside Brahms and Beethoven. 
Among them all are other books which provoke a keener 
interest in the observer — racial books, on African life and 
history, American slave days, present-day race problems, not 
only in America but abroad, not solely of the black race but 
of Mongol and Indian. 

Perhaps it is time to draw some conclusions before one is 
overwhelmed and confused by details and conflicting issues. 
A librarian who tries to supply the inner needs of a suffering 
minority race may not permit herself to become so over- 
whelmed. She needs always to raise herself above the con- 
flicting details of her work and, looking down upon it, observe 
its main currents and form certain conclusions as to its direc- 
tion and purpose. Let me define two such conclusions. One 
of them is the inevitable democratizing tendency of good 
books. "What do these people read?" one hears. And 
with the book truck in mind one answers, " Dante, Long- 
fellow, Spencer, Darwin, H. G. Wells." Minds which feed 
on the same food must develop into a similarity of growth, 
and some time meet on the same level. Those who serve 
these minds in their development bear testimony that this is 
true. The workers in this library — white and black — are 
serving the same need, doing the same work, and in it they 
are learning to sink all differences, not to overlook them, but 
to judge them at their true value, and to appreciate diverse 
1 gifts. Nor is this happy condition a result merely of working 

together, but of working and living together with books, 
which are the most democratizing things in the world, be- 
cause they develop rational thought in black and white, 
African and Anglo-Saxon alike. 

My other conclusion is drawn from an opposing tendency 
plainly to be seen in library work with Negroes. There 
exists a developing race consciousness, cutting more deeply 
every year and widening the racial gulf. It is apparent in 
the books which are read and in the books which are written 
by black men. Such a development is inevitable, for before 
one race meets another on equal grounds it must know and 
respect itself, develop its own capacities and express its own 
individual genius. Yet race consciousness, like an intense 
national sense, is accompanied by comparison, recrimination 
and, often, hatred. It seems that the whole process of grow- 
ing apart must be complete before growing together may 

In dealing with this particular race, moreover, we are 
dealing with no homogeneous group. There is no unity, but 
a mass of units, continually in flux. The librarian is working 
not only through the impalpable barrier imposed by different 
race and color, but across separating fissures of thought and 
belief within the group itself. If our interested observer 
turns from the library to the neighborhood outside, it is, 
indeed, an enthralling but bewildering world in which he 
finds himself. 

A great city of black people — numbering over 100,000 — 
extending from the Harlem River to the Heights and down 
nearly to 125 Street — it has its own business and social life, 
its own churches, newspapers, and theaters. It is served by 
its own colored physicians, ministers, real estate agents, 
lawyers and welfare workers. Only its business is still 
largely in outside hands, and the library and schools are 
branches in it of the white world, now interpenetrated by 
colored workers. This great group has musical and art 
studios and its own town hall. It even has slums and a 
foreign section. In a word, it is a city. But this very con- 
dition connotes dividing lines, of wealth and influence, of 
intellectual growth, of political thought. Perhaps the 
sharpest division is that of nationality. American, African 
and West Indian live side by side, separated by tradition, 
education and ideals. The American Negro, curiously 
enough, is a patriotic being, while the foreign-born Negro 
quite often is not. The black alien is educated, radical and 
sophisticated, while the American Negro, in the adolescent 
period, distrusts these qualities. A second dividing line is 
that of racial belief and purpose. The Negro 
amalgamation, he who is working for equal opp 
who wishes merely to be let alone, he who in 
ideality is looking toward Africa as his home — a 
here, vociferous and contending. 

The librarian who wishes to form a common & iuumu un 
the basis of thought and educated intellect for all these con- 
flicting impulses and ambitions finds a twofold task. On 
the one hand, race pride and race knowledge must be stimu- 
lated and guided. To this end, clubs for the study of race 
history are established. Books on Africa and the Negro are 
provided as extensively as possible. Negro folk-lore and 




April 15, 1922 

stones are told the children. Interest in Negro art and 
music is stimulated. An annual Negro arts exhibit is held, 
and a forum is conducted for the discussion of race matters. 

But the library aims not only to be an intellectual center 
for Negroes; its further purpose is to fulfil its function as 
an American democratic institution and to furnish a common 
ground where diverse paths may meet and clashing interests 
find union. To this end colored and white workers stand 
side by side against segregation in work and thought. But 
for its accomplishment the beneficent aid of great books is 
most important. Education must be the method of democ- 
racy. There can be no other. The mission of the school is 
a tremendous one, but that of the library is as great, for its 
doors are open to young and old alike, and its scope is that 
of the greatest literature of all ages. 

The library, like the church, has had to revolutionize itself. 
The " colored library " must compete with street meetings, 

moving picture shows and music halls. It has to make itself 
known against prejudice, both racial and intellectual. It 
must be an intellectual center without being " highbrow," 
a place of experiment ond of constant effort. Its workers do 
not merely sit behind the desk and give out books; they visit 
Sunday schools with books and stories, because among the 
colored people more children congregate in Sunday schools 
than anywhere else. They address clubs, and hold book 
meetings in the library for students and parents. 

But in a library all activities must be subservient to one 
thing, the assembling of books — those that will educate and 
not deteriorate, those that will cause growth and not decay. 
This is the librarian's first commandment, and the second is 
like unto it — get those books read! Every measure taken by 
a library must be contributory to this result, and the end 
among our black people is education toward a democratic life 
with their white brethren. 

Moliere: Social Reformer 

By Louise Fargo Brown 

IT is unlikely that the celebrations of the Moliere ter- 
centenary in this country will transcend the merely 
perfunctory, or that interest in them will reach far 
beyond the small circles whose members either care 
greatly for literature or are devoted to the promulgation of 
enthusiasm for the French language. And this is a pity, for 
aside from the message which Moliere has for every genera- 
tion, he has perhaps a special one for the generation of today. 
The time is out of joint, and not a few serious-minded and 
earnest-purposed souls are convinced that they were born to 
set it right. It is easy for those of us whose conception of 
our high calling is not so sure to smile at these others at their 
task. It is conceivably useful — though depressing — to have 
at our disposal the results of the collaboration of small bands 
of devoted spirits who point out with pitiless severity what 
is wrong with American civilization. Notable results may 
possibly flow from plays designed to make clear that our 
descensus Averno is facilitated by the character of the tunes 
to which we are jigging along, and that our return to less 
staccato measures is the specific for the choice of a straighter 
route. Perhaps the benefits of a campaign to charm the 
dress of our daughters in the direction of their extremities 
and their manners toward the Victorian ideal might not be 
limited to the textile industry. But if our critics are right 
in their asseveration that the fundamental evil of our age is 
that we are pleasure mad : that we are rushing toward amuse- 
ment regardless of consequences, one cannot help wondering 
whether efforts aimed at the reform of a hedonistic society 
ought not, if they are to have results, to wear at least the 
cloak of gayety. And here the method of Moliere becomes 
of interest. 

Pretty well all times are out of joint, if we are to trust 

the wails that persist between the covers of old books, 

and Moliere's time was no exception, although it would 

indiscreet for any one at the court of 

>ouis to say so in so many words. Unless, 

ere one of the clergy; such criticism from Jere- 

lton, having always been regarded as part of 

he divine. Now, Moliere was a social reformer. 

a ia nut mat the devotion of his whole life was given to his 

art : the art of writing and acting comedy. But he accepted 

the Latin ideal of the purpose of comedy : " corriger les 

hommes en les divertissant." Nor was this a mere form of 

words adopted to placate the powers that had obstructed 

the presentation of Tartuffe; it is written large over almost 

every one of his plays; even the divertissements thrown hastily 

together by royal command usually contain some sly hit at 

a social evil. And while he did not make over his world, 
there is no possible doubt that he won its ear. Were there 
no other witness — and there are many — one need only to 
turn over the volumes of Madame de Sevigne, and note how 
often and in what connection she quotes a phrase of Moliere, 
as today we use some slang expression of the moment. 

Many similarities could be found between Moliere's world 
and our own. The discovery of new lands, followed by the 
Protestant revolution, had altered the foundations of society 
as the industrial revolution has again altered them. The 
wars of religion had produced on a small scale the same 
unsettling effects, economic and social, that the late war has 
produced on a large scale. Then as now there had been con- 
structed, on an insecure economic basis, a society possessing 
enough wealth for the immediate demands of its more 
favored members, careless of the needs of the strata below. 
Then as now a few brave spirits were waging the battle of 
reason against authority which, sustained by scattered com- 
batants throughout the Middle Ages, had gathered strength 
until it had been able to challenge successfully the authority 
of the church. Then as now the great mass of mankind 
shrank from the responsibility implicit in the triumph of 
reason, and, casting about for a place for the crown wrested 
from the church, that generation had placed it upon the head 
of a new figure : the absolute ruler of the national state. 

Moliere, born into the middle class, knowing through his 
life as a strolling player every aspect of the social fabric; 
through his position at court the highly artificial life that 
sunned itself in the royal smile; through his education and 
literary affiliations the philosophy of his day and the ten- 
dencies of his age; was well equipped to scourge its follies 
and ridicule its vices. Yet what he did — and this is the heart 
and thus the force of life in his work — was to study the 
universal qualities of human nature. And the spirit in which 
he made his study, as several of his admirers have pointed out 
very recently, was the spirit of tolerance. 

Some study has been made of the close connection between 
the growth of tolerance and the triumphs of reason in its 
struggle with authority. More remains to be done in tracing 
its connection with the gradual discrediting of the theory 
which was the basis of medieval aesceticism and which the 
Protestant churches took over with other useless baggage j 
the idea of the body as evil and capable of divorcement from 
the spirit. It is not without significance that three great 
exponents of tolerance, Rabelais, Montaigne and Moliere.j 
anticipated the modern psychologists in rejecting this 
antinomy between flesh and spirit. " Mon dme et mon corp\ 

April 15, 1922 



marchent en compagnie," says Clitandre in Les Femmes 
Savantes, and nowhere have the medieval and modern con- 
ceptions been set forth more wittily than in the dialogue with 
which the play opens. The tolerance of these three keen 
observers and lovers of human kind springs from their under- 
standing of the impossibility of separating body and spirit, 
and the consequent difficulty of the life of every human being, 
striving to live with his fellows and keep in bounds the 
fundamental instincts which uncontrolled make the life of 
the group intolerable. The social effect of exaggerated 
human tendencies is the whole subject of Moliere's comedy. 

The first result of his tolerance is lack of interest in the 
then all-important distinctions of class. He recognizes, 
indeed, the principle of noblesse oblige: " Un grand seigneur 
mechant homme est une terrible chose." Through the con- 
ventional type of rascal-buffoon shines his enjoyment of the 
natural good sense of the peasant, frankly interested in 
material pleasures: 

"Le veritable Amphitryon 
Est V Amphitryon oil I'on dine." 
He relishes the honest bourgeois type with which he had 
grown up, and no one who was without genuine sympathy 
with the humble could have sketched Le Pauvre in Don 
Juan. But what he cares about deeply is the human being 
beneath the coat of marquis and merchant. The instincts 
which, he reminds them, poison society when they are allowed 
to range unchecked are two: the possessive instinct and the 
instinct toward deception. 

Avarice; the abuse of a pa- 
rent's power over his children 
and of a husband's power over 
his wife; the jealousy of hus- 
bands and of lovers; these exten- 
of the possessive instinct 
favorite themes for his 
But to him the supreme 
was the folly of pretence. 
The honest man he could not help 
making sympathetic. Don Juan 
is attractive like Milton's Lucifer 
so long as he is frankly evil ; only 
when he deliberately turns hypo- 
crite does he become detestable. 
George Dandin is supposed to be 
properly punished for having 
married above his station, but he 
wins sympathy by frankly facing 
the fact that he has brought his 
misery upon himself. It is the 
charlatan, the hypocrite, the 
pedant, the vain fool that is 
mercilessly exposed. Moliere 
used the stage, the home of make- 
believe, to castigate those forms 
of make-believe which lowered 
the dignity and ruined the 
relations: the hollow pretences 
ners, the silly parade of learning, the jealous vanity of 
poetasters, the baseness of the bigot and the folly of his dupe. 


sweetness of human 
of fashionable man- 

He did not merely amuse himself by ridiculing these ex- 
cesses; he hated them with intense hatred. The fury for 
honesty was with him a consuming fire. It is a widespread 
delusion that tolerance is necessarily the fruit of indifference. 
That delusion is even today the cause of much misleading 
reasoning, although years ago Phillips Brooks analyzed once 
and for all the different forms of tolerance, and placed the 
tolerance of indifference lowest on the list. To him, as to 
all who have given the subject careful thought, the most 
important form of tolerance is that which springs from the 
recognition of the protean forms of truth. Only through 
freedom to seek for truth in all its disguises and to proclaim 
freely the result of such search is there possibility of progress 
for mankind, and the very intensity of belief in one's own 
discovery should prompt the demand that others may pro- 
claim theirs freely. Such is the tolerance for which Milton 
pleaded so magnificently in his Areopagitica. 

Yet to build the bridge from theory to practice is not 
always simple, as even apostles of tolerance have uncon- 
sciously shown. The surest bridge is built upon sympathetic 
understanding of our common humanity, and upon that 
foundation the feet of Moliere were firmly planted. Of the 
many analyses of the characters of Alceste and Philinte in 
Moliere's subtlest drama, Le Misanthrope, perhaps as 
plausible as any is the one that hazards that he painted here 
a double portrait of himself. Alceste, the man who will be 
honest come what may, is the Moliere who fiercely hates 

pretence in all its forms and 
would fain banish it from the 
world of men. Philinte is Mo- 
liere, the man of the world, the 
strolling player who had seen the 
seamy side of life, the courtier 
who could win and keep a foot- 
ing in the most artificial and 
cynical court of Europe, the 
actor-dramatist who had studied 
human nature that he might hold 
up its mirror, and who knew the 
futility of railing. Hating pre- 
tence as much as does Alceste, 
Philinte tells his friend: " Le 
monde par vos soins ne se chan- 
gerti pas," and plays the part of 
amused observer, lending a help- 
ing hand quietly when he sees an 
opportunity, and rewarded in the 
end by the hand of his lady 

Whether or no the comparison 
be fanciful, the Moliere re- 
vealed by the plays as a whole 
is a fierce hater of what he 
saw as the vices of his world, 
and at the same time one wU 
with a twinklir 
frailty which sun 
to the u 

looked at 
a tolerance 

his world 
of human 
of the obstacles 
in an imperfect world. 


By Samuel J. Looker 

I LIVE at times as in a haunted world, 
A fairyland with sea and sky impearled, 
A very magic in the ground I tread 
And mystery and wonder o'er my head ; 
With shades from olden times who crowd and throng, 
And weird sad rites that to the past belong. 

Unreal seem modern ways and all forlorn, 

Barren of light, of every glory shorn ; 

A tangle wild, conflicting ends and aims 

Compassed by grief and girt about with shames — 

My real delight that busy hive of dreams, 

This brain that yearns and ponders on strange themes. 

Literature and the People by Anto Carte. Musie du Livre, Brussels 

What to Read on Questions of the Day 

In the Wake of Freud 

Restricted Immigration 

Wages and Their Settlement 

The Housing Shortage 

Can Human Nature Be Changed? 

With the multitude of books 
on social, economic, educational, 
health, industrial and civic topics, 
the difficulty of the student and 
practical worker to secure the 
most authentic information or 
most incisive discussion of specific 
problems is enhanced rather than 
lessened. In the following pages 
the attempt is made to present 

advice on reading that will help to an understanding of some 
questions under discussion at the present time. — Editor. 

In the Wake of Freugl 

DESPITE the steadily increasing volume of psychoana- 
lytic and mental-hygiene literature and its new place 
of prominence in the book stores side by side with the 
best seller, the books which can be recommended to the 
lay reader without reservation are few and far between. Any 
:laim to knowledge in the mental hygiene field is 
tests for reading lists, books suitable for the aver- 
:her or social worker. One searches for some vol- 
ill give the new attitude and interpretation of 
Dr represented by the development of modern 
ticularly the psychoanalytic school, without creat- 

B r ._j -dices and wrong impressions than it destroys. 

There have been a few stand-bys to which one turns with 
monotonous regularity, such as William A. White's Mental 
Hygiene of Childhood, Frederick Lyman Well's Mental Ad- 
justments with emphasis on the first two chapters, Bernard 
Hart's Psychology of Insanity, with some regret for its path- 
ological implications, but appreciation of its brevity, simplicity 
and clarity of thought. Holt's Freudian Wish has been a 
favorite reference, but its use is limited to those with academic 
background in logic and philosophy. His discussion of thinking 
as a development of motor responses is brilliant but technical. 
Healy's Mental Conflicts and Misconduct valuable for its un- 
usual case studies, unfailingly interesting to the lay reader and 


more widely read by the social 
worker than any other one book on 
the mental hygiene list, cannot be 
recommended without an antidote 
in terms of a more inclusive inter- 
pretation of mental hygiene as re- 
lated to every-day life. 

A little volume called Speech 
Training for Children by Smiley 
and Margaret Blanton relates 
speech defect to the general adjust- 
ment of the child and in so doing 
presents the mental hygiene viewpoint very simply together with 
many practical suggestions for parents and teachers. It is well 
worth reading whether or not one is concerned with speech de- 
fect as such. 

The most valuable addition to our list has appeared this year 
in a small volume whose title, Psychoanalysis in the Class Room, 
is a misnomer and may create unnecessary prejudice. Its au- 
thor, George H. Green, has written a book so sound, simple 
and practical as to be almost fool-proof yet full of interest 
and suggestion even for the initiated. The every-day be- 
havior of ordinary children has been observed and analyzed 
in these pages with great insight. Mr. Green has developed 
his psychoanalytic interpretations from the day dreams, 
night dreams and problematical behavior of the youngsters of 
his acquaintance. Extreme interpretations are avoided. Sex is 
not thrown in the face of the reader on every page but is in- 
troduced so skilfully that it will hardly offend any but the 
hopelessly prejudiced. The part played by other instincts and 
cravings, such as the need for self-assertion and display is 
presented with an emphasis and detail which will appeal to the 
instinctively anti-Freudian. McDougall's classification of in- 
stincts is followed rather closely but does not detract from 
originality and freshness of Mr. Green's delightful material. 

Mental Hygiene, the quarterly journal of the National Com- 
mittee for Mental Hygiene, contains perhaps the soundest, most 
interesting yet not too technical material available at the 
present time for the general reader. The April. 1920, number 
stands out as particularly interested in the mental hygiene of 

Stewart Paton's new book, Human Behavior, written from) 
a biological point of view, will give, particularly to the case 

April 15, 1922 



worker absorbed in the behavior of humans, a corrective sense 
of proportion. It is well worth some time from the summer 
vacation and it will require time, and leisure time at that, to 
get from the closely written, scientific text the valuable point 
of" view presented. Perhaps some of the earlier chapters on 
adjusting mechanisms can be omitted, but the latter half of 
the book with chapters on organization and synthesis, imper- 
fect organization, studying the personality, and intelligent di- 
rection of activities will repay careful reading. 

Finally, as a refuge and relief from the ever-present prob- 
lems of human behavior, one recommends to the social worker 
on her vacation two books as charming as they are scientific: 
The Psychic Life of Insects, by E. L. Bouvier, and The Secrets 
of Animal Life, by John Arthur Thompson. Jessie Taft. 

Restricted Immigration 

AMERICA'S immigration policy is a practical problem 
which has had as little scientific study and as generous 
a proportion of sentimental propaganda as the average 
public question. It is difficult to name many really construc- 
tive books to which a serious student might go for original 
data upon which to base a fair decision concerning the merits 
of immigration restriction. The period between 1900 and 1910 
saw many good studies made, chiefly that of the United States 
Immigration Commission; since then most writers have but re- 
stated this material, many quite oblivious of the fact that the 
situation has undergone a profound change. 

The controversy among the severe restrictionists, the liberals 
and the moderates has waged over the economic and political 
effects of immigration, with some recent attention to the ethnic 
and cultural results of racial fusion. 

The data concerning the existence of an emergency situation 
following the war is contained chiefly in the records of con- 
gressional hearings. 

I. Economic Factors: 

The monumental report of the United States Immigration 
Commission, as summarized in volumes I and II, frankly re- 
gards the immigrant as fundamentally an'economic problem. It 
gives a cautious reply to whether America needs in the future 
the supply of cheap labor which it has used so readily in the 
past. It observes that while the manufacturers as such can 
profit by a supply of inexperienced and cheap help, the interests 
of the native American and earlier immigrants seem to demand 
a curb on the unrestricted flow of competitive labor from 
abroad. A strong statement for restriction is given by Prescott 
Hall in Immigration, chapter VII, representing the Immigra- 
tion Restriction League, Boston. 

The viewpoint of organized labor as opposed to further 
competition is expressed by many labor leaders and reenforced 
by Jenks and Lauck in The Immigration Problem, chapters X 
and XI. Opposition to all immigration is a traditional labor 

The present agitation for restriction, based on the possibility 
of a huge influx of inferior immigrant stock from war-racked 
Europe, is discussed at length by many witnesses in the Senate 
Immigration Committee hearings for January, 1921, entitled 
Emergency Immigration Legislation, especially parts 8 and 9, 
and in the House Immigration Committee hearings, entitled 
Proposed Restriction of Immigration, April, 1920, Imported 
Pauper Labor, Serial I, 1921, and Emergency Immigration 
Legislation, Serial 2, 1921. These, with all other government 
publications, may be ordered through the Government Printing 
Office, Washington. 

Isaac A. Hourwich in Immigration and Labor maintains 
that our free immigration policy has benefited rather than 
retarded labor in its progress toward better wages, working 
hours and conditions of living. In the new edition he sum- 
marizes the data presented by the late war period when immi- 
gration was practically stopped. 

II. Political Factors: 

The stress of the World War was a severe test of national 
unity. Evidences of discord at home led many to protest against 
further immigration as a deliberate step toward political 
anarchy. Such is the view held by Alvin E. Ross in The Old 
World in the New, chapter XI ; Hall, Immigration, chapter IX. 

The scientific basis was that there was a distinction between 

the "old" and "new" immigrant races revealed by the citizen- 
ship studies of the Immigration Commission, summarized in 
Jenks and Lauck, chapter XV. This has since been critically 
studied by John P. Gavit in Americans by Choice, in which the 
recent immigrant is shown to compare on equal terms with the 
older immigrant in seeking naturalization. 

III. Ethnic Factors: 

Several writers have caught the popular imagination by 
treating of immigration in terms of race history. They raise 
the question as to whither we are going if race intermixture in 
America does not stop. The Old World in the New, chapter 
XII, by Ross, is an example of the books which make the sharp 
cleavage between the races of the "old" immigration and the 
"new" immigration. It is an interesting plea for the stoppage 
of immigration from Eastern and Southeastern Europe, as 
prejudicial to the future of America's racial vitality. Hall in 
Immigration, chapter VI, F. J. Warne, in Tide of Immigra- 
tion, and many others repeat the same thought. The Passing 
of a Great Race, by Madison Grant, however, deserves men- 
tion only because it is so widely read. His appeal for the Nordic 
race is as sentimental as that of many friends of unrestricted 
immigration. Races of Europe, by W. Z. Ripley, is worth 
reading, for the student sees in Europe the result of just such 
mixtures as we are now having. 

Franz Boaz, in The Mind of Primitive Man, chapter X, and 
in his study of The Bodily Changes of Immigrants, prepared 
for the Immigration Commission, comes to the conclusion that 
distinctive race characteristics are gradually lost among the 
children of immigrants and that they tend toward a normal 
American standard. 

A beginning has been made for a new study in the Mentality 
of the Arriving Immigrant by E. H. Mullen. It is an attempt 
to determine more accurately the mental equipment of the 
immigrant races. It is too limited in scope to be more than an 
interesting discussion of method. The abstract of the report of 
the Immigration Commission, volume II, gives data on immigra- 
tion in relation to crime, insanity, charity seeking and upon the 
relative fecundity of native and foreign-born women. The Eu- 
genics Record Office of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, 
Department of Genetics, is studying the immigrant in hos- 
pitals, prisons and insane asylums. The only published report 
to date is the testimony of H. H. Laughlin, Biological Aspects 
of Immigration, before the House Immigration Committee, in 
which he pleads for a higher type of physical examination of 
immigrants rather than mere percentage restriction, on the 
ground that all races supply desirable and undesirable classes 
of immigrants. His conclusions suggest a revaluation of "old" 
and "new" immigrant stocks, along with more strict laws. 

Michael Davis, in Immigrant Health and the Community, 
has some new data on the susceptibility of immigrant stock to 
various diseases, with the interesting comment that the vitality 
of the race need not necessarily suffer from the immigration of 
races prone to such diseases as tuberculosis, because natural 
selection gradually weeds out those unable to survive, allowing 
the stronger races to keep in the majority. 

The general effects of racial intermixture are discussed by 
Julius Drachsler in Democracy and Assimilation. 

The data concerning the alleged inferiority of raci; 
in post-war immigration is discussed in the report of 
ings before the Senate Immigration Committee, E 
Immigration Legislation, parts 1-9, for 1921. 

Crime, pauperism, conflict of cultures, persistence 
and racial consciousness and the possibility of creatii 
monious, if not a homogeneous American social life, are social 
factors much discussed but little studied. The Immigration 
Commission in volumes II and XXXVI cautiously concludes 
that immigration has not increased crime, although certain 
races are more prone to certain types of offenses than others 
and than Americans. 

A study of pauperism made in volumes II, XXXIV and 
XXXV shows that at the time the " old " immigrant races 
rather than the recent ones are the most prone to be charity 
seekers and public charges. The testimony of Mr. Laughlin is 
interesting as suggesting the opposite view. 

The vast subject of the cultural effects of immigration is dis- 
cussed in Old World Traits Transplanted, by Park and Miller, 
wherein cases are used to illustrate the interaction of foreign 
and American cultures in the life of the individual immigrant. 



April 15, 1922 

A general survey of possible future development is outlined in 
America Via the Neighborhood, by John Daniels. Note also 
Ross, op. cit.j chapter X; Hall, op. cit., chapter VIII. 

IV. Legislative Programs: 

Jenks and Lauck, op. cit., chapters XVI-XVIII, give a 
good summary of immigration legislation up to the passage of 
the literacy test, together with a statement of the principles 
underlying "percentage restriction." The League for Con- 
structive Immigration Legislation (New York) publishes a 
summary of its arguments for the new Sterling bill. The hear- 
ings of the House and Senate Immigration Committees, op. cit., 
contain further suggestions about legislation. Hall, Immigra- 
tion, chapter IX and part 3, and Warne, Tide of Immigra- 
tion, have other useful summaries. 

To the reader who wishes statements of viewpoint by emi- 
nent leaders there are two very interesting compilations giving 
both sides of the question, together with helpful bibliographies: 
Immigration, by Edith M. Phelps, and Immigration and 
Americanization, by Philip Davis. Charles T. Bridgeman. 

Wages and Their Settlement 

THE wage status of the wage earner, the basis for wage 
determination and the machinery for the settlement of 
wage disputes are matters which have formed the real 
casus belli of the war following the war — the industrial struggle 
in which the participants, workers and employers, are left to 
fight it out without the aid of war labor boards, of govern- 
mental standards and other devices for peace in industry during 
war time. There has been, as consequence, a mass of material 
written on these subjects during the past year, and especially 
during the past months, mostly in the nature of short magazine 
articles or pamphlets. Outstanding among these is perhaps the 
special wages number of the Annals of the Academy of Political 
Science for March, a symposium dealing with the Determi- 
nation of Wage Rates — special plans for, basic principles in- 
volved in, and stabilization of employment as a factor in wages. 
Among the books, Wages and Hours in American Industry, 
the fourth volume of a series on wages of the National Indus- 
trial Conference Board, gives the most complete data on changes 
in wages, hours and the volume of employment from the pre- 
war period to the middle of 1921 which have yet appeared. 
It includes in its scope all American industries and analyzes 
and charts the data, presenting them in larger units and more 
usable form than the government labor statistics have yet been 
presented. The analysis is entirely from the employers' point 
of view, since the board is a cooperative body composed of rep- 
resentatives of national and state industrial associations. It is, 
however, especially valuable for that particular reason. It 
provides a comparison for figures from more impartial sources, 
and itself serves as a check on statistics offered by other em- 
ploying groups. 

A volume by Professor Feis, The Settlement of Wage Dis- 
putes, is concerned chiefly with the principles involved. It puts 
forth no new or revolutionary doctrines but rather sets down 
factors which govern wage settlements in America at the 
«»-»-»r>r time and analyzes the tendencies which these reflect, 
been done with great discrimination, but without per- 
accumulation of statistical data needed for sound, 
practice. Professor Feis concludes that through the 
f wage settlement experiments now being carried on 
ively new ideas are likely to emerge as permanent: 
,. i.e first is the idea that the welfare of the wage earners 
in each particular industry is one of the major questions 
in the conduct of that industry; and that the wage earners 
should participate effectively in those activities of direction 
by which the conditions of labor are determined. The 
second idea is that the whole body of wage earners in 
industry should possess the means of checking the action 
of private enterprise, when they can prove clearly that the 
methods of production that are being pursued are wasteful 
either of human or of material resources." 

Wages and Hours in American Industry, National Industrial Con- 
ference Board. Century Co. 202 pp. Price, $2.00 ; with postage from 
the Subvby, $2.20. 

The Settlement of Wage Disputes. Herbert Feis. Mnomillan Co. 
289 pp. Price, $2.25; with postage from the Survey, $2.45. 

Industrial Problems and Disputes. Lord Askwith. Harcourt. Brace 
& Co. 494 pp. Price, $5.00 ; with postage from the Subvby, $5.25. 

In sharp contrast to the theoretical volume by Professor 
Feis is the fascinating story by Lord Askwith, Industrial Prob- 
lems and Disputes, rich in experience, full of color and inter- 
woven with the philosophy and keen perception which has made 
of that Englishman the dean of labor arbitrators. 

" Sir George Askwith, the patient, plodding man, with 
pigeon-holes in his brains; who listened without sign of 
being bored or absorbed, who concealed his mind like a 
Chinaman. Emotionless, excepting that he would peer 
through his glasses at some one making a statement of 
moment, never raising his diplomatic voice, or appearing to 
hurry over anything; guiding without falter or apparent 
effort the disputants, however heated they may be, himself 
the inscrutable, patient listener." 
This is from Ben Tillett's History of the Transport Strike, 
and is picked up in the present volume. It shows the man. 
Tracing tHe story of arbitration in England from the Con- 
ciliation Act of 1896 through 1920, Lord Askwith, to a great 
extent by the use of valuable detail, presents the underlying 
conditions leading up to the disputes and their settlement 
through governmental agencies. From it all he brings rich 
suggestions for the future; for the problems of the past he 
links up with problems to come in such a way as to stimulate 
preparation for the future on the basis of the practical ex- 
perience of the past. As the chief factor in the settlement of 
British labor disputes of the past twenty years, while serving 
as chief industrial commissioner and as chairman of the Gov- 
ernment Arbitration Committee, Lord Askwith's writings are 
a rare contribution to the literature of arbitration. From his 
deductions these two might be quoted as typical of the temper 
of the man: 

" The industrial problems of the present day, the prob- 
lems of years past, are closely connected with the use 
which we make of our lads; the chances we give them to 
advance, and by advancing to assist others by service and 
example; the avoidance of putting them in wrong places; 
their opportunity of getting a fair chance according to their 
efforts and brains, and of understanding the position of 
others and not seeking or imagining misunderstanding." 

" Peace and goodwill among men may have been too high 
an ideal to obtain, but in the seeking of it it has been 
possible, sometimes, to lay the seeds of future understand- 
ing and a living growth of unity and unified effort between ' 
man and man, beyond the material settlement, important 
though that be, of the wages between employer and em- 

The Housing Shortage 

THE housing emergency was discovered when we entered 
the war. Ammunition and ships could not be made with- 
out workers; mechanics would not work unless they had 
decent homes. America found that housing was a national and 
not a private affair. So we studied the experience of Europe 
in governmental housing. A series of articles on this subject 
written for the Journal of the American Institute of Architects 
by Charles Harris Whitaker, Frederick L. Ackerman, Richard 
S. Childs and Edith Elmer Wood was republished in 1918 under 
the title of The Housing Problem in War and in Peace. Mrs. 
Wood afterward enlarged her essay on constructive govern- 
mental action into a book. The Housing of the Unskilled 
Wage Earner, which is the best concise history of the housing 
movement in America and abroad. Much valuable material 
had already been collected by the United States Bureau of 
Labor Statistics in Bulletin No. 158 — Government Aid to 
Home Owning and Housing of Working People in Foreign 
Countries. While the housing policy of the government was 
still being debated early in 1918, a symposium was held by the 
National Housing Association in Philadelphia, published later 
as War Housing Problems. 

The war ended, but the housing emergency grew more ur- 
gent. The government stopped building, the speculator was 
unwilling to take the risk; rents sky rocketed, and an attempt 
was made to treat the emergency as a conspiracy of landlords. 
As a result, the rent legislation of New York state was passed. 
A justice of the municipal courts, Edgar J. Lane, has devoted a 
book. The Tenant and His Landlord, to the history of these 
laws and their precedents. More interesting are the briefs in 
defense of the rent legislation prepared for the higher courts of 

April 15, 1922 



New York state in November, 1920, and the Supreme Court of 
the United States in October, 1921. The former is of particular 
interest on account of the historical data showing precedents in 
England and Ireland for the abolition of the landlord's rights 
to evict a tenant in possession. The latter answers the con- 
tention of Samuel McCune Lindsay, in his Economic Aspects 
of the So-called Emergency Housing Legislation and the Al- 
leged Housing Shortage, that there was no housing shortage 
in New York. (Why not tell a boy that fought in France 
that there was no war?) 

The Housing Committee of the Reconstruction Commission 
of the State of New York saw that " the present crisis is the 
result of the past tendencies " that have not been caused by 
but merely "accentuated by conditions arising out of the war." 
And so, in their report of March, 1920, they said that a return 
to pre-war conditions was no solution; permanent state and 
local commissions, state loans and municipal housing, on munic- 
ipally owned land were necessary. In 1918 the Milwaukee 
Housing Committee in its concise but far-reaching report 
called for not only governmental but cooperative action and 
ownership. Its plan is now being realized in the construction 
of a group of houses to be cooperatively owned. 

Even those who try cannot agree on a solution. In a tri- 
angular debate, representing different schools, which was pub- 
lished by E. P. Dutton & Company, as The Housing Famine — 
How to End It, John J. Murphy, an individualist, says: "To 
meet the present emergency we must resort to alleviation" ; 
Edith Elmer Wood is for the housing of lower paid wage 
earners by the state as a public utility; while Frederick L. Ack- 
erman, who has not been afraid to probe the problem to its 
sources, contends that there can be no solution without a com- 
plete reorganization of industry and the present method of dis- 
tributing wealth. 

Charles Harris Whitaker, the editor of the Journal of the 
American Institute of Architects, is also willing to seek for 
essentials. In The Joke About Housing, he shows how the 
housing problem is not one to be solved by rent legislation, 
by the appointment of commissions, by government lending or 
building. It is, he says, a problem of land control and credit 
control. Clarence S. Stein. 

Can Human Nature Be Changed? 

OUR conservative statesmen and industrial leaders "stand 
pat" upon the essential permanence of the present indus' 
trial and social order, because, as they say, "Society as 
at present organized represents human nature." Any real 
change from present conditions implies and involves changing 
human nature. Such change is obviously impossible, because 
human nature is what it is: it does not change; it cannot be 
changed. This is one of the most deeply rooted doctrines in 
our vulgar social philosophy. How much real truth is there 
in it? 

Francis Bacon, " father of modern science," paid his respects 
to popular beliefs of this sort in one of his famous passages: 
"The human understanding," he writes in the Novum 
Organon, "is like a false mirror, which, receiving rays irregu- 
larly, distorts and discolors the nature of things by mingling 
its own nature with it." These distortions and discolorations 
of reality come between the mind and reality and vitiate all 
our knowledge and invalidate all our opinions. Any one who 
knows anything about psychology recognizes these facts. Bacon 
suggests that the human mind comes, after a time, to love 
these distortions of reality and to prefer them to anything more 
critically dependable. He calls them Idols of the Mind. He 
distinguishes four types of such Idols. Of the fourth type he 
says: "These I call Idols of the theater, because in my judg- 
ment all the accepted systems (and doctrines) of philosophy 
are but so many stage-plays, representing worlds of their own 
created after an unreal and scenic fashion." 

Shall we place the doctrine that human nature cannot be 
changed in this category? Is this doctrine one of the modern 
Idols of the Theater? Does it present us, not the real world 
of action and science, but a stage-play world, " created after an 
unreal and scenic fashion"? 

Human Nature and Conduct. John Dewey. Henry Holt & Co 
Price, $2.25 ; with postage from the Survey. $2.40. 

The Mind in the Making. James Harvey Robinson. Harper & 
Brothers. Price, $2.50 ; with postage from the Survey, $2.70. 

John Dewey and James Harvey Robinson agree in their 
answers to this question. Not alone in the two books named 
above, but in all their writings for many years, they have been 
consistent critics 'of the popular doctrine. In these latest ex- 
cursions into the fields of historical and social psychology they 
seem definitely to have demonstrated their position. In an 
earlier book (The New History), Mr. Robinson quotes John 
Morley's pathetic picture of the frightened conservative bask- 
ing in the glow of his pet superstition: 

" With his inexhaustible patience of abuses that only tor- 
ment others; his apologetic word for beliefs that may not 
be so precisely true as one might wish, and institutions that 
are not altogether so useful as some might think possible; 
his cordiality toward progress and improvement in a gen- 
eral way, and his coldness or antipathy to each progressive 
proposal in particular; his pygmy hope that life will one 
day become somewhat better, punily shivering by the side 
of his gigantic conviction that it might well be infinitely 

This frightened conservative " takes his stand on human 
nature." But it now turns out that what he has long been 
calling human nature is not human nature at all. These great 
drifts of custom and habit, institutions and folkways, that sur- 
round us like frozen oceans, like slow-moving glaciers, are not 
human nature. These are artificial achievements, products of 
human experience, the off-throw of human nature, not that 
nature, itself. These are the beach-drift of the oceans of ex- 
perience, the moraines piled up by glacial drift. 

Look at the amazing variety of these artificial productions 
of human experience in various parts of the world, as sug- 
gested by Dewey: 

" The wholesale human sacrifices at Peru and the tender- 
ness of St. Francis, the cruelties of pirates and the philan- 
thropies of Howard, the practice of Suttee and the cult 
of the Virgin, the war and peace dances of the Comanches 
and the parliamentary institutions of the British, the com- 
munism of the south sea islander and the proprietary thrift 
of the Yankee, the magic of the medicine man and the 
experiments of the chemist in his laboratory, the non-re- 
sistance of Chinese and the aggressive militarism of an im- 
perial Prussia, monarchy by divine right and government 
by the people; the countless diversity of habits suggested 
by such a random list springs from practically the same 
capital-stock of native instincts." 

That is to say, human nature does not reside in its products, 
these multifarious habits and customs, but in the underlying 
strata of impulse and instinct out of which these finished 
products have developed. Custom and habit, the crystallized 
by-products of living, are indeed largely static, arrogant, un- 
changeable. But the doctrine that human nature itself is un- 
changing is shown to be false in these very facts: human nature 
has encased itself in folkways ranging through an infinite num- 
ber of forms. Human nature in its impulsive and instinctive 
character *s still as plastic as in the youth of the world. 

Historical and social psychology have thus opened up new 
vistas of hope to the statesman and social engineer. Human 
nature is continuously creative — when it gets a chance. " Man 
is an institution-building animal," said Aristotle. But, bound 
hand and foot, body and mind, in the toils of decadent ( 
grown institutions and institutionalisms, his nature ma 
seem to be fixed, immutable. The promise to the statesr 
the reformer is immeasurable. 

But the task is nothing easy: In place of the ace 
social programs or social molds into which human naf 
projected itself, we must have social programs that are more 
nearly expressive of the fore-reachings of humanity for an in- 
telligent social world. In place of the easy acceptance of any 
habit as good, or the easy rejection of all habits as bad, we 
must have social intelligence that will build and project an 
experience-world made of an endlessly creative balancing of 
that habit which stabilizes and that impulse which makes alive. 
Human nature, the underlying strata of impulse and instinct, 
will respond to almost any sort of program. Our task is to 
make the sort of program that will really promise the great 
human values permanently desired by men; and then to protect 
say, the rising generation (in whom creative impulse finds most 
freely creative chance) while that more desirable world is or- 
zanizine itself into the customs and folkways of the race. 

J. K. H. 

Literature and Folk Spirit by Frans Gailliard. Musee da Litre, Brussels 


By Louis N. Robinson. John C. Winston Co., Philadelphia. 
344 pp. Price $3.00; with postage from the Survey, $3.25. 
The science of punishment here appears completely surveyed. 
How the treatment of the prisoner has historically developed 
is shown, the more modern and scientific methods are ex- 
plained, and conclusions are drawn from the experience. The 
work is a thorough and accurate analysis of facts and at the 
same time progressive, even at times idealistic, in its viewpoint. 
It will, therefore, be found suitable both as a textbook for 
students and as a book of information for workers in prison 
and reformatory. 

Dr. Robinson presents the various theories of punishment 
in detail, with copious references to the best literature, and in 
doing so discards in its entirety the ancient theory of deterrence 
as a piece of " bad ethics." The author shows that the most 
ancient of all penal institutions, the jail, has become practically 
a relic of bygone ages. He supports the view long held by 
many prison reformers that the American jail is a " disgrace 
to the nation," a vicious institution, for which should be sub- 
stituted places of temporary detention, reformatories, indus- 
trial schools or farms. 
Workhouses and houses of correction are presented as in- 
'— examples of institutions used for an entirely different 
than the one for which they are designed. In many 
;se institutions have become mere prisons and fail in 
pose of correction and rehabilitation. 
i are shown to have been progressively improved by 
cation of humane principles, but even more by the 

of prison industries. The many plans for utilizing 

prison labor are weighed, with the interesting conclusion that 
the most satisfactory plan is the " self-sufficing " system where- 
by the prison becomes a colony, producing what it needs for its 
own maintenance with a surplus for profit. 

The most hopeful institutions are, of course, the reformatories 
and industrial schools for children. Education here is em-< 
phasized as the most important feature. The nearer the 
juvenile reformatory approaches the methods and equipment of 
a real school, the more effective it becomes. The adult re- 
formatory tends to become an ordinary prison unless the educa- 
tional quality is carefully preserved. For all institutions, in 
fact all methods of dealing with the delinquent, the essential 
need is shown to be the securing of men of the right caliber 
and ability to serve as warden, probation or parole officer, on 
prison staff, or in any other capacity. 


Probation is covered in a brief chapter but nevertheless is 
shown to be, in some respects, the most effective of all modern 
methods of dealing with offenders. A proper distinction is 
made between real probation work, which means discriminative 
selection of probationers and constructive supervision through- 
out the probation period, and much of the so-called probation 
of today which, on account of inadequate and poorly selected 
staffs, is nothing more than a checking up of persons under 
suspended sentence. One gathers the impression that while 
the writer, as a former successful chief probation officer, is 
intensely sympathetic toward the ideals of probation, he, in 
common with many others, has not formulated a technique or 
reached conclusions, based on a broad study, of the proper func- 
tions, the possibilities and limitations of the probation system. 

This system is new. It has grown with phenomenal rapidity. 
In states where it has been longest used, as for instance Massa- 
chusetts and New York, it is of much greater importance num- 
erically than all institutions or other methods of treating de- 
linquency. Dr. Robinson reflects the uncertainty of the public 
as to the status of this system. Because of his very advocacy 
of the system he perhaps errs on the side of caution. Pro- 
bation in many states has only just begun to function. It has 
all the faults of youth, but it has the future with it. 

Parole is handled with a more certain* hand. It has been 
accepted and is used in every state. It is an essential feature 
of every reformatory and institution for juvenile delinquents. 
Although the supervision of paroled prisoners is admittedly 
very weak, considerably weaker than the supervision of persons 
on probation, it is nevertheless agreed that practically every 
offender committed to an institution should serve a period of 
parole and during it should be carefully supervised. The 
question which all interested in this field are constantly asking 
is: " How can an adequate number of parole officers be se- 
cured?" This is left unanswered, though the suggestions are 
offered that the work of parole boards, separate from the in- 
stitutions, be extended with adequate staffs, that greater use 
be made of volunteer resources, and that greater use be made 
of probation staffs for parole supervision. 

As we should expect in so progressive a treatment of pen- 
ology, capital punishment is rejected in its entirety, as are 
also flogging and other brutal, outgrown methods. Capital 
punishment is left without a leg to stand on. 

The management of great institutions is shown to be a busi- 
ness proposition requiring executive skill of the highest order 
as well as special training and knowledge. More often than 

April 15, 1922 



not, through politics and public apathy, unfit men are placed in 
charge of institutions. 

In his conclusions Dr. Robinson advocates the socializing of 
our criminal courts and the extension of probation to every 
court; the establishment of institutions for special types of 
offenders, doing away with the general prison (with parole an 
important feature in such institutions) ; the elimination of 
county and municipal jails as places of detention for sentenced 
prisoners; promotion of easier transfer from one penal institu- 
tion to another, and from penal institutions to those commonly 
known as charitable; abolition of the death penalty; making 
the goal of prison administration the development of character. 

The book is timely, thorough and sound. It would be well 
if it could be read not only by those having a special interest 
in the subject but by every one as a requirement for citizen- 
ship. Charles L. Chute. 

General Secretary, National Probation Association. 




By Evelyn Dewey. E. P. Dutton cif Co. 173 pp. Price, $2.00; 

with postage from the Survey, $2.15. 
The Dalton Laboratory Plan is an intelligent development of 
the program of the free schools. It is easy to run a school room 
or a school in the interest of the teachers, making the pupils 
wholly subordinate to the convenience or the comfort of their 
elders. It is easy to turn a school over to the pupils for their 
own experimentation. But it is not easy to organize a school in 
which the freedom of the children and the wisdom of the 
teachers can continuously meet and vitally supplement each 

This has been the real problem of the "new schools." In the 
development of this Dalton plan, Helen Parkhurst has made 
a fundamental contribution to educational practice. She shows 
herself to be a social inventor of real insight. 

In describing the character of the plan and in showing how 
it has worked both in the Dalton High School and in the Chil- 
dren's Elementary School, Miss Dewey has made this invention 
available to all liberal teachers. This is a book that no teacher 
can afford to miss. J. K. H. 


By Gertrude Hartman. E. P. Dutton dif Co. 248 pp. Price, 
$3.00; with postage from the Survey, $3.25. 
Slowly the educational world swings away from its age-long 
intellectualisms and turns to the conceptions of the school as 
a social institution and of education as a social process. The 
Bureau of Educational Experiments is finding its own experi- 
mental efforts literally crowded over into the social field. Miss 
Hartman's book grew out of an effort to develop a bibliography 
covering advisory materials on educational experimentation. She 
found the most useful materials in the writings of John Dewey. 
Her book turns out to be, primarily, a series of selections from 
Dewey's writings. As a systematic presentation of those writ- 
ings, it will fill a real need. As a confession of the social char- 
acter of education it should prove convincing. It is an excellent 
contribution to the thoughtful side of educational experiment- 
ing. J. K. H. 


Investigation by the Child Labor Committee, under the 
direction of Edward N. Clopper. Macmillan Co. 354 pp. 
Price, $3.00; with postage from the Survey, $3.10. 
City people who have always looked upon country life as an 
unmixed blessing for children are far from realizing the tre- 
mendous handicaps of rural childhood in communities where 
the more aggressive members have left the farms, or the tide 
of civilization has turned aside to follow the good roads and 
the railways. The National Child Labor Committee has done 
a bit of long needed investigation in the cause of children on 
the farms, choosing West Virginia as its field of activity. On 
account of the varied topography and soil this state presents a 
range of problems fairly representative of rural conditions all 
over the country. There are lonely mountain settlers who 
have intermarried in their isolation until ten feebleminded chil- 

Is This a Christian Country? 

Extracts from a remarkable book just published to raise 
fundamental questions for all religious Americans: The 
Crisis of the Churches, by Leighton Parks. (Charles 
Scribner's Sons. With postage from the Survey, $2.70.) 

THE word crisis is used in two different senses; some- 
times it means no more than that a turning-point has 
been reached, as when in speaking of a disease, it is said 
that the crisis has or has not been passed. But the original 
meaning of the word has a deeper significance than that; 
it means also a judgment. This is what not a few religious 
men believe the present crisis of the world to be. 

• * * 

The problem of religion in America is complicated by 
the fact that the American temperament has much of the 
Greek frivolity, and yet its religion is permeated by the 
solemn atmosphere of the Hebrew. 

• * * 

The progress of mankind has been largely due to 
" anarchists." It is they who have written the laws under 
which we now live in security. 

• * » 

The hope of the future lies in an inspiring education 
which, recognizing the supreme value of personality, will 
set free the latent personality in the individuals now sub- 
merged in some "organization." At present we are con- 
fused between the claims of two theories of education; the 
one, which we might call the Jesuit theory, would crush 
individuality as an evil thing and subordinate free will 
to obedience; the other, which is the utilitarian, has no 
higher purpose than to enable the individual to succeed 
in the struggle for existence. The one would destroy the 
personality and the other society. But personality is not 
abnormal individuality; it is the individual life realizing 
itself in an inspired community. 

• • • 

Not by ignoring our differences, but by emphasizing our 
principles, shall we be in a position to know what is of 
permanent and what of merely temporary value. . . . Par- 
adoxical as it may seem, the first step toward more effective 
association will be found not in ignoring the differences 
of the churches, but, on the contrary, in glorifying them. 

• * • 

Any church which makes dogma the sine qua non of 
membership is in danger of becoming a philosophical 
school having no message for the " man in the street." 
Any church which exalts sacraments till they become the 
exclusive means of grace is in danger of sinking back into 
the magic-worship against which, I believe a careful study 
of the New Testament will show, both Paul and John 
uttered an emphatic protest. Any church which thinks its 
mission is fulfilled when it has ministered to those who 
find themselves comfortable in its congenial surroundings 
is in danger of becoming a religious club, and can make 
no appeal to those who are looking for the kingdom of 


• • • 

The underlying cause of the failure of the modern church 
to fulfill the task and mission committed to it by its Divine 
Master is due, I believe, to the fact that fellowship has not 

been the goal which it has sought to attain. It hr- ' 

led to magnify the importance of mechanical unit 
getting that mere juxtaposition does not necessaril 
to unity, but, on the contrary, may frustrate it. 

• * » 

If the church were to set truth as a goal to b 
rather than as an end from which there can be 
vance, there might be a revival of the love of truth which 
the churches seem to have lost. 

• • • 

There is unity in search as well as in possession. There 
was unity of search in the Middle Ages when students 
from all parts of Europe flocked to Paris and Oxford and 
Padua and Bologna. Had there been uniformity of teach- 
ing, the students would have remained at home. 

• • • 

There is less freedom of thought in some of the modern 
churches than there was in the mediaeval church when 
the great universities were thronged with students. Into 
the great melting-pot of the universities went the seekers 
after God and out of it came the great teachers of the 



April 15, Ip22 

Haunts of My Childhood 

I" WALK down Chester Street. Children are playing, 
A lovely children. I see myself among them back there 
in the past. I wonder if any of them will come back some 
day and look around enviously at other children. Some- 
how they seem different from those children with whom 
I used to play. Sweeter, more dainty were these little, 
begrimed kids with their arms entwined around one an- 
other's waists. Others, little girls mostly, sitting on the 
doorsteps, with dolls, with sewing, all playing at that 
universal game of " mothers." 

A girl comes up — thin, narrow-chested, but with an 
eagerness in her eyes that lifts her above any physical 

" Charlie, don't you know me ? " 

Of course I know her. She is all excited, out of breath. 
I can almost feel her heart thumping with emotion as her 
narrow chest heaves with her hurried breathing. Her 
face is ghastly white, a girl about twenty-eight. She has 
a little girl with her. 

This girl was a little servant girl who used to wait on 
us at the cheap lodging house where I lived. I remem- 
bered that she had left in disgrace. There was tragedy 
in it. But I could detect a certain savage gloriousness 
in her. She was carrying on with all odds against her. 
Hers is the supreme battle of our age. May she and 
others of her kind meet a kindly fate. 

With pent-up feelings we talk about the most common- 
place things. 

"Well, how are you, Charlie?" 

"Fine." I point to the little girl. "Is she your little 

She says, " Yes." 

That's all, but there doesn't seem to be much need of 
conversation. We just look and smile at each other and 
we both weave the other's story hurriedly through our 
own minds by way of the heart. Perhaps in our weaving 
we miss a detail or two, but substantially we are right. 
There is warmth in the renewed acquaintance. I feel 
that in this moment I know her better than I ever did 
in the many months I used to see her in the old days. 
And right now I feel that she is worth knowing. 

Good God! English children's teeth are terrible! Some- 
thing can and should be done about it. But their eyes. 
Soulful eyes with such a wonderful expression. I see a 
young girl glance slyly at her beau. What a beautiful 
look she gives him ! I find myself wondering if he is 
worthy, if he realizes the treasure that is his. What a 
lovely people ! 

Who is that old derelict there against the cart? An- 
other landmark. I look at him closely. He is the same — 
only more so. Well do I remember him, the old tomato 
man. I was about twelve when I first saw him, and 

is still here in the old spot, plying the same old trade, 

lile I— 

Kennington Cross. 

It was here that I first discovered music, or where I learned its rare beauty, a beauty that has gladdened 
and haunted me from that moment. It all happened one 
night while I was there, about midnight. I recall the 
whole thing so distinctly. 

I was just a boy, and its beauty was like some sweet 
mystery. I did not understand. I only knew I loved it 
and I became reverent as the sounds carried themselves 
through my brain via my heart. I suddenly became aware 
of a harmonica and a clarinet playing a weird, harmoni- 
ous message. I learned later that it was The Honeysuckle 
and the Bee. It was played with such feeling that I 
became conscious for the first time of what melody really 

— From My Trip Abroad, by Charlie Chaplin. Harper 
& Bros. 

dren are found in one home; there are farm communities where 
the Four-H clubs guided by state agents have brought families 
into cooperation and made it possible for boys and girls to 
attend the state agricultural college and spend part of their 
vacation in summer camps with other children. Between these 
extremes are many more aspects of farm life that need intel- 
ligent consideration by the people who form or influence the 
laws relating to child welfare, and by the people who actually 
live in rural districts. 

Under the direction of Edward N. Clopper, the author of 
Child Labor in City Streets, seven men and women have made 
this scientific study of the relations of the rural child to his 
home, school, community and state, and provided excellent and 
reliable material for practical purposes; presenting it, at the 
same time, in such form that a sympathetic picture is readily 
created by the reader. Laws relating to marriage, taxation, 
schooling, labor and delinquency are discussed, and the method 
of their enforcement with suggestions for improvement given. 
Lewis W. Hine's photographs dramatize the story. 

Lack of mentality, lack of opportunity, lack of training, are 
primarily at the root of the farm families' misery. West Vir- 
ginia is making an effort to do effective work along all three 
lines, partly through the Four-H clubs that help develop the 
head, the hand, the heart and the health of the child, and 
partly through state laws. But, as Mr. Clopper points out, 
better days for the rural child are coming only when its parents 
realize that it should get a square deal, and at present this is 
not the case. " Country people must bring about the dawn 
themselves," he says, " and they can do it if they will but look 
at the child's needs from the point of view of the child instead 
of from their own and then take action, partly individual and 
partly joint, that common sense dictates. They who would be 
saved must save themselves." It is high time that this con- 
ception of the rights and importance of childhood penetrate to 
farm communities where idleness and play are still synonymous. 

Ruth Metzger. 


By Edwin Bjorkman. Alfred A. Knopf. 322 pp. Price, 

$2.50; with postage from the Survey, $2.65. 
Adult stories of children which are written for adult appre- 
ciation fall into two general classes: those that are deliberately 
condescending, and describe with a delicious sense of humor the 
mishaps and adventures of children who utterly lack this sense; 
and those written from the " result " point of view, which 
treat children merely as a means to adulthood, an end. The 
former are whimsical, pleasant to read, wholly untrue. The 
latter are dominated by the teleological point of view and 
amount to little more than a deductive study of the causes 
that inevitably lead to the status quo. 

Edwin Bjorkman's The Soul of a Child belongs to the latter 
class rather than to the former. He is apparently attempting 
to record the experiences of a child objectively with an inter- 
esting, if uneven, result. Some periods of his own childhood 
have remained with him in all their early vividness; in these 
he has actually caught the soul of a child. 

The story is told against a Swedish background which 
brings into sharper relief the impulses and habit which are 
universal. It is to be hoped that Mr. Bjorkman will continue 
his story, as he indicates that he will by several references to 
Keith's later life; for as the boy grows up the author's insigh' 
increases. It is a great joy to read a straight story with the 
least possible interpretation or teaching. Keith speaks for 
himself — even if not always too convincingly. 

Donald Slesinger. 


By Jean Lee Hunt, Buford J. Johnson and Edith M. 

Lincoln. E. P. Dutton Co. 281 Pp. Price, $3.50; with postage 

from the Survey, $3.70. 
With the recent nation-wide interest in better public health, 
and especially in higher standards of physical fitness for grow- 
ing children, much attention has been focusscd on the nutrition 
class, the aims, standards and functions of which are but little 
understood even by people engaged in nutrition and health 
work. This pioneer book with its practical and scientific appli- 
cations to health education is, therefore, of particular sig- 

J ( L 

April 15, 1922 




A CLASH of opinion about Waldo Frank's new 
novel was exactly what we expected. So we are 
not taken aback when Heywood Broun voices 
his dislike for it, or when F. P. A. pokes fun at Waldo 
Frank's temerity in coining a new word — just as his 
predecessors Poe, Whitman, Thackeray and Meredith 
before him have done. 

On the other hand such prophets of a new spirit in 
life and letters as Sherwood Anderson, Evelyn Scott, 
Pierre de Lanux, J. E. Spingarn, etc., give instant ex- 
pression to their recognition of Waldo Frank's art. 
"I feel a tremendous lot of warmth, life and poetry in 
every page I have read," writes Sherwood Anderson. 
"It is a great book," says Evelyn Scott. "There are 
moments in it as profound and beautiful as any I ever 
found in an imaginative work." 

RAHAB is a deeply moving "song of life" that is 
being heatedly discussed at many dinner tables. Be 
sure to read it in time for that next dinner party! 

Second large printing. $2.00 everywhere 

"The Most Important Autobiography Since 
The Education of Henry Adams" 


An American Chronicle 

Li"T TP STREAM stands on a shelf by itself. ... It stands 
J apart by virtue of its pointed nostalgia, its bitterness, 
^^ and its critical edge. It is far more profitable and sug- 
gestive a book for one hundred per cent. Americans to read than 
the more flattering confessions in which Mr. Lewisohn's pre- 
decessors offer us bouquets of our own national flowers. To my 
taste it is far more palatable than nineteen out of twenty novels 
and far better worth publishing."— Stuart P. Sherman. 

Each week an authoritative opinion of this important book 
will be printed in the leading literary journals of the country. 

Royal 8vo., gilt top, $3.00 everywhere 



THE first book in years which George Moore has recom- 
mended. He says: "In Vocations the truth is told in so 
interesting a way that I couldn't put the book down, but 
kept on reading it for three or four days." 

Francis Hackett writes: "No other novel on this theme com- 
pares with Vocations." 

Not one person out of fifty will read this tremendously inter- 
esting novel without feeling the strongest impulse to immediately 
recommend it to his best friends. It is no overstatement to say 
that Vocations is of the same stuff and quality as many of the 
classics that have made English literature glorious. 

$2.00 everywhere 



INTIMATE, sparkling, gossipy revelations, deli- 
riously frank, of the impressions made upon this 
famous English society woman and sculptress 
by our leading men and women of society and letters. 

Richly illustrated. $3.00 everywhere 



KIMONO is not just another novel of love and -^"rrv 
blossoms in Japan. In addition to its tho> 
unusual story of mixed marriage with its conf 
suspense, it is a significant and powerful sociological s 

In spite of its disclosures of the evils of the Yoshiw , 
tern and the subjection of woman in Japan, it is, 
Japanese Advertiser itself says: "A brilliant work of 
profoundly moral in its purpose." And the Londc^ — 
Literary Supplement writes: "The flesh uncompromisingly 
exposed by Mr. Paris does not inflame the senses. He does 
not say that the women are wicked, he leaves you to see for 
yourself that what they are forced to do is ugly." 

12th edition in 3 weeks, $2.00 everywhere 


119 West 40th Street 




Please mention The Subvht when writing to advertiser a 



April 15, 1922 

New Books for Survey Readers 


By Waiiam E. Barton 

"Certainly among the notable biographies of 1922 . . . 
nor likely thereafter to be superseded." — Richmond 
News Leader. "A graphic portrayal of Mrs. Barton's 
life and character, her services to her country and to the 
world, that not only makes an important addition to 
the treasures of American biography, but also to narra- 
tives of greatly serving and unselfish lives." — New York 
Tribune. Illus., 2 vols., $10.00. 1 

History of 


By Robert Kelso 

An intensive study of the beginnings and growth of 
the Massachusetts system of poor relief from the first 
year of the Plymouth Colony, by the President of the 
National Conference of Social Work. $2.50. 


Just Published 

History of Social Thought 


Emory S. Bogardus, Ph.D. 

Professor and Head of Department of Sociology 
University of Southern California 

AN Authoritative History of the Social 
Thought of all peoples in all times, 
from the earliest period of folk lore to 
the present. The modern schools of social 
thought are carefully analyzed, and presented 
in detail. The treatment of all schools of 
thought is open-minded and unbiased. 


Nature op Social Thought 

Earliest Social Thouoht 

Social Thouoht of Ancient 

Social Thought of the He- 

Plato and Grecian Sooial 

Aristotle and Grecian Social 

Roman Social Thought 

Early Christian Social 

Social Thought in the Mid- 
dle Ages 

More and Utopian Social 

Individualistic Sooial 

Malthus and Population Con- 

Comte and Positivb Social 

Marx and Socialistic Social 

Buckle and Geographic Social 

Spencer and Organic Social 

Sociology of Lesteb F. Ward 

Anthropologic sociology 

Eugenic Sociology 

Conflict Theories in Sociol- 

Co-operation Theories in 

Psycho-Sociolooic Thought 

Trend of Applied Sociology 

Rise of Educational Sociology 

Sociology of Modbbn Chris- 

Methods of Sociological In- 

Dissemination of Sociological 

510 pages, 12mo. Cloth. $3.50 prepaid 

University of Southern California Press 

3474 University Avenue, Los Angeles 

Please mention The Subvey 

nificance at this time. It presents the initial work of the 
Bureau of Educational Experiments on this study, describing 
in detail the pioneer attempt to conduct nutrition classes in a 
New York city public school. The first experiment of five 
months, beginning February, 1918, was planned "to explore the 
possibilities of such classes in a public school" by employing the 
methods of hospital nutrition classes as organized by Dr. 
William R. P. Emerson. The development of this procedure is 
further outlined for the next two years of the experiment, in 
which different grades were dealt with and varying methods of 
approach tried out. 

Charts and tables give all the statistical data of the nutrition 
classes. As careful discussion of the social, racial and individual 
factors involved are an important part of each study, a well 
rounded interpretation of the work and its results is set forth. 

Special reports on the study of growth in weight and height 
of children in these classes and on measurements of mental 
ability in underweight children are outlined, with accompanying 
statistical charts, which give accurate information on this phase 
of health education and nutrition work. 

The concluding chapters of the book are given to discussions 
and recommendations on various problems in the developn «nt 
of health programs, as suggested by the results obtained from 
the methods adopted during the entire period of the experi- 
ment. They show the need for an extended program of re- 
search, and especially for further study of many such factors 
as standards of growth. Anna L. De Planter. 

Child Federation of Philadelphia. 



By Aurel Klonai. Translated by Eden and Cedar Paul. Har- 
court, Brace &f Co. 185 pp. Price, $2.25; with postage from 
the Survey, $2.40. 
The development of the psychoanalytic movement has opened 
the way to much new insight into the hidden character of human 
nature; it has also given us much folly, falsehood and futility. 
The test of the method will come in the effort to apply it to 
wider areas of human living. In this book the author attempts 
to explain what he calls anarchist-communism by psychoanalytic 
methods. He attempts to show that anarchism and communism 
are not only not antagonistic as is generally supposed, but that 
they are practically identical, and he uses the current categories 
of psychoanalysis to explain the attitude of their devotees. His 
terminology is unintelligible to the average reader. The book 
is one of many that will be written. J. K. H. 


By Alpheus Henry Snow. G. P. Putnam's Sons. 376 pp. 

Price, $3.00; with postage from the Survey, $3.25. 

By Alpheus Henry Snow. G. P. Putnam's Sons. 485 Pp. 
Price, $4.00; with postage from the Survey, $4.25. 
The academician in politics attained a fuller degree of official 
recognition under the Wilson administration in 1919 than has 
fallen to his lot, at least in America, for two generations. Theo- 
retical and philosophical studies were made by scholars for gov- 
ernment use, and the authors were sometimes consulted as to 
the practical application of the principles deduced. One of the 
ablest of these studies has reached the public under the title, 
The Question of Aborigines. The volume seeks to collect the 
treaties and declarations concerning control of uncivilized or 
backward areas by European Powers, with a view to deriving 
the principles of international law that govern such control. 
The material, gathered at the request of the State Department, 
was obviously intended to be used in drafting the mandate 
clauses of the League of Nations Covenant. The compilation is 
excellent, despite certain defects in translations, and manifest 
haste in assembling the material. One suspects that Mr. Snow, 
had he lived, would have eliminated these in revision. The solid 
criticism which can be made is that he too easily assumed that 
the fair promises of the treaties regulating colonized or con- 
quered areas were carried out: the professions, for instance, of 

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April 15, 1922 



the Berlin-African Conference against exploitation are fair 
enough; but the realities of the Belgian Congo and German 
Africa proved frightful. 

The American Philosophy of Government is a collection of 
addresses, articles and studies, which the author made from 
time to time. They are fascinating reading. The chapters, A 
League of Nations according to the American Idea, and A 
Cooperative Union of Nations, are peculiarity apposite just now. 
A certain robust faith in American traditions of individualism 
and independent action, based on a wide knowledge of Ameri- 
can and English history, comes as a refreshing contrast to the 
present prevailing distrust of the ideas to which we owe a good 
part of our national development. Adolf A. Berle, Jr. 


By Charles A. Beard, Alfred A. Knopf. 99 pp. Price, 
$1.50; with postage from the Survey, $1.55. 
Especially the first of these four lectures, delivered in 1916 at 
Amherst College, ranks with the best literature of the kind in 
the four points that count: scholarship, good writing, originality 
and conciseness of thesis. With the aid of quotations from six 
great political philosophers who have held that political institu- 
tions are necessarily determined by the distribution and forms 
of property and by the sentiments attached to its possession, 
Professor Beard in the second lecture develops on the basis of 
historical fact the statement that, indeed, " through the cen- 
turies — down until our own day — group interests were recog- 
nized as forming the very essence of politics both in theory 
and practice." The third lecture traces so-called modern 
democracy with its numerical and geographical machinery to 
its origins in the abstract political theories of Rousseau, and 
points out how much the realities of our political life are in 
conflict with the theory of political equality. The fourth fur- 
ther analyzes this conflict and points the conclusion — introduc- 
ing in illustration events since the lecture was delivered, notably 
the changes in the Communist program. The book closes, as 
all profound political thinking, with an open question : In all 
great societies there must be classes actuated by different senti- 
ments and views caused by their separate economic interests. 
Can any statesmanship solve the problem of so regulating these 
contrasting interests as to secure real political equality for all? 

B. L. 


By James E. he Rossignol. Crowell Publishing Co. Price, 

$2.00; with postage from the SURVEY, $2.15. 
This somewhat unusual volume attempts, ambitiously enough, 
to be " a temperate but searching exposure of just what social- 
ism really is, and means, and a convincing refutation of its argu- 
ments and conclusions." It is frankly propagandist, and yet re- 
mains academic and remote in its complete disregard of any 
living human motives which underlie mass movement. To treat 
a subject like the Russian revolution or the Non-Partisan 
League scientifically does not mean to devitalize it beyond recog- 
nition as a matter dealing, after all, with human beings. Al- 
though Mr. Le Rossignol is equipped to undertake such a 
study, it is decidedly doubtful whether the " many people who 
are intrigued by the emotional and humanitarian appeal of so- 
cialism and who need just what this book gives them — an 
analytical probing of its false premises and its sophistical argu- 
ments" — will, as the " national authority " quoted on the wrap- 
per claims, " be cured of all sympathy with it." The chief ob- 
jection to the book is allied to the accusation brought by this 
same anonymous authority that " an ingrown socialist is quite 
impervious to argument." Mr. Le Rossignol is, of course, not 
this, but his bias is so distinct and his way of choosing his facts 
to fit his assumptions so nonchalant that one is painfully 
reminded of the methods of more notorious and less able anti- 
socialist propagandists. Natalie Weiner. 

SOCIALISM: An Analysis 

By Rudolf Eucken. Charles Scribner's Sons. 188 pp. Price, 

$2.75; woth postage from the Survey, $2.95. 
Any work of Professor Eucken deserves respectful attention. 
More than once a sagacious word of his has illumined a con- 
temporaneous problem of thought. He has never allowed 
merely superficial loyalties to stand in the way of pointed crit- 

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Volume XV. Some Newer Problems: National and 

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This volume contains the addresses delivered at *' 
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A collection of short Impromptu plays to be given by teen 
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A new book based on addresses given at tbe Y. W. C. A. 
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icism and the most sincere presentation of his ideas. In the 
present book, he offers a consideration of certain shortcomings 
in the prevailing socialist view of life for which socialists will 
be even more grateful to him than their opponents. It is re- 
grettable only that he does not quote authoritative expositions of 
the views he attacks and so occasionally lays himself open to the 
charge of fighting windmills. Thus he imputes to socialism a 
monistic philosophy and a narrowness of conceptions which is 
no longer characteristic of its most active minds. The kernel 
of his criticism is that the socialist ignores or fails to reckon 
with the spiritual reaches of human nature, that his reading 
of history is one of influences acting upon man to the exclusion 
of those exerted by him; that the equality which he seeks is 
superficially material and unattainable; that his ideal society is 
lacking in a real binding force that would make of it more than 
a mere aggregation of individuals with individual interests. 

So far as it exposes the narrowness of class conception, of 
material interpretation of history and of historical perspective 
which prevails, especially in German socialist ranks, this crit- 
icism is wholesale and well deserved. There is, as Eucken 
shows, much more spiritual confusion than the most popular 
socialist theorists will admit; there is frequent misunderstand- 
ing of the ethical and educational problems involved in social- 
ization; there is too much building from without and not 
enough from within. Nevertheless, there is much searching of 
heart in just the directions which Eucken points out, much 
inquiry and re-orientation for which he might well have given 
a little credit instead of condemning the obvious shallowness 
of much of the socialist literature which he has studied. Es- 
pecially would he have discovered, had he taken more cogniz- 
ance of these trends, that happiness is not so exclusive a goal 
of the social reorganization schemes of socialists as he seems 
to assume, and that thoughtful socialists claim no finality for 
any system of reorganization they advocate, rather regarding 
this as no more than a necessary preliminary, on the material 
level, for the spiritual freedom and intensity that will raise 
humanity to higher levels. B. L. 



By F. P. Armitage. Longmans, Green & Co. 144 pp. Price, 

$2.25 ; with postage from the Survey, $2.35. 


By Bertha M. Wood. Whitcomb 13 Barrows, Boston. 98 pp. 
Price, $1.25; with postage from the Survey, $1.30. 

Three anthropological studies entitled Diet and Physique, Diet 
and Color, and Diet and Head Form are presented by F. P. 
Armitage in a thoroughly scholarly and interesting way. 

When the food supply of people is the same their stature is 
the same, regardless of their " race," be it American Indian 
Asiatic, African, Australian Bushman, or European. 

The variable in diet which can be correlated to the color of 
tribes and races, where other dietary correlation is not possible, 
is salt. Further investigation is needed by biological chemists 
to determine more fully what is the association of color with 
the salt content of the diet, and that of sodium chloride — by its 
effect on the mobility of the blood corpuscles — with the retarda- 
tion of pigment deposition. The association between diet, and 
hence the necessary biting and chewing apparatus, and cranial 
form, is the subject of the third study. 

Mr. Armitage has collected many data about tribes and 
people all over the globe. To be told that in the last analysis 
salt may have been responsible for the " color line " and .soft- 
ness or hardness of diet for the differences in the skulls of 
Kaffirs and Eskimos appeals to the imagination of the layman 
as well as the student of anthropology. 

That there is immediate need for practical application of 
such extended knowledge is clearly shown by the second book. 
If diet made races what they are, physically — and therefore to 
a large extent mentally as well — diet must play a part of un- 
canny significance in adapting them to new environments" and 
to new demands upon them by our complex modern civilization. 
Foods of the Foreign-Born addresses itself more particularly 

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April 15, 1922 



to the medical profession and to social workers whose task it 
is to adjust aliens to the conditions of American life. They 
must know not only food values as the biological chemist 
measures them with sole regard to nutrition, but also the 
dietary history of different races and the extent to which 
changes in their diet are practicable, considering their physical 
requirements, and desirable with a view to effects on their 
potential development. 

It is only now that the plight of immigrants, suddenly faced 
with an entirely new set of dietary problems, is becoming 
widely recognized. Not only do their small incomes and new 
employment often make physical demands upon them which are 
unfamiliar to them, but their ideals as to standard of living 
for themselves and their children also change. Without expert 
and sympathetic help it is practically impossible for them to 
make the necessary dietary changes without waste and without 
serious effects on their health. If they can buy the same raw 
products here to which they have been accustomed at home, 
they may follow a traditional diet totally out of keeping with 
climate and physical demands on them; if they cannot, they 
are obliged to adapt themselves by the painful process of trial 
and error — usually without reaching a desirable balance. At 
present it is usually only when their children suffer from mal- 
nutrition or when a member of the family falls victim to tuber- 
culosis or diabetes that a physician, a visiting nurse or a 
dietitian steps in and helps the mother to work out a plan 
whereby the customary diet may gradually be adjusted to 
prevailing food supplies, prices and the personal requirements 
of the different members of the family. Even for this limited 
task a good textbook has hitherto been lacking. Mrs. Wood's 
book should serve the needs of the specialized workers named 
and also the wider groups of social workers who are education- 
ally active among the foreign-born. She discusses the dietary 
traditions of Mexicans, Portuguese, Italians, Hungarians, Slavs, 
people from the Near East and Jews. 

Equally important, perhaps, is the lesson contained in these 
studies for the diet of Americans. The foreign-born can teach 
the American housewife many things — especially in the more 
economical use of products and the substitution of cheaper for 
more expensive articles. Miss Wood also stresses the good psy- 
chological effect of cooperation in the working out of diets be- 
tween the immigrant woman and the American public health 
worker. Ruth Metzger. 


Chosen and edited by James Weldon Johnson. Harcourt, 
Brace & Co. 217 pp. Price, $1.75; with postage from the 
Survey, $1.85. 

Few if any anthologies of modern American verse excel the 
one before us in the qualities that make for permanent value. 
Not everything in Mr. Johnson's collection is of equal merit ; but 
no apology is needed on the ground of the social and educational 
status of the poets included in recommending this as a note- 
worthy volume. The only limitation, in comparison with any 
other group of modern poetry, is one of range; but even within 
the art of a race that is denied the full scope of experiences en- 
joyed by others there can be extraordinary variety. Between re- 
ligious fervor, simple joys of contented home life and labor 
in the fields, the passion of emancipator and reformer, love, 
sensitiveness to the influences of nature and the seasons, patriot- 
ism, hero worship, there are all the moods and ecstasies that 
make words into music. The one uniting character of these 
poems is their sincerity and, if one may say so, their inevitabil- 
ity. Dilettantism has no place in them; nor erudite search for 
the methods of old masters nor conscious search for eccen- 
tricity. The flowers in this wreath smell of field and wood, 
of wayside and garden — sometimes of the hothouse ; never of 
the paper mill and aniline dyes. 

The American Negro is not coming as a creator of literature; 
he has arrived. Mr. Johnson's preface, an important essay on 
the Negro's artistic genius, is less a plea for recognition than a 
reminder. He tells of Phillis Wheatley, a Negro slave girl, the 
first American to publish a book of poetry, who was celebrated 
in her time; of her many successors of her race who have been 
forgotten as other minor poets of the Nineteenth Century have 
been forgotten while poetry in the English language gained 
greater freedom and range. He speaks of Dunbar, the first 
Negro versemaker of our time to win recognition; of the strug- 

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Friday Evening, April 21, 1922, at 7 o'clock 

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gles of others — not only with poverty but with the continuance 
in themselves of a race psychology inflicted by generations of 
oppression. He tells of the Negro's achievement in music, the 
most distinctive American contribution to the arts in the last 
two or three decades; and he tells of the growth of a race soul 
which gives to the world in ever larger numbers men and 
women who count and will count in the emancipation of all 

While often the Negro's writing in dialect seems to carry 
most fully the flavor of his particular contribution to literature, 
to limit his achievement to that field would be doing him a great 
wrong. Mr. Johnson says: 

" I do not deny that a Negro in a log cabin is more pictur- 
esque than a Negro in a Harlem flat, but the Negro in the 
Harlem flat is here, and he is but part of a group growing 
everywhere in the country, a group whose ideals are becoming 
increasingly more vital than those of the traditionally artistic 
group, even if its members are less picturesque." 

And he holds out this promise for the future: 

" In stating the need for Aframerican poets in the United 
States to work out a new and distinctive form of expression, 
I do not wish to be understood to hold any theory that they 
should limit themselves to Negro poetry, to racial themes; the 
sooner they are able to write American poetry spontaneously, the 
better. Nevertheless, I believe that the richest contribution the 
Negro poet can make to the American literature of the future 
will be the fusion into it of his own individual artistic gifts." 

B. L. 

By Ludwig Lewisohn. Boni & Liveright. 248 pp. Price, $3.00; 

with postage from the Survey, $3.10. 
A book of passionate revolt against American culture, Ameri- 
can education, American politics. The alien critic of American 
standards of living has seldom laid himself less open to the 
charge of foreign bias than does Mr. Lewisohn. Not that he is 
really an alien, except so far as any subtly sensitive soul is alien 
to the blatancy of America's "progress at any price." His family 
emigrated from Germany when he was eight years old, ready for 
and desirous of complete assimilation into the land of freedom. 
He disarms his reader at the outset with the unquestionably 
sincere account of his youthful ambitions to become a good 
Anglo-American and to rise to an important position in Eng- 
lish letters. But his own experience has been unfortunately, 
an especially bitter one. Being a Jew, an artist and a German, 
he has been the victim of anti-semitism, " comstockery " and 
war hysteria. As novelist, teacher and citizen he has suffered 
every indignity that narrow American provinciality could pos- 
sibly heap upon a man. Small wonder that his Americaniza- 
tion has been a long series of disillusionments. America has 
nearly broken his spirit. He sees nothing but a " world in 
chaos " as the lot of the present generation, but like every ideal- 
ist he visions a far distant Utopia. 

Up Stream is a stimulating chronicle by a temperate, judicial 
critic turned revolte in spite of himself. As such, it deserves 
wide reading. But America being what it is, it won't get it. 

Harold Livingston Van Doren. 


By John F. Bass and Harold G. Moulton. The Ronald 
Press. 361 pp. Price, $3.00; with postage from the Survey, 
Europe is decadent and her decadence threatens civilization. 
American prosperity is indissolubly linked with the rehabilita- 
tion of Europe. The writers have some very definite "con- 
structive suggestions" and feel that the doubting reader ought 
to stop doubting the policy they recommend or else have a plan 
of his own for constructing Europe over again. 

Now while laissez-faire is distinctly out of fashion, it is still 
possible for honest doubters to think that the era of knowing 
how to cure it all has not yet arrived. The trouble with this 
book is that the subject is too big for its authors. Compare it 
with Keynes' Economic Consequences of the Peace or even 
with Buxton's admirable but less important World After the 
War. Those books, by men — and a woman — of much greater 

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April 15, 1922 



capacity, satisfy the reader, as this cannot. It is scarcely a dis- 
credit to be smaller than the greatest political subject that the 
world has ever discussed. But the result in this case is that 
much valuable and praiseworthy cogitation and expression has 
not produced an important book. Richard W. Hale. 


By Israel Zangwill. Macmillan Co. 368 pp. Price, $3.00; 

with postage from the Survey, $3.20. 
To a collection of essays, some of which have been previously 
published, and several poems, Israel Zangwill has given the in- 
teresting name, The Voice of Jerusalem, that voice which 
speaks of the things of the spirit, of love, of peace, of God, and 
of which Israel is still the "native organ." 

The longest essay, which gives its title to the book, is prac- 
tically a defense of Judaism and a criticism of Christianity. In 
thirty-five lines, he vividly sketches the five thousand years of 
Jewish history from Abraham to the World War, intimating 
that Israel's survival may be explained by "the equivalence of 
Judaism and life." On the other hand the war has afforded 
additional proofs of "the incapacity of Christianity to maintain 
itself in the real human environment, or to equate itself to life 
save nominally." And yet the "difference between the two re- 
ligions is merely atomic" and "their affinities are greater than 
their mutual repulsions." In the course of this argument occurs 
a criticism of Wells' The Invisible King and An Outline of 
History, and discussions of Zionism, the Peace Treaty, the 
League of Nations, and President Wilson. 

Two of the other essays deal with Zionism, and among the 
remainder are an excellent survey of the position of the Jewish 
people, an analysis of the Polish-Jewish problem, a brilliant 
talk on Shylock and the Stage Jew, and a collection of songs 
of the synagogue, translated from the Hebrew. 

The essay which gives the book its best claim to timeliness 
is that entitled The Legend of the Conquering Jew, in which 
Zangwill analyzes the pretended fear of modern Jew-baiters 
of a "Jewish peril" and the basic accusation that the Jews seek 
world domination, and skilfully multiplies the proofs of the 
utter falsity and ludicrousness of both the fear and the accusa- 
tion. The book, true to its title, concludes with a touching plea 
for Armenia, whose people have suffered even more than 
Israel: "I bow before the majesty of sorrow. I take the crown 
of thorns from Israel's head and place it upon Armenia's." 

The entire book is permeated with the pride of the author in 
his Jewishness and in his people, to whom he ascribes "super- 
normal brain power and energy," asserting also that "there is 
a disproportionate number of Jews in every role on earth," 
although "the bulk of these roles will be found of an inter- 
mediary character," making the Jews the liaison race, as it 
were. This chauvinism, however, is seldom obtrusive, and is 
perhaps pardonable at a time when, in many circles, there is a 
tendency to use the Jew as the "whipping-boy" of the world. 

All the essays are written in the forceful, yet liquid, table- 
talk style for which Zangwill is famous, richly strewn with 
gems of epigram, anecdote, bon mot, and all manner of allu- 
sions. Harry Schneidermann. 


By Charles Edgar Finch. American Book Co. 326 pp. Illus- 
trated. Price, $1.20; with postage from the Survey, $1.30. 
Of civics primers for high school use there seems to be no 
end. Mr. Finch's book starts very properly with a chapter of 
guidance in introducing constitutional and democratic methods 
in the organization of the school itself, as the first element in 
training for good citizenship. From that the student is taken 
by easy steps into a discussion of different types of communities 
with their varied demands on their citizens. Protection of 
health and life, conservation and other concrete manifestations 
of good citizenship are taught with the same direct application 
to the conduct expected from boy and girl. From these 
premises the transition to the larger aspects of civic and na- 
tional life, including finance, political organization, the work 
of different departments of government and the like, is ac- 
complished by a gradual widening of interests. Cramming 
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April 15, 1922 


Legal Aid 

LEGAL aid and social work: are they fundamentally incom- 
patible, or are they so closely related that they should 
meet on the common ground of service to those in distress? 

This question was the undercurrent, sometimes breaking 
through to the surface in the conference of the National Alli- 
ance of Legal Aid Societies and Bureaus held March 24 and 25 
under the auspices of the Department of Public Welfare in 
Philadelphia. It was the first general meeting held since 1916, 
due largely to war conditions and the death of some of the 
leading figures in the field. 

William Draper Lewis, formerly dean of the College of Law 
in the University of Pennsylvania; Reginald Heber Smith, au- 
thor of Justice and the Poor, and W. Forrest Donnell, chair- 
man of the Legal Aid Committee of the American Bar As- 
sociation, all made fervent appeals for the awakening of the 
members of the Bar to their individual and collective responsi- 
bility for legal aid work. The backwardness of the Bar in 
recognizing this obligation was emphasized by Mr. Lewis in 
comparison with the " larger public sense of the leaders " of the 
medical profession in its gratuitous service to hospitals and 
clinics. He urged that law students be made to realize that 
public service is part of their responsibility — that " a good edu- 
cation is not sufficient " but must be put to public use, and that 
" admission to the Bar is not a mere license to carry on a 
trade." He spoke of the results of the recent Washington con- 
ference where over four hundred representatives of Bar asso- 
ciations had resolved on certain large purposes for the better- 
ment of the profession, especially in raising the standards of 
ethics and of education. 

Marguerite Raeder, senior counsel of the Chicago Legal .Aid 
Society, showed vividly how closely related are legal aid and 
social work, for in Chicago the United Charities and Legal Aid 
societies are amalgamated and supplement each other at every 
turn. Then, too, the provision that the law school of North- 
western University makes that in the senior year of the four- 
year course each student must do at least ninety hours of work 
with the legal aid society, insures that these young men and 
women have at least a glimpse of the problems of the great 
mass of us. 

Mr. Taylor, chief counsel of the Boston Legal Aid Society, 
told of the successful working of a plan with certain of the 
second- and third-year men at Harvard with the Boston Legal 
Aid. They do the work as volunteers, without credit, finding 
enough satisfaction and profit in it to make worth while the 
devotion of considerable time and effort. 

John S. Bradway, chief counsel of the Municipal Legal Aid 
Bureau of the Department of Public Welfare, Philadelphia, 
showed how that work could not function without its staff of 
non-legal investigators, who go into the homes and gather facts 
and present points of view otherwise unobtainable. He urged 
..iat all legal aid work develop from private to public support. 
Justice is a matter of public weal and, as an essential part of 
government, should not be dependent upon private philanthropy. 

James Bronson Reynolds, president of the American Institute 
jf Criminal Law and Criminology, presented the case for the 
public defender, though he admitted the use, perhaps as a means 
to an end, of the voluntary defender as it is organized in New 
York city. 

All of this, with the brilliant discussion of various questions 
by Mr. Goldman of Cincinnati, Mr. Clarke of Cleveland, and 
others, would seem to make it plain that there was a spirit of 
service stirring which would recognize and welcome an equal 
spirit in social work. But to the lawyer the social worker 
savors something of bolshevik ; social work is so new that it 
has no standards, it is no respecter of the age-old and sacred 
confidences of lawyer and client. Even the most obdurate had 
to admit the great value of facts and histories supplied by social 
agencies, but could not see how any return could be made with- 
out violating the sacred trust reposed in the advocate. 

But a gleam of cheer shines through! Among the seven 
committees appointed before the close of the conference was one 
on relations with social agencies. The Carnegie Foundation has 

allowed a grant of money for a year sufficient to employ a field 
secretary who will devote his time to a thorough survey of the 
field, visiting established societies, and helping to organize new 
ones. Plans were made for a well organized conference some 
time in 1923. The suggestion that the alliance meet with the 
National Conference of Social Work one year and the next 
with the American Bar Association met with a degree of favor. 
It was thought best, until the alliance has lost its federated 
character and become a union, to have it meet by itself. 

Alice Waldo. 

Progress in North Carolina 

T^HE North Carolina Conference for Social Service, which 
■"• held its tenth annual meeting at Greensboro, March 28 to 
30, was essentially a working one. With the possible exception of 
Jane Addams, who spoke upon conditions in Europe before an 
auditorium crammed with people, nearly every speaker came 
to grips with practical problems facing North Carolina and the 
South. This was true of Owen Lovejoy and of Croft Williams, 
secretary of the Board of Public Welfare of South Carolina, 
the other principal speakers from outside the state. 

An entire session was given over to the Negro. The plea for 
the colored man made by Mrs. T. W. Bickett, the widow of 
former Governor Bickett, took on special significance from the 
fact that her husband was the most progressive governor the 
state has ever had. He came, not from the white aristocracy 
which has furnished so much of the political and business 
leadership of the South, but from that large group of the 
whites that has been the laboring class and from which the 
farm tenants and the mill operatives have been drawn. Mrs. 
Bickett sketched the transition which has taken place in the 
position of the Negro in the South from slave days to the 
present time. She said, "Another race has risen today. We 
must respect loyalty for race. We must respect independence. 
Are you willing to make an asset of the Negro race instead of a 

Croft Williams, who followed her, declared that the better 
white people of the South want the Negro to contribute to its 
life, thus contradicting a statement made by some southerners 
that they would like to see the colored man migrate North. 

Dr. B. R. Smith, a colored physician of Greensboro, made a 
plea for a reform school for the juvenile delinquents of the 
Negro race. At present when a colored boy is convicted of a 
crime in North Carolina he is sent on the road with the chain 


The county superintendents of public welfare took the sig- 
nificant step of favoring the' raising of standards for their posi- 
tions. The social needs of North Carolina and practical pro- 
grams to meet those needs were clearly set forth by such leaders 
in the state as Dr. W. S. Rankin, state health commissioner; 
Professor E. C. Bransom of the University of North Carolina; 
Mrs. Clarence Johnson, commissioner of the Department of 
Public Welfare, and Dr. Harry W. Crane, who is both on the 
faculty of the state university and chief of the bureau of mental 
hygiene of the state department. 

Dr. Crane presented a damaging array of facts and cases 
showing the situation in regard to insanity and feebleminded- 
ness in the state. He said, for instance, that 60 per cent of 
those in county poorhouses are feebleminded. He cited the case 
of a feebleminded epileptic girl chained by her parents to her 
bedstead, for whom there was no place outside her home 
since the institution for the feebleminded was crowded to 
capacity. At present there is no psychopathic hospital in the 
state where subnormal individuals may be sent for observation 
and study. Dr. Crane urged the establishment of such a hos- 
pital and also of a farm colony for epileptics. 

Julia K. Jaffray, of the National Committee on Prisons. A. 
W. McAlister, of Greensboro, and others discussed a state 
prison program. Miss Jaffray advocated a unified state-wide 
system of prisons; Mr. McAlister agreed that this was the ulti- 
mate goal, but suggested that in the meantime a county system 
of parole would help to reclaim men. Such a system, he be- 
lieved, might be developed through the existing county boards 
of public welfare. 

The conference went on record for a reformatory for Negro 
boys, state aid for widowed mothers in cases where it is neces- 
sary to prevent breaking up the home, and a censorship of 
motion pictures. Paul L. Benjamin. 

April 15, 1922 




METHODISM is in the ascendant in the 
United States according to a census of 
churches and church membership just com- 
pleted by the Christian Herald. Of a total 
gain of 761,727 in American church mem- 
bership during 1921, nearly 300,000 falls to 
the share of the fifteen Methodist bodies, 
the largest item being the increase of the 
Colored Methodist Episcopal Church. The 
Presbyterian group also has grown, while 
the growth of Roman Catholicism has been 
smaller than in many years. The Lutherans 
have had a relatively noteworthy increase, 
while the Friends have had a small loss of 
membership. Other losses noted are those 
of the Baptists, the Christian American Con- 
vention, the Hungarian Reformed and Swed- 
ish Evangelical churches. As regards total 
church membership, a serious slump in 
1919 was more than overcome in 1920; but 
the total increase in 1921 was even larger. 

DENTAL care, summer camp and fresh air 
facilities for children and the care of wid- 
owed mothers' families have recently been 
local objects of study for the Bureau of 
Jewish Social Research in New York. In ad- 
dition this bureau has in progress two import- 
ant national studies, the results of which are 
awaited with great concern by Jewish social 
agencies throughout the country: an investi- 
gation of the budgeting of national Jewish 
organizations to create standards by which 
local Jewish communities might measure 
their contributions, and a study of the re- 
lationship of the Jewish federations to the 
community chest movement. 

SURVEY readers who are going to attend 
the Oberammergau Mysteries this summer 
are invited to visit Schloss Elmau, about 
twenty miles away, and get acquainted with 
a most original experiment in mental treat- 
ment. Sanitaetsrat Dr. B. Laquer, Wies- 
baden, who sends the invitation and who 
has described the institution in the Vossische 
Zeitung, says it is not a sanatorium but an 
attempt on the part of the founder and 
director, Dr. Johannes Mueller, to apply 
common sense and contact with fine per- 
sonalities to nervous cases. Serious mental 
disorders apparently are not admitted to this 
place, which combines the simple life with 
the healing influences of good music and 

FOUR students' tours to foreign countries- 
Great Britain, France, Italy and Scandi- 
navia — have been organized for the coming 
summer under the auspices of the Institute 
of International Education to establish a 
closer intellectual relationship between the 
youth of America and of other countries, and 
to broaden the education of those who par- 
ticipate. In every case, international organ- 
izations, universities and government de- 
partments have promised their support and 
educational help by means of lectures and 
guidance. The detailed arrangements are 
in the hands of Irwin Smith, 30 East 42 
Street, New York city. 

TEN thousand dollars a year for two years 
has been contributed to the University of 
Chicago by the National Canners' Asso- 
ciation for a study of disease connected 
with the canning industry. Professor Edwin 
Oalces Jordan, chairman of the department 
of Hygiene and Bacteriology, who will be 
in charge of this investigation, will be 
aided by Dr. J. C. Geiger of the United 
States Public Health Service, who has been 
detailed for this work by the surgeon 

David Pinski 

ON Sunday, April 16, the Jews of New 
York and other centers will celebrate the 
birthday of one of their prominent drama- 
tists — David Pinski. 

Pinski is known to American readers 
through only a few translations: The Treas- 
ure, an amusing satire on the havoc that 
money plays upon the souls of men, which 
was published in this city several years ago, 
and produced in 1920 by the Theater Guild ; 
Ten One- Act Plays; and Three Plays, pro- 
duced at the Deutsches Theater in Berlin, 
containing the Dumb Messiah, Family Zwi, 
and Isaac Sheftel. The Family Zwi deals 
with the passing of the old Jewish life and 
the birth of the new. A volume of transla- 
tions of his short stories was published by 
Brentano some time ago under the name of 

To his own people, Pinski is noted not 
only as a dramatist and a short story writer, 
but also as author of a number of popular- 
izations of scientific works, a leader of the 
left wing or radical group of Zionists, and 
as editor of Die Zeit, a Yiddish daily in 
New York. 

Pinski was born in Russia in 1872, and 
at the age of nineteen left his native town 
for Vienna, where he planned to study medi- 
cine. The Expulsion Edict of 1892 brought 
his parents to Warsaw, where young Pinski 
soon joined them, and came under the in- 
fluence of Perez, who had then grouped 
about him a number of the younger poets 
and novelists. He became interested in the 
Jewish labor movement, and it was in an 
effort to educate the masses that Pinski felt 
impelled to write popular treatises on scien- 
tific and educational subjects. In 1899 he 
came to America and has since lived in 
New York. Charles Zunser. 

JULES SCHEVITZ, secretary of the Okla- 
homa Public Health Association, an occa- 
sional contributor to the Survey and widely 
known for a brief but remarkably brilliant 
career in the public health field, died on 
March 22 at the age of 24. A consumptive 
since college days, he came under the in- 
fluence of Dr. Trudeau, New York, the 
pioneer in sanatorium treatment in America, 
and, after a tuberculosis survey of New 
Jersey, in 1917, which demonstrated his un- 
usual ability, went to Oklahoma where, in 
the few years of his remaining career, he 
built up an effective state association, first 
for the combat of tuberculosis and later for 
the development of public health work gen- 
erally. During those five years, committees 
were formed in the cities and in many rural 
districts, trained public health nurses were 
employed, tuberculosis clinics established, 
infant and child welfare work was initiated 
and school nursing introduced in many com- 
munities. Public health activities were or- 
ganized more particularly among the In- 
dians and the Negroes of the state, and 
special provision was made for the care of 
discharged tuberculous soldiers. 

Mr. Schevitz took a leading part in all 
this, basing his activities to a large extent 
on the facts revealed by a number of local 
health surveys. In educational work he 
made use of every means of publicity, in- 
cluding health exhibits and institutes for 
intensive training. To make hospital facil- 
ities for the care of the tuberculous in Okla- 
homa more adequate, Mr. Schevitz waged a 
legislative campaign and succeeded in secur- 
ing appropriations for the construction and 

maintenance of three sanatoria — two for 
white and one for colored citizens. It may 
be said that in his short life he made Okla- 
homa one of the most progressive states in 
the protection of the public health — largely 
through a winning personality that brought 
him help and cooperation whenever he 
needed it. 

cartoon in this issue was suggested in a 
letter by George F. Bowerman, librarian 
of the District of Columbia Public Library, 
in which he said: "Most of the powers 
that be think 'hat they have done the main 
thing if they have built the building, and 
they even let Mr. Carnegie or the Carnegie 
Corporation do that. They also think some 
books are necessary, most any kind of books 
rather than good books, such for example 
as Van Loon's rather expensive Story of 
Mankind; and last of all they think of 
the librarian. For that purpose they are 
willing to employ almost any under- 
educated person without training, or if 
they do think it necessary to get some one 
with training, they pay him or her almost 

AT the Minnesota State Democratic Con- 
vention, March 31, Mrs. Peter Olesen, of 
Cloquet, was nominated for United States 
senator. Mrs. Olesen has served as presi- 
dent of the Women's Federated Clubs of 
her congressional district and as vice- 
president of the state federated clubs of 
Minnesota. She was the governor's dele- 
gate to the International Child Welfare 
Congress in Washington and is known be- 
yond the confines of her state as an orator. 

eral secretary of the Salem, Massachusetts, 
Associated Charities, died on April 4 after 
a long and painful illness. She was for- 
merly financial secretary of the Philadel- 
phia Society for Organizing Charity and 
belonged to the younger group of case 
workers who are eager experimenters in 
their chosen field. 


Is Organized Char Ity 

Organized For? 

With full meas' 
stinging and witty satire 
James Bay reveals this 
skeleton in the closet of 
the medical profession in 
his brilliant play 


Read today. Order now! 

At all booksellers— $1.50 


Fifth Ave. and 27th St., N. Y. City 



April 15, 1922 


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Missionary Conference : May 3-4, Chicago 
The Laymen's Missionary Movement. Chair- 
man, George H. Stineback, La Salle Hotel. 
Chicago, 111. 

Debate, Is the Failure of Socialism in Russia 
as evinced by the recent partial return to 
capitalism, due to the fallacies of Marxian 
theory? Professor Seligman, Positive; 
Harry Warton, Negative. Chairman, Clare 
Sheridan. April 30, 1.30 P. m. Manhattan 
Opera House, New York. Marx-Engels In- 
stitute, 133 Second Ave., New York 

Clean Up Week: April 17-24. New York 
state. Hermann M. Brigg, M.D. State 
Commissioner of Health, Department of 
Health, Albany, N. Y. 

Wobkebs' Education Bureau of America • 
Annual Conference. April 22-23. New 
School for Social Research, 465 W 22 St 
New York. 

Womens' International League fob Pfjacb 
and Freedom : Annual Meeting April 28- 
30. Grace Dodge Hotel, 20 E St. N W 
Washington. Chairman, Mrs. George t! 
Odell, Blackstone Building, 14 and H St, 
N. W., Washington. 

International Kindergarten Union: April 
24-28. Louisville, Ky. Address Allene 
Seaton. 2128 Cherokee Parkway, Louisville. 

Pan-American Conference of Women • 
Called by the National League of Women 
Voters. Baltimore, Maryland, April 20-29. 
918 Munsey Building, Washington. 

Young Women's Christian Associations ■ 
National Conference. April 20-27. Hot 
Springs, Arkansas. National Board, Young 
Women's Christian Association, 600 Lex- 
ington Ave., New York. 

An Exhibition of Work Portraits by 
Lewis Hinb (including those done for 
Subvey Gbaphic) : Sunwise Turn Book- 
shop, 51 E. 44 St., New York, until April 


Listings fifty cents a line, four weekly inser- 
tions; copy unchanged throughout the month. 
How John and Mabt Live and Save on $35 a 
Week — a weekly budget plan. Records kept In 
the Weekly Allowance Book. Am. School of 
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Price, 10 cents each. 
Ten Cent Meals, by Florence Nesbitt. Minimum 
cost diet. 44 pp. Am. School of Home Econo- 
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Credit Union. Complete free information on re- 
quest to Roy F. Bergengren, 5 Park Square, 
Boston, Mass. 
Fall In. Call of Christian ministry written by 
four recent college graduates of Hartford Theo- 
logical Seminary, representing three leading de- 
nominations. Hartford Seminary Press, Hart- 
ford, Conn. 
Thu Sword ob the Choss, by Klrby Page. An 
examination of war in the light of Jesus' Way 
of Life. Highly commended by the Nation, the 
World Tomorrow, the Christian Century, Harrv 
Emerson Fosdlck, Bishop McConnell, John 
Hayncs Holmes, Norman Thomas and others. 
Regular edition, $1.20. Special paper edition, 
15 cents net. George H. Doran Co., New York. 
Three Shifts in Steel and the Wat Out. The 
12-bour day In C. S. Steel plants and the 
shorter workday Id the competing Independent 
plants of America and England. Includes 
articles by Whiting Williams and John A. Fitch. 
A special Issue of The SOBVET. 25 cents. The 
SCbvey, 112 East 19 St., New York. 
How to Meet Hard Times. Edited by Bruno 
Lasker. A summary of tbe report of Mayor 
Mltchel's Committee on Unemployment, now out 
of print, Including all of tbe essential parts and 
recommendations. Reprinted from The Sikvet. 
25 cents a copy, postpaid. Tbe Sibvet, 112 
East 19 St., New York. 


Fifty cents a line per month, four weekly inser- 
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The American Journal of Nursing shows the 
part which trained nurses are taking In the bet- 
terment of the world. Put it In your library. 
$3.00 a year. 19 W. Main St., Rochester, N. ^ 
contains main articles on social problems by 
authorities from all parte of the United 
States, besides social work notes, book 
notes and other features. Editor, Emory S. 
Bogardus. Published bl-moutbly ($1.50 per 
year). University of Southern California. 
University Ave., Los Angeles, Oil. 
Mental Hygiene; quarterly; $2.00 a year; 
published by the National Committee for Men- 
tal Hygiene, 370 Seventh Atc, New York. 

1'ltaat mcntisn The Scbvkx when writing tt adptrtittr* 

April 15, 1922 




RATES: Display advertisements, 25 cents per agate line, 14 lines to the inch. 
Want advertisements, 8 cents per word or initial, including the address or box 
number, for each insertion, minimum charge, $1.50. Discounts on three or more 
consecutive insertions. Cash with orders. 

Address Advertising 


112 East 19th Street 
New York City 



WANTED: A Woman as the working 
ead of a pastry department in a large 
ew York Residential Hotel. Must be ex- 
pert in making of highest class " home- 
made " breads, pastry, puddings, sauces, 
etc. Separate kitchen provided. Address 
in confidence, giving fullest information 
covering experience and state approximate 
salary desired. 4163 Survey. 

WANTED: Professionally trained and 
experienced social service medical worker in 
connection with Children's Home and Hos- 
pital in middle west. Give specific infor- 
mation in first letter. 4147 Survey. 

WANTED : A headworker for the Social 
Service Department of the Hartford Hos- 
pital. Must have good executive ability. 
41 65 Survey. 

DISTRICT WORKER wanted for Jew- 
ish Family Care Agency. 4154 Survey. 

SUPERVISOR wanted for Jewish Family 
Care Agency. Must be trained case 
worker with supervisory experience. Also 
trained Home Economics Worker. Must 
speak Yiddish. 4153 Survey. 

HOSPITALS, Industrials, communities, 
needing social workers, dietitians, house- 
keepers, secretaries, address Miss Richards, 
Providence, R. I., Box 5, East Side. Boston 
Office, Trinity Court, 16 Jackson Hall. Fri- 
days 11 to 1. Address Providence. 

WANTED: In Richmond, Virginia, a 
trained social worker as matron, Home for 
Girls (ages five to eighteen). Good salary 
and comfortable home. Apply for further 
information with references to Mrs. Fred- 
erick H. Scott, 909 West Franklin Street, 
Richmond, Virginia. 

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tory technicians for excellent hospital posi- 
tions everywhere. Write for free book now. 
Aznoe's Central Registry for Nurses, 30 
N. Mich. Ave., Chicago, Illinois. 

the Council of Jewish Women of Pittsburgh, 
desires services of a first-rate social worker 
as Associate Director in its Delinquency 
Program. Good academic education and 
technical knowledge and practical experi- 
ence prerequisites. Liberal salary for right 
party. Apply, stating full particulars, to 
Mrs. Raymond Kaufmann, 1925 Wightman 
Street, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Placement Bureau for employer and em- 
ployee: superintendents, housekeepers, ma- 
trons, secretaries, governesses, dietitians, 
mothers' helpers. 51 Trowbridge St., Cam- 
bridge, Mass. 

WANTED: Immediately, family case 
worker. Salary $1800. New. York. Apply 
box 4168 Survey. 


TEACHERS wanted for public and private 
schools, colleges and universities. Education 
Service, 1254 Amsterdam Ave., New York. 


man, lecturer, editor, publicist, teacher, de- 
sires connection, industrial or community 
welfare work, or social organization, where 
broad social training and experience will be 
of value. Coast to coast endorsements. 
4166 Survey. 

MAN of 35 wishes Executive Secretaryship 
or other administrative position in Social 
Welfare work. A connection of this kind 
with a Civic League, or other similar or- 
ganization, would be desirable. Any section 
of the country considered. 4156 Survey. 

WANTED: Position in Social Service 
Work by trained and experienced worker. 
Graduate of National Service School, Wash- 
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BOYS' Supervisor: Experienced delin- 
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printer; desires position child-caring or 
boys' institution. Will go anywhere. Refer- 
ences. 4134 Survey. 

WANTED : By experienced handicraft and 
social service worker, position in or near 
large eastern city. Good opportunity of 
more value than salary. 4155 Survey. 

EXPERIENCED Organizer, Director, ex- 
ecutive secretary (in forties). Lawyer, pub- 
lic speaker and writer. Employed at pres- 
ent, $100 weekly. Seeks broader field. Can 
be free two weeks' notice. Strict personal 
habits. Highest references. 4167 Survey. 

WANTED: Position for summer by 
woman with several years' experience as 
industrial matron in Girls' Home. 4169 


University Graduate sifted numb£ <S 

girls, ages 12 to 15, to educate in her country 
home with her two daughters. Junior High 
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the summer. Terms and references. 4170 


EARN $25 weekly, spare time, writing 
for newspapers, magazines. Experience un- 
necessary, details Free. Press Syndicate, 964, 
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wanted for publication. Submit Mss. or 
write Literary Bureau, <n° Hannibal. Mo. 


Maple SuQdrdnd Sijrup 


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$250 for summer season. Surrounded by 
mountains. Fine center for touring. Tuber- 
cular cases not accepted. Supplies conve- 
nient. Almon Ward, Jay, N. Y. 



with permanent occupancy by shareholders in 
the Guild, the profits to be devoted to educating 
children in free activities — all further coopera- 
tion voluntary-is the basis of a COUNTRY HOME 
CLUB BEING ORGANIZED. The land is an hour from 

New York. References, particulars about avocations and 
vocation and stamped addressed envelope should accom- 
pany all inquiries. Country Home Club. 4164, SURVEY. 


UNUSUALLY desirable stationery for 
any type of correspondence. 200 sheets 
high grade note paper and 100 envelopes 
printed with your name and address post- 
paid $1.50. Samples on request Lewis, 
283 Second Ave., Troy, N. Y. 

THIRSTY blotters sent free on request, 
also samples of excellent stationery for per- 
sonal and professional use. Franklin Print- 
ery, Warner, New Hampshire. 


A Plea and a Plan 

(for the effective Org'a of Am. Clerks and Pro- 
fessional Employees) : Part 1, 30c. ; Pt. 2, J6c. 
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I\£.ijLAI\vn. special articles, papers, 
speeches, debates. Expert, scholarly service. 


nue, New York. 

WANTED: Issues of The Survey for 
January 7 and March 4, 1922. Unexpected 
demand has wiped out our stock. Subscrib- 
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use will confer a real favor by returning 
them to us for the use of libraries and col- 
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Please mention Thb Bcbvxx when writing to advertiser* 


Survey readers are invited on two 
special cruises which have been ar- 
ranged for groups of congenial people 


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Which Tour Are You Interested In? 
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Address Clark Cruise, Care of The Survey, 112 East 19th Street, New York 


APRIL 22, 1922 

The Week End at Connellsville - - - Paul U. Kellogg 106 

S. Josephine Baker, MLD. .... Lillian D.Wald 108 

Music Hath Power Ellen Amey 109 

The Quest — A Poem Samuel J. Looker 111 


"Entitled to Be Heard" — A Prison Film— Mother* and the State — 
Garden Homes for Germany — The Y. M. C. A. in Jail — A Vanish- 
ing Race — I Am a Soldier — The Return of Smallpox — Books for 
Social Agencies — Abortion — The Social Unit in Practice 


Municipal Rest Rooms ----- Caroline B. Sherman 115 

Engines of Progress — Where Working Women Live — The Atlanta 
Zoning Plan — Notes 


A Great Judge -------- Hans Weiss 117 

Boy and Girl Marriage— A Danish Child Welfare Bill— A Child 
in Distress — Notes and News 


15 Cents a Copy $5.00 a Year 



April 22, 1922 


ERS — Miss Ida M. Cannon, pres.; Social Service Department, Massachu- 
setts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts. Miss Ruth V. Emerson, 
sec'y ; National Headquarters, American Red Cross, Washington, D. C. 
Organization to promote development of social work in hospitals and dis- 
pensaries. Annual meeting with National Conference of Social Work. 

AMERICA — Constituted by 30 Protestant denominations. Rev. Chas. S. 
Macfarland, Rev. S. M. Cavert, gen'l. eec'ys. ; 105 E. 22 St., New York. 
Commission on the Church and Social Service — Rev. Worth M. Tippy, 
exec sec'y. ; Rev. F. Ernest Johnson, research sec'y. ; Agnes H. Camp- 
bell, research aas't.; Inea M. Cavert, librarian. 

WORK — Mrs. John M. Glenn, chairman; Francis H. McLean, field director ; 
David H. Holbrook, executive director, 130 E. 22d Street, New York. 
Advice in organization problems of family social work societies (Associated 
Charities) in the United States and Canada. 

tional Social Workers' Exchange) — Graham Romeyn Taylor, director, 130 
East 22nd Street, New York City. An organization of professional social 
workers devoted to raising social work standard! and requirements. Mem- 
bership open to qualified social workers. 

HAMPTON INSTITUTE— J. E. Gregg, principal; G. P. Phenix, vice- 
prin. ; F. H. Rogers, treat.; W. H. Scoville, sec'y.; Hampton, Va. Trains 
Indian and Negro youth. Neither a State nor a Government school. Free 
illustrated literature. 

Culbert Fanes, dir„ 245 E. 23rd St, New York. Maintains free industrial 
training classes and employment bureau; makes artificial limbs and appli- 
ances; publishes literature on work for the handicapped: gives advice on 
suitable meant for rehabilitation of disabled persons ana cooperates with 
other special agencies in plant to put the disabled man " back on the pay- 

TALITY— Gertrude B. Knipp, tec'y; 1211 Cathedral St., Baltimore. Urges 
prenatal, obstetrical and infant care; birth registration; maternal nursing; 
infant welfare consultations; care of children of pre-scaool age and school 

LEAGUE FOR INDUSTRIAL DEMOCRACY (formerly Intercollegiate 
Socialist Society) — Harry W. Laidler, secretary; Room 931, 70 Fifth Avenue, 
New York City. Object — Education for a new social order, bated on 
production for ate and not for profit. Annual membership, $3.00, $5.00 
and $25.0*. Special ratet for students. 

dent; A. R. Mann, vice president; E. C. Lindeman, executive secretary; 
Nat T. Frame, Morgantown, West Virginia, field secretary. Emphasizes 
the human aspect of country life. Membership $3.00 

Cooper, sec'y; Battle Creek Sanitarium, Battle Creek, Mich. Organized 
for betterment of conditions in home, schools, institutions and co mm u ni ty. 
Publishes Journal of Home Economics. 1211 Cathedral St., Baltimore, Md. 

AMERICAN PEACE SOCIETY— Founded 1828, labora for an interna- 
tional peace of justice. Its official organ is the Advocate of Peace, $2.00 
a year. Arthur Deerin Call, secretary and editor, 612-614 Colorado Build- 
ing, Washington, D. C. 

AMERICAN PRISON ASSOCIATION— Annual Congrett of American 
penologists, criminologists, social workers in delinquency. Next Congress 
Detroit, Michigan, October, 1B21. E. R. Cass, general secretary, 135 
Eatt 15 Street, New York City. 

J. Osborne, exec, tec'y.; 35 W. 45th St., New York. To disseminate 
knowledge concerning symptoms, diagnosis, treatment and prevention. 
Publication free on request. Annual membership dnes, $5. 

Ave., New York. For the conservation of the family, the repression of 
prostitution, the reduction of venereal diseases, and the promotion of sound 
sex education. Information and catalogue of pamphlets upon request. 
Annual membership dues, $2. Membership includes quarterly magazine and 
monthly bulletin. William F. Snow, M.D.. sen. dir. 

New York. Dr. L. Emmett Holt, chairman; Sally Lucas Jean, director. 
To arouse public interest in the health of achool children; to encourage 
the systematic teaching of health in the schools; to develop new methods 
of interesting children in the forming of health habits ; to publish and dis- 
tribute pamphlets for teachers and public health workers and health liter- 
ature for children; to advise in organisation of local child health programs. 

CHILD WELFARE LEAGUE OF AMERICA— A league of agencies to 
secure a better understanding of child welfare problems, to improve stand- 
ards and methods in the different fields of work with children and to make 
available in any part of the field the assured results of successful effort. 
The League will be glad to consult with any agency, with a view to assist- 
ing it in organizing or reorganizing its children's work. C. C. Carsten's, 
director, 130 E. 22nd St., New York. 

COUNCIL OF JEWISH WOMEN— 305 W. 98th St., New York. Miss 
Rose Brenner, pres. ; Mrs. Harry Sternberger, ex. sec y. Promotes civic 
cooperation, education, religion and social welfare in the United States, 
Canada, Cuba, Europe. 

Department of Immigrant Aid — 799 Broadway, Mrs. S. J. Roseneohn. 
chairman. For the protection and education of immigrant women and 

York City. Joseph Lee, president; H. S. Braucher, secretary. Citizenship 
through right use of leisure. A national civic organization which on request 
helps local communities to work out a leisure tune program. 

EUGENICS REGISTRY— Battle Creek Mich. Chancellor David Stan- 
Jordan, pres.; Dr. J. H. Kellogg, sec'y.; Prof. O. C. Glaser, exec sec'y. 
A public service for knowledge about human inheritances, hereditary in- 
fwatory and eugenic possibilities. Literature free. 

ORED PEOPLE— Moorfield Storey, pres.; James Weldon Johnson, sec'y.; 
70 Fifth Ave., New .York. To secure to colored Americans the common 
rights of American citizenship. Furnishes information regarding race prob- 
lems, lynching t, etc. Membership 90,000, with 350 branches. Member- 
ship, $1 am ward. 

SOCIATIONS— 600 Lexington Ave., New York. To advance physical, 
social, intellectual, moral and spiritual interests of young women. Main- 
tains National Training School which offers through its nine months' 
? graduate course professional training to women wishing to fit themselves 
or executive positions within the movement. Recommendation to posi- 
tions made through Personnel Division, Placement Section. 

Body of the Catholic Organizations of the country. 

National Executive Offices, 1312 Massachusetts Avenue, N.W., Wash- 
ington, D. C 

General Secretary, Rev. John J. Burke, C.S.P. 

Department of Education — Rev. James H. Ryan, Exec. Sec'y. 

Bureau of Education — A. C. Monahan, Director. 

Department of Laws and Legislation — William J. Cochran. 

Department of Social Action—- Directors, John A. Ryan and John A. Lapp. 

Department of Press and Publicity — Director, Justin M*Grath; Ass t 
Director, Michael Williams. 

National Council of Catholic Men — President, Rear-Admiral William S. 
Benson; Exec. Sec'y., Michael J. Slattery. 

National Council of Catholic Women — President, Mrs. Michael Gavin; 
Exec Sec'y., Miss Agnes G. Regan. 

National Catholic Service School for Women, Washington, D. C. — 
Director, Charles P. Neill; Dean, Miss Maud R. Cavanaugh. 

Bureau of Immigration — National Director, Brace M. Mohlcr 

105 East 22nd St., New York. Industrial, agricultural investigations. 
Works for improved laws and administration ; children's codes. Studies 
health, schools, recreation, dependency, delinquency, etc. Annual member- 
ship, $2, $5, $10, $25 and $1M; includes quarterly, " The American Child." 


Powlison, gen. sec'y. : 70 Fifth Ave., New York. Originates and publishes 
exhibit material which visualizes the principles and conditions affecting the 
health, well being and education of children. Cooperates with educators, 
public health agencies, and all child welfare groups in community, city or 
state-wide service through exhibits, child welfare campaigns, etc 

Walter B. James, pres. ; Dr. Thomas W. Salmon, med. dir. ; Associate 
Medical Directors, Dr. Frankwood E. Williams and Dr. V. V. Anderson; 
Clifford W. Beers, sec'y. ; 370 Seventh Avenue, New York City. Pamphlets 
on mental hygiene, nervous and mental disorders, feeblemindedness, 
epilepsy, inebriety, criminology, war neuroses and re-education, psychiatric 
social service, backward children, sarveys, state societies. Mental 

Hygiene;" quarterly, $2 a year. 

Pres., Boston; W. H. Parker, sec'y., 25 East Ninth Street, Cincinnati, 
Ohio. The Conference is an organization to discuss the principles ol 
humanitarian effort and to increase the efficiency of social service agencies. 
Each year it holds an annual meeting, publishes in permanent form the 
Proceedings of this meeting, and issues a quarterly Bulletin. The forty- 
ninth annual meeting, and Conference will be held in Providence, Rhode 
Island, June 22-29, 1922. Proceedings are sent free of charge to all 
members upon payment of a membership fee of five dollars. 

NESS — Edward M. Van Cleve, managing director; Lewis H. Carrie, 
field sec'y;; Mrs. Winifred Hathaway, sec'y.; 130 E. 22nd St., New York. 
Objects : To furnish information, exhibits, lantern slides, lectures, publish 
literature of movement — samples free, quantities st cost. Includes New 
York State Committee. 

Please mention Thd Subvet when writing to advertiser* 

April 22, 1922 



NATIONAL CONSUMERS' LEAGUE— 44 E. 23rd St.. New York. 
Mrs. Florence Kelley, gen'l sec'y. Promote! legislation for enlightened 
standards for women and minors in industry and for honest products ; mini- 
mum wage commissions, eight hour day, no night work, federal regulation 

food and packing industries* "hnnma* ninth" I»iria1atinfi Pnhliratinna 


honest cloth" legislation. Publications 

sec'y. ; 20 Union Park, Boston. Develops broad forms of comparative study 
and concerted action in city, state and nation, for meeting the fundamental 
problems disclosed by settlement work; seeks the higher and more demo- 
cratic organisation of neighborhood life. 

THE NATIONAL HEALTH COUNCIL— Livingston Farrand, M. D., 
Chairman; Donald B. Armstrong, M. D., Executive Officer. For the 
study and correlation of national voluntary health activities. Publications 
include Federal and State health Legislative Bulletins, current Library 
Index, and Monthly Digest of news of ten voluntary member agencies 
and one official member; 370 Seventh Ave., New York City, and 411 18th 
Street, N. W., Washington, D. C. 

Member, National Health Council — Anne A. Stevens, R.N., Director, 370 
Seventh Avenue, New York. For development and standardization of 
public health nursing. Maintains library and educational service. Official 
Magazine "Public Health Nurse." 

NATIONAL URBAN LEAGUE — For social service among Negroes. 
L. Hollingsworth Wood, pres. ; Eugene Kinckle Jones, exec, sec'y. ; 127 E. 
23rd St., New York. Establishes committees of white and colored people 
to work out community problems. Trains Negro social workers. 

A. Gordon, president, Headquarters, 1730 Chicago Avenue, Evanston, Illi- 
nois. To secure effective enforcement of the Eighteenth Amendment, to 
advance the welfare of the American people through the departments of 
Child Welfare, Women in Industry, Social Morality, Scientific Temperance 
Instruction, Americanization and other allied fields of endeavor. Official 
publication "The Union Signal," published at Headquarter!. 

Robins, pres.; 311 South Ashland" Blvd., Chicago, 111. Stands for self- 
government in the work shop through organization and also for the 
enactment of protective legislation. Information given. 

— 1 Madison Avenue, New York City. Joseph Lee, president; H. S. 
Braucher, secretary. Special attention given to organization of year-round 
municipal recreation systems. Information available on playground and 
community center activities and administration. 

sentation for all. C. G. Hoag, sec'y., 1417 Locust St., Philadelphia. 
Membership, $2, entitles to quarterly P. K, Review. 

the study of the causes of race degeneracy and means of race improve- 
ments. Its chief activities are the Race Betterment Conference, the Eu- 
genics Registry, and lecture courses and various allied activities. J. H. 
Kellogg, pres.; B. N. Colver, sec'y. 

RUSSELL SAGE FOUNDATION— For the Improvement of Living Con- 
ditions — John M. Glenn, dir. ; 130 E. 22nd St., New York. Departments: 
Charity Organization, Child-Helping, Industrial Studies, Library, Recrea- 
tion, Remedial Loans, Statistics, Surveys and Exhibits. The publications 
of the Russell Sage Foundation offer to the public in practical and inex- 
pensive form some of the most important results of its work. Catalogue 
sent upon request. 

TUSKEOEE INSTITUTE— An institution for the training of Negro 
Youth ; an experiment in race adjustment in the Black Belt of the South ; 
furnishes information on all phases of the race problem and on the Tuske- 

Xee idea and methods. Robert R. Moton, prin. ; Warren Logan, treas. ; 
.. I. Holsey, acting sec'y, Tuskegee, Ala. 

Jr., Sec'y.; 465 Wcct 33rd St. A clearing-house for Workers' Education. 


Published weekly and copyright 1922 by Survey Associates, Inc., 
112 East 19 St., New York, a non-commercial cooperative society 
without shares or stockholders. Incorporated under the member- 
ship law of the State of New York, with 1,600 members. Robert 
W. deForest, president; Henry R. Seager, V. Bverit Macy, vice- 
presidents ; Arthur P. Kellogg, treasurer ; Ann Reed Brenner, 

Price 15 cents per copy, $5 per year, Canadian and Foreign postage 
65 cents extra. 

Entered as second-class matter, March 25, 1909, at the post office, 
New York, N. Y., under the act of March 3, 1879. Acceptance for 
mailing at a special rate of postage provided for in Section 1103, 
Act of October 3, 1917, authorized on June 26, 1918. 
Volume XLVIII, No. 4. 


Conducted by 

What Is the Law? 

The law has been defined, at times, as of the essence of 
reasonableness. Just at present some doubt may be cast upon 
this conception. In war time, the government practically 
compelled employers and employes to get together for the 
purpose of making wage agreements. In a number of indus- 
tries at least " collective bargaining " was enforced. This 
method of reaching wage agreements is acceptable to the 
labor union groups, and to many employer groups. 

About a year ago, however, more than two hundred min- 
ers and mine operators were jointly indicted by the federal 
court in Indianapolis on the charge of conspiracy to keep up 
wages and so to interfere with trade. Now, in the face of 
the present coal strike, those old indictments appear as ob- 
stacles to peace^ The government, speaking through the sec- 
retary of labor, advises the mine operators to make peace 
with the miners and enter into collective agreements with 
them. The operators reply that they will lay themselves 
liable to indictment as in the Indianapolis cases if they agree 
to bargain with their employes. The attorney general vaguely 
promises that if they will agree to meet their employes, the 
courts will not interfere. The operators cite the federal in- 
dictments waiting for them at Indianapolis. The attorney 
general promises to have those indictments dismissed. He 
travels to Indianapolis to confer with Judge Anderson. Judge 
Anderson refuses to have his hands bound in any such way. 
And so the lawyers disagree. And about a hundred million 
laymen would very much like to know, What Is the Law? 


Is Collective Bargaining a Crime ? 

Public opinion seems to be with the strikers. Non-union fields 
are breaking up before the movements of the strikers. It took an 
injunction to stop the process of unionization in certain parts of 
West Virginia. If the unions capture the whole of the coal area, 
what chance have we for coal without the consent of the unions? 
Must we not consent to see the whole wage question settled by 
agreement? Is an agreement between two groups a crime? Is a 
contract a crime? What is the law? 

2 What Are the Sources of Law? 
• In settling industrial questions, there now seems to be a 
conflict between the court and the people. The court represents 
precedent, the past, the growth of order and control. The people 
want things settled in terms of the realities of the present. Is this 
conflict real? Or is it imaginary? Is it germane to the situation? 
Or is it an intrusion? Who should make the law: the courts or the 
people? Is democracy interested in this question? 

L. Duguit. Law in the Modern State. B. W. Huebsch. Price, 
$2.50 ; postpaid, $2.65. 

Legislative Control of Courts. Published by the Common- 
wealth Club, San Francisco. 
The Survey for April 8, page 74. 


in 202 colleges and high schools have used The Subvey the past 
year as a looseleaf textbook of sociology, economics, labor prob- 
lems, civics and related subjects. There's nothing quite like it, 
for no book and no other periodical even attempts to present 
the facts of social and industrial relations without bias and with 
no color beyond clear writing and pictures which really illus- 
trate. Special student rates will be sent on request. Thb 
Survey, 112 East 19 Street. New York. 





SXk^J^ Yt)i 


Bendrik Wiltem Van Loon 

In the economic laboratory: "Theoretically we have 
made the creature perfect; and yet it won't work." 

Vol. XLVI1I 

&ne SU1WG& 


Robert W. DeForest, President 
Henry R. Seager ) Vice . Presidents 


Arthur P. Kellogg, Treasurer 
Ann Reed Brenner, Secretary 

No. 4 




Bruno Lasker Joseph K. Hart 

S. Adele Shaw Paul L. Benjamin 




Entitled to Be Heard " 

E are doing business at the old stand," said Judge 

This statement of the chairman of the board of 
directors of the United States Steel Corporation was a dis- 
appointment to many who had come to the annual meeting of 
stockholders last Monday, expecting a clear statement on 
progress made in the elimination of the long day in the steel 
industry. For, they knew that experiments in short shifts in 
the Corporation's subsidiaries have been under way, forced to 
an extent by the necessity of spreading labor to hold the work- 
ing force together during the period of depression. How 
far this has extended, what time schedules have been tested 
out, and in what departments, what results have been ob- 
tained, would have been interesting to some stockholders. 
This was demonstrated by the fact that the one question put 
to the chairman following his address referred to the elimin- 
ation of the twelve-hour day. 

Between October, 1920, and March, 1922, the corporation had re- 
duced the 12-hour men from 32 per cent of the workmen to 14 per 
cent. Those 14 per cent were engaged on continuous processes 
where it is necessary to keep the machinery going constantly. There 
is no other practical way. 

This was all the information given. There was no analy- 
sis. Obviously, the figures, thus set forth without relation 
to the volume of manufacturing, mean nothing; for, dur- 
ing the past year, the corporation's production has been at 
times considerably below 50 per cent of capacity. 

The rest had been heard before. 

We should like to eliminate the twelve-hour day if practical ; but 
we meet the opposition of the men themselves who wish to work 
longer hours for larger compensation. 

Thus, Judge Gary. Yet the American Rolling Mill Com- 
pany which introduced the three-shift system throughout its 
mills in Middletown, Ohio, during the period of heaviest 
production and labor competition, has been able to maintain 
the principle in every instance throughout the period of de- 
pression. Some of the men did ask for opportunity to work 
twelve hours when work was slack and they had but three 
days' employment a week. It had about as much significance 
as for a man to ask for six days' work when there are not 
orders enough for three. A few weeks ago, however, when 
the mills there were about to open 100 per cent, a repre- 
sentative of the Survey who visited the men in their homes 
received everywhere this comment: "Three shifts? It's as 
different from two shifts as day is from night." "There 
isn't one man in fifty that would return to the old schedule 
even if he were to make more money. But when the mills 
are running full we make more money than we did on the old 

schedule." For, Middletown has not gone from one system 
to the other without recognizing the need of adjusting the 
returns to the men so as to keep their pay envelopes up to 
their standard of living. 

Judge Gary ignores, also, the report of the Committee on 
Work Periods in Continuous Industries of the Engineering 
Council, quoted in the Survey for April 8, page 38, which 
holds that in the long run, the three-shift system in continuous 
plants as a whole shows an increase in efficiency, not great 
enough (except in unusual cases) to permit of paying the 
wage received for two shifts without increasing costs, but, 
nevertheless, great enough to pay the men a wage which 
"when once they had become used to the eight-hour shift, 
they would much prefer to the alternative of a twelve-hour 
day and twelve-hour wage." 

The other reason which Judge Gary at this time gives as 
a difficulty in the way of the change is that one company 
or even a number of companies cannot make the move alone 
because their competitors, by offering the men opportunity to 
work twelve hours and thus increase their earnings, would 
induce the men to leave their work in three-shift plants. In 
this connection, Judge Gary fails to remember that twenty- 
odd companies during the period of activity in industry lium 
1914 to 1920 went from two to three shifts, and that not one 
of them went into bankruptcy because of lack of workers. At 
the present time, it may be asked where is there a steel com- 
pany that is not so busy taking care of the most efficient 
men of its own working force that it could possibly absorb 
labor from other plants. Did the Carnegie Steel Company at 
Homestead, with nine hundred men thrown out of its armor 
plate plant alone at the signing of a slip of paper at Wash- 
ington, offer jobs to men from Middletown or from Chi- 
cago — where the International Harvester Company was of- 
fering them but eight hours? Moreover, if these small 
plants, comparatively, could make out so well on three shifts 
|\vhen in competition with the Corporation on two shifts, 
how much less risk would the Corporation take? 

The Judge's last effort also recalled previous occasions: 

We have been told by outsiders (and by outsiders I mean those 
who have never been actively engaged in the industry) that we 
should force men to work shorter hours or leave their work. We 
do not believe it. We believe workmen should be consulted. The- 
oretical sympathy does not appeal to the workingman's judgment. 
It antagonizes him. . . . We would like to satisfy public senti- 
ment, but when it comes to the welfare of workmen themselves, we 
think they are entitled to be heard. 

This is exactly what the workmen thought in the strike 
of 1919; and this is exactly what they were refused. More- 
over, the United States Steel Corporation, according to its 
statements, has ruthlessly ruled out the opportunity for men 
to increase their earnings by working seven instead of six 




April 22, 1922 

days a week! There is no record of any consultation with 
the men on this point. 

Mr. Mumford, a stockholder, at the close of Judge Gary's 
speech asked him: " To what extent has the reduction of the 
twelve-hour force from 32 per cent to 14 per cent of the 
workmen warranted your statement that with the elimina- 
tion of the twelve-hour day the men would leave for other 
plants in which they would have opportunity to work twelve 

To which Mr. Gary replied : " We have no way of telling 
exactly. We know by practical demonstration that men go 
for that reason because they say so and because we see them 
working in other places." 

Mr. Mumford then asked : " In that case, why permit 
them to go?" 

Judge Gary replied: "The reason is that we think they 
have reached the determination and we endeavor in so far 
as we can to satisfy public sentiment in reducing the hours." 

A Prison Film 

WHEN a moving picture like The Right Way is of- 
fered the public so that they can see graphically the 
fallacies of the old prison system and can find out 
what such a system as Thomas Mo,tt Osborne's Mutual 
Welfare League is trying to do, political circles and the 
police stop the picture. At least this is what, according 
to the distributors, Wid Gunning, Inc., happened in Chi- 
cago and St. Louis. 

The film, which was shown privately last week, follows 
the story as told by Commander Osborne and is neither 
obnoxiously moral nor over-sentimental. Jimmy, a poor 
boy, and Harry, a rich boy, drift into crime. Jimmy gets 
his first professional lesson in a boys' reformatory where the 
young offenders through lack of proper occupation and in- 
telligent supervision are discharged better equipped for a 
criminal career than when they entered. Harry receives his 
training at the hands of shortsighted parents and second-rate 
associates. They finally land in prison, presumably Sing 
Sing as it was before the arrival of Thomas Mott Osborne. 
Here everything works for the prisoners' mental and moral 
degeneration. Jimmy completes his term and is discharged 
with the insinuation that he will return soon enough. Be- 
fore this actually happens, the prison undergoes complete 
reorganization, and when Jimmy again lands there he is 
amazed. No more are the humiliating zebra clothes and 
lock step, no more the sense of society wreaking its venge- 
ance upon offenders. He remembers how he was beaten 
and sworn at; now he is treated like a man capable of judg- 
ment and is asked to cooperate in an organization permeated 
by the ideas of self-control and self-discipline. 

Mothers and the State 

THE welfare of mothers and children was given more 
than usual recognition by the New York legislature 
which adjourned recently. The Davenport Act 
transforms the Division of Child Hygiene in the State 
Health Department into a Division of Maternity, Infancy 
and Child Hygiene. The act appropriates $160,000 for 
the year beginning July 1, 1922. It authorizes the State 
Health Department to : 

Make surveys and studies of local conditions affecting the health 
of mothers and children, and advise localities on these subjects; 

Hold health consultations for mothers and children in rural areas; 

Instruct local public health nurses in the hygiene of maternity 
and infancy; 

Do educational work in these lines. 

The establishment of a juvenile court in every county, 
outside of New York city, except where there are already 
such courts, was authorized by the Walton Act. It pro- 
vides also for a judge of the children's court who shall have 

no other duties in the large counties. The county judge, 
however, may also act as the judge of the children's court 
in case he has the time and this action meets with the ap- 
proval of the board of supervisors. According to the State 
Charities Aid Association, the special value of this act is 
that it substitutes a children's court judge in place of the 
multitude of local magistrates and justices of the peace. The 
association says of the new court: 

It can provide itself with aid of competent expert medical and 
mental examiners, with am adequate probation staff, with a suitable 
detention home, instead of jails and lockups; in short, which can 
bring to destitute and neglected children throughout the state a 
large measure of that individual study and care, and competent 
supervision which such children have received for some years in 
the children's courts of the larger cities. 

Another Walton Act gives counties permission to trans- 
fer all public responsibility for dealing with dependent chil- 
dren to existing boards of child welfare. This centralizes 
the care of such children in one agency. 

Under the Lowman Act, counties as well as cities and 
towns are permitted to establish general hospitals with pro- 
vision for tuberculous patients. The adoption of this pro- 
vision, however, requires a referendum vote at a general 
election. Homer Folks, general secretary of the State 
Charities Aid Association, comments: 

This bill is a further and important step in making available to 
people in rural communities and small towns a larger degree of the 
expert medical and nursing care which is so freely given to every 
person in the larger cities, and which secures an untold saving of 
human life and prevents an untold amount of unnecessary suffering. 

Garden Homes for Germany 

JOHANNES LUBAHN, director of the homestead 
bureau of the German Union of Civil Servants, and a 
member of the advisory committee on homesteads in the 
National Ministry of Labor, has arrived in the United States 
to secure support for the work promoted by those important 
bodies and to learn at first hand of similar movements here. 
The national organization of civil servants was the first - 
great body of workers in Germany to realize that the ap- 
palling housing needs of the people cannot be met simply by 
rising wage standards, but that the organized workers them- 
selves must, by pressure on the governments — federal, state 
and local — and by direct action provide themselves with 
homes. This view is shared now by practically the whole 
body of organized labor in Germany on whose committee for 
the promotion of the homestead plan Mr. Lubahn serves as 
principal executive. 

Briefly this plan consists in the creation of local homestead 
commissions by organized labor and other bodies of citizens 
to cooperate with the municipality in the creation of garden 
suburbs where houses of a modest but adequate character 
are created through cooperative financing, on land 
owned by the community or expropriated by it for tin's 
purpose under the terms of the Homestead Act. Last 
year about 30,000 sites for homes and gardens were 
reported to the bureau as having been prepared under 
this plan, and Mr. Lubahn estimates that the total 
number is probably twice as large. Homestead commissions 
are at a work in about one thousand localities. In two hun- 
dred localities that have reported, some nine thousand one- 
family houses were actually erected last year, but in this re- 
spect also the total number is probably much larger. Under 
the scheme, the land and improvements are sold outright, un- 
der a system of easy repayment, to the individual occupier, 
but with the provision that the municipality retains an option 
of repurchase when the owner desires to sell — at the origi- 
nal price plus the estimated value of any improvements that 
may have been made by the owner. In other words, specula- 
tive gain is excluded from the beginning by the expropriation 
of the sites at a fair value and their resale at cost price, sale 

April 22, 1922 



of the house at a fair return for interest and amortization, 
and inability of the owner to resell at a speculative profit. 

The movement back to the land has taken great forward 
strides in Germany since the war. All parties support it, 
even though their motives may be different. The conserva- 
tive and clerical parties naturally look upon the home owner 
as less likely to be influenced by agitation for social change; 
radicals and socialists, on the other hand, recognize that a 
substantial improvement in the condition of the wage work- 
ers cannot for a long time to come be expected to result from 
wage negotiations alone. Even orthodox Marxians, with 
few exceptions, have given up the idea that a revolutionary 
change in the social order must be brought about by a delib- 
erate herding of the masses in overcrowded city slums where 
they may be more easily influenced by play upon their emo- 
tions. And, apart from all theories, the German people have 
come to realize that only in a return to the land can they 
regain racial virility and tranquility of mind. The desire for 
a small house with a garden where enough vegetables may be 
grown for the use of the family, and poultry or small animals 
may be kept is so great that an appreciable number of fam- 
ilies in all the great cities have moved from the congested 
industrial quarters to such land as they could find unoc- 
cupied, without waiting for the construction of permanent 
homes — living close to nature in shacks built of almost any 
available material. The only thing just now which is hold- 
ing back a big, nation-wide effort to place this colonization 
on a permanent and economically sound basis, says Mr. Lu- 
bahn, is the lack of trained leaders and the lack of funds with 
which to carry on the necessary organization of local com- 
missions and of training schools for executives. Any help 
given to this movement will, therefore, be more permanently 
beneficial to the improvement of conditions than money spent 
on the alleviation of distress, though for this also the need 
today is as great as it has been at any time since the collapse ; 
it will set going forces that make for permanent self-help, 
both in the supply of homes and in the growing of food. 

The Y. M. C. A. in Jail 

THE first prison experience of the young offender is 
usually in a county jail. It is a shock such as he has 
not experienced before; for, though the misdeed that 
has landed him there is probably not his first, and he is 
aware of it, it is for the first time that he realizes the con- 
sequences of the life into which he is drifting. At such 
a time, when his emotions are deeply aroused, the persons 
with whom he is thrown into contact have an influence on 
him, for better or for worse, far exceeding that of every- 
day life. Many such a young prisoner is eager to reform 
as he has never been before and, possibly, will never be 
again. But in the jail he is forced into association with 
experienced criminals who make fun of his qualm, persuades 
him that he is ill-used and recommend to him a corrupt 
criminal lawyer to get him out. Two ways are before him 
— the way of the penitent and the way of the crook. 

To help this young fellow find himself is a social task 
which, much sympathetic effort notwithstanding, has never 
been completely faced. What he needs at that moment is 
not so much formal religious teaching — though sometimes 
it may touch him to the quick — but a friend who under- 
stands his great, human need to explain himself and, in so 
doing, to discover in his past some broken threads of 
idealism and ambition to which new resolution and new 
courage might be knit. This friend must be a man of char- 
acter and spiritual power — preferably not too advanced in 
years so that there may be no hindrance to the fullest sym- 
pathy between them. In almost every community such men 
can be found ; but they have not been organized to visit the 
jails and befriend the prisoners in any systematic fashion. 

Paul W. Garrett was sent out by the International Young 
Men's Christian Association two years ago on such a mis- 


In the above drawing, reproduced from The Child, the Education 
Committee of the Middlesex County Council (London) summarises 
a scheme for the coordination of its school system with the English 
national system of higher education under the Fisher Education Act, 
of iqi8. Though impaired not only by an economy which is natural 
under the present financial stress but also by a governmental policy 
of cutting down expenditure which is denounced by British educa- 
tionalists almost unanimously as needlessly destructive, the creation 
of a unified educational system from the primary grades to college 
is worked out more and more concretely at least in the programs 
of the local education authorities. 

sion. He was placed in the Naval Prison at Portsmouth 
under Commander Thomas Osborne; and those who know 
of his work say that he was most successful. He is now 
engaged in similar work in Auburn Prison, New York. 
The association wants to extend this activity into many 
other state prisons and reformatories and eventually into 
every county jail in the "United States, but is held back, as 
are so many agencies in these days, by lack of funds. There 
is a " Y " in almost every county seat, and competent vol- 
unteers for this work can usually be found among the older 
members. But it is a delicate job. A mere broadcast propa- 
ganda for it will not do. The international association 
would send trained men to visit the towns where the jails 
are and instruct committees of the local associations how 
best to help the prisoners in their jail under the leadership of 
the local secretary. In this way, it is thought, an invaluable 
redemptive influence might be created at very little expense. 

A Vanishing Race 

WITHIN living memory, the native Indians of Michi- 
gan were one of the most important factors in the 
population of that state of lakes and forests. Their 
decline, not from migration so much as from disease and race 
suicide, has been one of the most tragic consequences of the 
peninsula's development into a great industrial state. The 
State Department of Health reports that, all efforts to arrest 
it notwithstanding, this waste continues at an alarming rate. 



April 22, 1922 


A well known character of Friedrich Strasse, Berlin. Drawing by 

Willi Schuster in a satirical pamphlet, Thanks of the Fatherland, 

which has had an enormous circulation 

Last year births exceeded deaths in only one community, 
Dowagiac. In a population estimated as 5.614 there were 
147 deaths and 62 births, a net loss of 85. The birth rate 
has fallen from 16.4 per thousand in 1920 to 11.0 — com- 
pared with a birth rate of 25.1 for the state as a whole. The 
death rate of 26.3 per thousand corresponds with one of 11.6 
for the state as a whole. In other words, the Indians are 
dying more than twice as fast as white men and increasing 
by birth only half as fast. The health commissioner adds: 
" If this ratio of births and deaths is maintained, the time is 
not distant when Indians as a race will be extinct in 

I Am a Soldier 

I am a soldier, and unapt to weep, 
Or to exclaim on fortune's fickleness. 

NEVERTHELESS, the weeping soldier has become a 
common spectacle in the streets of European cities, 
where grateful countries are unable to translate into 
adequate help, either in pensions or in the procurement of 
suitable jobs, their sentiments toward the defenders of their 

A crippled soldier is wheeled every evening to a street 
corner in Berlin where he sings in an agreeable bass voice 
to the accompaniment of a melodeon. Now and again a 
police officer gently removes him because he obstructs the 
traffic; but after a while he returns. Evidently, public 
opinion is too strong for the police to try sterner measures. 
This man takes in heaps of money which he shares with a 
small group of war veterans on crutches who have made 
this corner their regular stand. One of these, a very decent 
young chap, not more than twenty-five years old, states that 
his total allowance from the government is less than two 
hundred marks a month (about one dollar at the present 
rate of exchange) ; not nearly enough, with the twelve marks 
a day earned by his wife, to maintain his small family — 

especially with present room rents. The allotment varies 
with what is regarded as a man's remaining ability to earn 
a living at his former occupation, with the result that men 
who are intelligent and who easily adapt themselves often 
have a sufficient income, while others — recently the number 
was stated as some four thousand in Berlin alone— cannot 
possibly make both ends meet. 

Begging, not only by ex-soldiers but by persons of both 
sexes and all ages, has become the same nuisance in Central 
Europe that it has always been after a war. There are 
the familiar figures of the old man who " has given six sons 
to the country," of the musician who " has walked all the 
way from " some town a hundred miles away, of the actress 
who has been in a hospital and shows photographs of a still 
faintly recognizable former self, of the aged little grand- 
mother who has to provide, she says, for a family of war 
orphans. To all these the crowd is seemingly very liberal ; 
but it takes many tattered bills of small denomination these 
days to live at all. 

The Return of Smallpox 

THE United States Public Health Service has reported 
the occurrence of over fifty cases of smallpox in Bridge- 
port, Conn., since December 1, 192 1. The only pos- 
sible source of infection for this large number of cases which 
the service was able to find was a colored woman who visited 
her sister and niece in Suffolk County. The disease has also 
appeared in the neighboring cities of Bethel and Danbury. 
The health authorities of the state are cooperating with those 
of New York State to prevent the spread of the disease over 
the Connecticut border into Dutchess, Putnam and West- 
chester counties. 

Virulent smallpox was reported recently in Missouri fol- 
lowing the convention of the American Legion in Kansas 
City. Health authorities assume that someone from a dis- 
tant state brought in the disease. From that center seem- 
ingly the disease has widely scattered, since outbreaks of this 
severe form of smallpox have been reported from Chicago 
and other distant points. 

The Bureau of the Census reports that there have been 
very few deaths from smallpox in recent years. Since 1900 
the highest rate from this cause in the death registration area 
of the United States was 6.6 per 100,000 population in 1902. 
Since 1904 the rate has never reached more than 1 per 100,- 
000 of population. The bureau points out, however, that the 
much higher rate for certain cities and towns indicates the 
danger of the disease in an unvaccinated population. The 
high rate of 9.2 per 100,000 in Louisiana in 1920 is an in- 
stance of this. 

In commenting upon this situation the Health News of the 
New York State Department of Health says that the public 
has almost forgotten its old dread of this scourge. It con- 
tinues : 

This is well, so long as a feeling of undue security does not take 
its place; but unfortunately there has also resulted a tendency to 
neglect vaccination, and to enforce vaccination laws with laxity, 
if at all. Health officers, however, have never lost sight of the fact 
that any month might bring a flare-up of the former virulent type 
of smailpox, and they have realized better than anyone else how 
many people will pay the penalty if it once gets a good start again. 

Books for Social Agencies 

A LIST of books for an office shelf is suggested by Eliza- 
beth Dutcher, district secretary of the New York 
Charity Organization Society, in the March issue of 
The Family. To begin with, she takes it for granted that 
every office has such standard books as Social Diagnosis, 
Broken Homes, The Layman's Handbook of Medicine, The 
Charity Visitor, American Marriage Laws, The Good 
Neighbor; files of the Survey, The Family, Mental 
Hygiene and Social Hygiene; medical directories, proceed- 
ings of conferences. 

April 22, 1922 



She next includes the material issued by the Federal Chil- 
dren's Bureau, such as Laws Relating to Mothers' Pensions 
in the United States, Canada, Denmark and New Zealand ; 
the Illegitimacy Laws of the United States and certain 
Foreign Countries; the Summary of State Laws Relating to 
the Dependent Classes. Among other government publica- 
tions recommended are: American Food Materials, issued 
by the Department of Agriculture ; Child Labor Legislation 
in the United States, published by the Department of Labor ; 
the surveys made by the American Association for Labor 
Legislation on Unemployment and Minimum Wage Legis- 
lation. Miss Dutcher touches a glaring defect of such pub- 
lications in her criticism of " these all too monstrously bound 
and singularly unalluring volumes." 

Of medical books she includes: Osier and McCrae's 
Principles and Practice of Medicine; Vedder's Syphilis and 
Public Health; Stoke's Third Great Plague; Otis' Tuber- 
culosis, Its Cause, Cure and Prevention; Hill's The New 
Public Health. 

The field of mental hygiene has a growing literature from 
which she chooses Dr. William A. White's Outlines of 
Psychiatry; Auguste Forel's The Sexual Question; E. B. 
Holt's The Freudian Wish ; Bernard Hart's Psychology of 
Insanity; The Condensed Guide for the Standard Revision 
of the Binet-Simon Tests ; Terman's Measurement of Intelli- 
gence; Healy's Mental Conflicts and Misconduct, and Indi- 
vidual Delinquent ; Bronner's Psychology of Special Abilities 
and Disabilities. 

Miss Dutcher calls attention to the books on vocational 
education, called the Cleveland Survey Monographs. Miss 
Nesbitt's Household Management and Miss Willard's and 
Miss Gillett's Dietetics for High Schools come next. 

In the case-work field she places first Mary E. Richmond's 
stimulating new book, What Is Social Case Work? With 
it she groups Mrs. Sheffield's Social Case History ; Deacon's 
Disasters; Miss Sayles' Home Service in Action; Breckin- 
ridge and Abbott's Delinquent Child in The Home; Kath- 
erine Anthony's Mothers Who Must Earn, and the sym- 
posium on Social Work with Families published by the 
American Academy of Political and Social Science. She also 
recommends books dealing with some special problem of the 
local community, as Barnes' Longshoremen or Miss Oden- 
crantz' Italian Women in Industry. 

She believes that certain inspirational books also have a 
place on the office shelf. For this purpose she picks three: 
Dr. Cabot's What Men Live By, and Varieties of Religious 
Experience and Talks on Psychology and Life's Ideals, by 
William James. 

As with any list of books, there are glaring omissions. 
Personal preferences apart, however, one is left wondering 
why Miss Dutcher does not include John Lewis Gillin's 
Poverty and Dependency, Lillian Brandt's study of finances, 
How Much Shall I Give? or other recent books which, as a 
matter of fact, have had a welcome reception by experienced 
social workers. 


ADVOCATES of birth control in England and the 
United States are opposed to abortion. From Czecho- 
slovakia, however, comes the proposal by Dr. M. 
Wassermann that a bill be passed permitting a woman to 
decide before the third month of pregnancy whether or not 
she wishes to become a mother. Dr. Wassermann estimates 
that one hundred thousand illegal abortions are performed 
every year in Czecho-Slovakia with a population of thirteen 
million. The bill which he is sponsoring would permit the 
operation of abortion only by a qualified doctor. Although 
the Prague Medical Society opposed the bill, the supporters 
of it secured the passage of a recommendation for the ap- 
pointment of a committee of physicians and sociologists to 
study the question and submit proposals to remedy the ex- 

as very serious because the operation in most cases is per- 
formed by midwives and other unqualified persons. 

There has also lately been considerable discussion of 
abortion in this country. The American Association of Ob- 
stetricians, Gynaecologists and Abdominal Surgeons at its an- 
nual meeting in St. Louis last fall devoted a whole session to 
the subject. Dr. Palmer Findlay made the amazing state- 
ment that one out of every five or six pregnancies is concluded 
with abortion, and that 50 per cent of these abortions are 
criminally induced. Dr. Findlay urged that medical societies 
take up the matter in order that public opinion and the courts 
may be influenced to do something. 

The Social Unit in Practice 

THE significant fact of American democracy is the com- 
parative lack of interest in any such thing on the part 
of the great majority of the American people. There 
is discouraging evidence of indifference /toward community 
problems, community needs, and, of course, no interest what- 
ever in solving the problems and meeting the needs democrat- 
ically. All who are concerned about this situation are inter- 
ested in any theory or experiment which will throw some 
light on the solution of the problem. 

The Cincinnati Social Unit experiment was one such at- 
tempt to arouse the interest of a community (in this case, a 
crowded section of an industrial city) in its common needs, 
make it conscious of its common interests, and to provide for 
meeting the needs in a democratic way. It was based on the 
theory that the organization of a community, if it is to be 
democratic and function effectively, and to stimulate the peo- 
ple to solve their own problems, should rest on three princi- 

1. The representatives of the citizens of a community should be 
elected for such small units of population that among the citizens, 
and between them and their representatives, the relationships might 
be those of real neighbors. 

2. Those serving the community, because of special knowledge or 
skill, in a direct or in an advisory capacity, should be organized 
also with reference to units of population served, so that they might 
be closely and effectively in touch with the representatives of the 
citizens and the citizens themselves. 

3. There should be an organic and coordinate working relation- 
ship between the occupational and the citizenship representatives. 

Three years — the period during which the experiment was 

'•To interpret the Immigrant to America and 
America to the Immigrant" 


The Foreign Language Information Service has started the publica- 
tion of a monthly bulletin to secure wider interest for the problems 
and perplexities ef the immigrant with which the service is dealing 
through its various bureaus. 



April 22, 1922 

tried out in Cincinnati — is too short a time to test out 
thoroughly the soundness of any experiment in democratic 
community organization. But the results of even three years 
should be sufficient to indicate whether the principles on 
which the experiment was conducted were right. 

A history of the Cincinnati Social Unit experiment which 
will afford some basis for judging of its value has just been 
published by the New York School of Social Work. Court- 
enay Dinwiddie, formerly executive of the City Occupa- 
tional Council, under the experiment, is the author of Com- 
munity Responsibility, a review of the Cincinnati Social 
Unit Experiment. The facts from the beginning of the ex- 
periment in 191 7 to the reorganization in 1920 are gathered 
together in this pamphlet. Mr. Dinwiddie believes the ex- 
periment " was founded upon perhaps the most philosophical 
conception of human relationships in community service that 
has been offered for thorough test in this country." Among 
the positive achievements of the plan he sees: 

The increase in effectiveness of community service to an un- 
precedented degree, as a result of the neighborhood organization; 

The educational value of the Unit through the organization of 
the people themselves to learn of their problems and ways of meet- 
ing them ; 

The genuine spirit of neighborliness that has been increasingly 

The fact that the people of the district have been more largely 
in control of community affairs than elsewhere. 

When it comes to the form of organization, he is in favor 
of modification of the original framework to make it adapt- 
able to other communities : 

Block chairmen to be elected by the residents of each block to 
represent them and constituting a citizens' advisory committee. 

A citizens' council to consist of one block chairman for every 
five or six blocks of the community. These five or six blocks would 
constitute sections of the district, and in each the five or six block 
chairmen would elect one of their number to be a member of the 
citizens' council for the entire district. 

While in general the citizens' advisory committee would probably 
deal with questions of detail and procedure and the citizens' council 
with general policies, the latter would report to the former, and 
the division of functions between the two would be subject to check 
and to adjustment in the light of experience. 

Joint regular meetings of citizens' and occupational councils, to 
be held periodically. 

Members of the citizens' council to be paid only for attendance at 
meetings, if at all. 

Aa executive agent, to assume the executive duties which the block 
worker had under the Social Unit plan. One of these agents would 
serve preferably not more than the district of one member of the 
citizens' council ; these agents also would be full-time paid employes 
and under the direct supervision of the executive of the citizens' 
council; but ultimately responsible to the general council. 

In Mr. Dinwiddie's opinion the combination of legisla- 
tive functions and executive duties in the " block worker 
has retarded progress, and he therefore suggests a division of 
these functions. In this opinion he is opposed by Mr. and 
Mrs. Wilbur Phillips, the originators of the Social Unit. He 
would have the block chairman elected directly by the resi- 
dents of the block instead of by block councils as hitherto. 
Mr. Dinwiddie favors non-payment of block chairmen, since 
block workers have been hampered in securing assistance 
from their neighbors because of the fact that the block worker 
was paid for her work. 

The full values of the experiment cannot, of course, be 
judged yet. It is always doubtful whether any " demo- 
cratic " organization of the community, no matter how gen- 
uinely democratic in theory the promoters may be, which 
does not come from the " beneficiaries " themselves can ever 
be wholly successful. It may be that the Cincinnati experi- 
ment has been instrumental in educating leaders in the 
neighborhood who can take over the organization when the 
National Social Unit Organization withdraws from the field 
entirely. At any rate, the real values can be known only if 
the experiment will continue without inspiration, nurture, 
and support from " without." 

The Week End 
at Connellsville 

ON Easter Sunday the first union meeting of miners 
in almost thirty years was held in Connellsville. 
The day before we had crossed the coke region of 
Pennsylvania by trolley from Brownsville on the 
Washington county line through Fayette County to Greens- 
burg in Westmoreland. All along the route we talked with 
whomsoever we fell in with — car conductors, miners, mine- 
officials and everywhere the news was the same. The 
mines we passed were " down," save for one group of the 
Frick properties — the Leisenring and Trotter mines at Con- 
nellsville, distinguished for their bulk of old employes. And 
then on Sunday this mass meeting in the very center of the 
operators' stronghold, with hundreds of men crowding the 
Slavic hall and well toward two hundred of them initiated 
into union membership at its close. 

What had puzzled me was how this thing was coming 
to pass in this of all times in this of all regions. It sounded 
like Hester Street hitting the sawdust trail or the Paulist 
Fathers stampeding a Baptist convention. For the old-time 
miner's organization was smashed her? in the strikes of '91 
and '94. The United States Steel Corporation, the greatest 
anti-union employer in the country, has drawn most of its 
coking coal from beneath the old up-land farms hereabouts. 
The H. C. Frick Coal and Coke Co., its subsidiary, is dom- 
inant here. The general report is that so little did the 
Steel Corporation anticipate any successful inroad upon the 
forbidden ground that it stored up little fuel in advance 
of the coal strike. With unemployment general through- 
out the country, with the bituminous industry hard hit, the 
organized districts especially so, with the union entering 
upon a defensive strike after a lean year and small pros- 
pect of strike relief, with, on the other hand, the coal mar- 
ket looking to the non-union districts for its strike-time sup- 
ply, and with the steel mills picking up, the coke region 
seemed to offer one of the few havens of secure employment. 
Why should unorganized men here be so foolhardy as to 
throw in their lot with the organized elsewhere? What 
uncanny force was it that was making mine water run up 
hill? The mine pumps of the Frick and Rainey compa- 
nies themselves. That was the impression I brought back 
with me from a week-end in the district, during which I 
did not essay anything that could be called an investigation 
but merely sought to get the feel of the situation. 

From miners, company officials, small tradespeople, the 
answer was the same. The companies had pressed the men 
too far. Their story was that twice last year the Frick 
Company made wage cuts. Three times the Rainey Com- 
pany tried it. An autocratic system of industrial manage- 
ment may work like a charm in a period of advancing 
wages. Men took manna from heaven of old. But in a 
period of falling prices and wages, an autocratic system 
has no organs for explaining the shortness of the manna 
crop, no safety valves for venting pent up feelings on the 
part of the men; nothing but the demand for labor else- 
where and their own common sense, to stay the hands of 
an administration that had briskly set about deflation. The 
temptation proved too great for the operators. With tens 
of thousands of miners idle in other fields, the coke compa- 
nies deflated their common sense along with their payrolls. 
" Three times in one year is a bit rapid," said a mine 
superintendent with a shrewd look of human understand- 
ing which went beyond his noncommittal words. The third 
wage reduction at the Rainey mines cut so deep that the 
men went out, struck for the Frick scale and organized mine 

April 22, 1922 



committees. The company soon saw it had gone too far. 
It granted the Frick scale and agreed to deal with the com- 
mittees. This was last summer. The United Mine Work- 
ers had nothing to do with it. It was a spontaneous local 
flare-up. But for the first time in years in the Connells- 
ville region it gave the miners a close-up object lesson of 
mutual reliance — in organization. Also of its weakness as 
a local contrivance; for in course of time, so the story runs, 
the Rainey people decided to get along without the com- 
mittees, and discharged the more active men as trouble 
breeders. Which was not altogether puffed up common- 
sense either ; for wherever these men found employment else- 
where in the district they spread the story of the strike, of 
how they had called a halt on a wage cut by getting to- 
gether, how they had been discharged for their pains after 
they had gone back. They naturally gravitated to other 
men who had had union experience in other districts. I 
ran across a young fellow from the organized field in Mary- 
land; an old unionist from Ohio who had been two years 
in the district; a pit boss who told of the men with soft 
hands that he had taken on from the outside in the past six 
months. It may be that this sort of immigration has been 
stimulated by the union but more likely it was for the most 
part just a drifting in from regions of closed mines to a 
field which held better chance for employment. At any 
rate, here on April 1, when the strike began, were live coals 
which needed little fanning. 

About them were banked smoldering elements of discon- 
tent and foreboding. Men with families were hard put to 
it to make ends meet on the deflated wages. The custom of 
the non-union region to pay by the car instead of by 
the ton, the conjecture and distrust as to what cars held, the 
absence of check-weighmen, the sense that the whole bargain 
and its execution was in the hands of the company entered 
in. During the period of high prices, some, at least, of the 
non-union operators of this district had paid higher wages 
by a fraction than the union scale. Then why join? The 
question was a stiff er ban on unionization than the whole 
espionage system of the Steel Corporation. But the bottom 
had dropped out of the objection, along with the bottom of 
the local wage scale. Came the depression and a glutted 
labor market; the incentive to hold men in the non-union 
field by as good or better wages was gone. The non-union 
miners had a foretaste of what it would mean if the union 
no longer set the pace in the mine labor market. It took no 
stretch of the imagination to see what would probably happen 
io them if the mine workers' organization with its 600,000 
members were crushed in the strike. That, at least, is the 
gospel of the union organizers who have penetrated the re- 
gion. It is their explanation of why the men have met them 
more than half way. That they have met them more than 
half way I can bear witness. 

My first contact with the process was in a little drab 
building, up the track a bit from the railroad station at West 
Brownsville, on the edge of the district. The upper floor 
was used as a meeting place ; the lower had been sublet to a 
cooperative grocery that had lately gone the way of all flesh. 
The coal fields of America are divided by the miners' organ- 
ization into districts; these into sub-districts; each mine is 
organized as a local. The sub-districts elect members of a 
district board; the districts, members of the national board; 
and there are international organizers. The organization 
is a flexible one, capable of throwing a group of experienced 
men into an organizing "front." From the headquarters of 
District No. 5 in Pittsburgh, such groups had been sent out 
to Brownsville to reach the Connellsville field and adjoin- 
ing territory in Greene and Washington counties ; another to 
Greensburg in Westmoreland which has been unorganized 
since the strike lost ten years ago. At Brownsville there are 
William Feeney, international organizer ; John O'Leary, na- 
tional board member of District 5, and William Hynes, dis- 

trict board member; with them, sub-district men and or- 
ganizers assigned from outside, together with volunteers from 
neighboring union mines. Early in the morning and again 
at dusk these men report back from various points in the 
field. One of them, a lean six-footer who had pulled out an 
entire mine in the heart of the Connellsville region early in 
the strike, told me how he came to do it as we sat on the 
porch of the little office that adjoins the store building. "You 
see Pap was a striker in the nineties. My people have been 
miners always. And the Frick people, they turned Pap 
and Mam out of their house into the road and wet — it was 
raining when they came to evict them. Mam, she was taken 
in by the people next door. She had a baby born in the 
cellar a few hours later. I was two years old then. You 
can bet I pulled the mine I work in. We don't forget. It's 
a Frick mine. So's the one my brother works in. That's 
down too. He was the baby." 

A LESS spectacular story, but more representative, was 
that of a short, determined young Irishman from a 
union mine down the river, who averaged $8.62 a day 
last year, when he worked, but he had only 76 days' work 
all last year. He had four children to support; and 
when, he said, the union operators thereabout posted a 
notice that day wages must be cut after April 1 
from $7.50 to $4.50, machine men, tonnage, from sev- 
enty-three to forty-six cents a ton and others in pro- 
portion, he could not see that there was a living in it for' 
the wife and children. He had organized the big Newtown 
mine which we could see from where we stood — its high 
tipple projecting over the river — a mine which had a tradi- 
tion of having been closed indefinitely by the operating com- 
pany, its village emptied, as a lesson to the striking miners 
of the district years ago. He had worked with the tenacity 
of an insurance agent for weeks, meeting men at night at 
drug stores and street corners, getting in touch with the few 
union men in the pit, and getting recruits over to a union 
meeting in the nearby organized field. The day the strike 
began, there was a procession at Brownsville of miners from 
the neighboring union mines, but according to his story they 
were headed off from approaching the Newtown mine by a 
force of armed deputies, a machine gun and what not. The 
barricade was effective so far as the procession was con- 
cerned; but the management was under-cut from the rear. 
Their own men went out. The organizers bank on an old 
piece of tactics. The union recruits show up for work with 
the rest. Then when the shift is assembled they chuck their 
jobs and call on the others to follow. If the move is suc- 
cessful, the mine is "pulled" then and there. 

The next morning we went to Crucible in Greene County, 
where two men had been beaten up by company deputies, and 
later lodged in the county jail. The union organizers had 
called on the sheriff to meet them at Crucible to investigate. 
The men, immigrants, claimed they had been peaceable 
enough and had been held up and driven back in attempting 
to leave the "patch" — the cluster of company houses on the 
hill above the mine. The Crucible Steel Company officials 
claimed there were a dozen of them who had come down as a 
demonstration to impress those who had stuck to their work 
and that they were violating the sheriff's proclamation which 
prohibited processions. 

There was no hall in Crucible, the sheriff had declared it 
illegal for more than three or five men to meet on the public 
road, so the Mine Workers' Union had leased a plot of 
ground with an ancient barn on it. Here that noon we at- 
tended a meeting of perhaps fifty miners and heard the 
doctrine of unionism fall on unfamiliar ears, along with 
counsel to keep the laws and the peace. The roof was 
broken in many places and the drizzle came through. The 
men were urged to get a ladder, mend the roof, set up some 
card tables, get some horseshoes, spade up the barnyard for 
{Continued on page 125) 

S. Josephine Baker, M.D. 

IN this season of dinners and receptions to men and wom- 
en who have given distinguished service to their country, 
or to everybody's country, one such meeting scheduled 
for April 25 is of peculiar significance. Scores of rep- 
resentatives of organizations and many outstanding individ- 
uals will come together to do honor to one who through 
twenty uninterrupted years has given the best that is within 
her to a public service. There are many who have joined 
in this tribute to Dr. S. Josephine Baker who can recall 
the days when there was no Bureau of Child Hygiene in 
the Department of Health of New York City, or in fact 
anywhere in any city. They will recall, and doubtless there 
will be many reminiscences exchanged, and more than one 
person will say "Plucky woman!" "Plucky Doctor!" "De- 
voted servant of the children!" Those who cannot ex- 
change reminiscences will be interested to know how she 
came about and how the Bureau of Child Hygiene came 

To begin with, Dr. Baker was not a doctor when she 
was born in Poughkeepsie, but early in life she corrected 
that omission and entered the Women's Medical College 
of the New York Infirmary for Women and Children. 
After graduation from that college she further prepared 
herself for practice by spending a year as interne in the 
New England Hospital for Women and Children. That 
led her up to the fall of 1899, and she continued as a prac- 
ticing physician until 1914. Meanwhile, in October 1901, 
Dr. Baker's career in the New York City Department of 
Health began as a school medical inspector, and she has 
served in that capacity and a good many others within the 
department in the twenty years that have followed. Her 
familiarity with the details of the department made her 
logically an "assistant to the commissioner of health," then 
Dr. Thomas Darlington. But in December 1908 there was 
created a Bureau of Child Hygiene, interesting and his- 
torically important because it marked a departure in the 
recognition of the functions of the Department of Health 
of New York City. 

The Bureau of Child Hygiene declared itself then as 
responsible for preserving the health of children as well as 
combatting disease, contagious and otherwise. Though 
such a brief time has elapsed since the creation of this 
bureau, the first in the world, thirty-five other states have 
followed the example, and nearly every city of importance 
has created a similar "bureau, often modeled closely upon 
New York's pattern. Dr. Baker became "chief" of this 
bureau, though in the meantime her title has been altered 
to that of director, and her entire time since 191 4 has been 
devoted to this municipal work for children. Dr. Baker 
and the bureau are so closely interwoven in the minds of 
students of preventive health measures that the history of 
one is essentially the history of the other. 

In the days before the Bureau of Child Hygiene (1908), 
service to babies consisted of the employment of a summer 
corps of physicians. The work was necessarily superficial 
and practically only touched those who were seriously ill 
or conspicuously neglected. The policy of the department 
changed with the creation of the bureau and the employment 
of nurses, those unmatched field agents in the practice of 
preventive medicine. A policy of utilizing them — in so 
far as size of staff permitted — started with sending the 
nurse to the home as soon as the birth certificate was re- 
corded to give the mother necessary instruction how to keep 
her baby well. So far as we know, this was the first attempt 
on the part of a municipality to give preventive education 
in baby saving. The New York bureau makes intelligent 
use of the trained public health nurse who, as a matter of 
fact, might be called the ancestor of the bureau, since her 
employment (1902) was begun to help the physicians in 

the schools to deal with the contagious eye and skin diseases ; 
she followed up the school work by visits to the home, in- 
structing the mothers in the hygiene of their children and 
tactful instruction in the treatment as well as the prevention 
of the unpleasant diseases that afflict the youngsters. New- 
York may well be proud of its record in this respect — the 
first municipalized school nurse in the world accepted by 
the Board of Estimate and Apportionment as a justifiable 
charge to the city, and by the Department of Health as an 
integral part of its work. Dr. Baker's opportunity to ap- 
praise the value of these field workers and her vision of an 
educational department with teachers in the homes for health 
preservation, was an important factor in extending the 
sphere of influence of the public health nurse under city 
control — the world over. 

It would require a page or two to record the various 
activities of the bureau related to the health of children from 
before their birth to adolescence — in so far as a municipality 
may function for them — but a summary of these activities 
indicates the variety of the bureau's opportunities: 
Supervision and control of midwives; 
Reduction of infant mortality by means of 

(a) Prenatal instruction of mothers; 

(b) Establishment of baby health stations; 

(c) Little Mothers Leagues; 

(d) Educational propaganda; 

Supervision of foundling babies placed out to board ; 
Physical examination of children of pre-school age; 
Supervision of day nurseries and institutions for dependent children; 
Health supervision and health inspection of school children, includ- 
ing maintenance of dental clinics, refraction clinics, clinics for 
treatment of contagious eye diseases and supervision of special 
classes for crippled, partially-sighted and other handicapped 
Physical examination of children in connection with issuance of 
employment certificates, in accordance with the provisions of the 
Child Labor Law. 
The bureau maintains sixty-eight baby health stations that 
serve about sixty thousand babies each year and, in round 
numbers, one million school children who come under the 
care of the doctors and nurses in the public and parochial 
schools. Last year's budget was $989,328 which covered 
the cost of some six hundred employes. Since the estab- 
lishment of the bureau, the baby death rate in New York 
city has fallen from 144 deaths under one year of age per 
thousand births in 1907 to 71.1 per thousand in 1921. Not- 
withstanding the increase in the population of the city, there 
were actually 7,889 fewer deaths of babies under one year 
of age in 192 1 than there were in 1907. The reduction of 
the infant death rate during this period has resulted in a 
total saving of 82,549 baby lives. 

Dr. Baker, having accomplished much, naturally wants 
much more. Let us hope that the budget will be increased 
to a figure more nearly in keeping with the pressing need 
of the city for more nurses in the schools, smaller units of 
population per nurse, more doctors at the service of the 
children, extended care of women during pregnancy, and 
prenatal clinics for rich and poor. 

Through the tw r enty years of Dr. Baker's service she has 
been associated with commissioners Darlington, Lederle, 
Goldwater, Emerson, Amster and Copeland. Many other 
communities have availed themselves of Dr. Baker's talent 
as a speaker and her prestige to push legislation for the 
nation's babies, and to help establish better work in other 

It is pleasant to record the importance of the task ac- 
complished and the quality of the service rendered by Dr. 
Baker, and the recognition of it at this time when her ardor 
is unabated and her vigor undiminished — when we can 
hopefully anticipate twenty more years (at least) of service 
to the children and through them a brighter future. 

Lillian D. Wald. 

Music Hath Power 

By Ellen Amey 

A RARE opportunity came to me to study the influ- 
ence of music. It fascinated me and yielded a won- 
derful compensation. From March 24, 1919, to 
November 28, 192 1, I held the position of music 
director in the New York State Reformatory for Women 
at Bedford Hills. No more stormy period in the history 
of an American institution of its kind could have been 

Music is a force powerful enough to attract and hold 
attention. This observation is potent in claiming a place for 
it in the diversion of children, the wayward, the sick and 
those mentally unbalanced. The restless child is quieted and 
soothed by the lullaby of the mother. Physical suffering often 
yields to the influence of music. I taught for years in a room 
adjoining that of a woman hopelessly crippled and helpless 
from rheumatism. She averred that her pain-racked body 
felt less pain when she heard the music. Her relief lay in the 
fact that her mind was taken from her bodily suffering. 
Music will also stay and divert an evil intent, as it has often 
done at Bedford. An altercation between two girls arose at 
a motion picture. At the end of a reel the quarrel spread and 
general disorder seemed imminent. The loud voices, oaths 
and the shoving of chairs and the strained, tense faces as I 
glanced about gave every indication of a critical moment. I 
had a feeling that I could catch the impulse and sway tbe 
crowd. I slid into the seat at the piano, pushing aside a girl 
who had been playing. After a brilliant introduction I began 
Carolina Sunshine, giving the usual signal to sing and at the 
same time urging a vociferous response. At the end of the 
piece every girl was sitting quietly and singing. 

Why this all-compelling force ? The power of music over 
•most of us is triple in nature. Music is made up from three 
different elements, or distinctly different parts, and each of 
these finds a response in its corresponding part of our being. 
Rhythm appeals to the physical, melody to the intellectual 
and harmony to the spiritual. The most perfect music, like 
the most perfect human being, is that in which these parts 
are equally developed. In most of us response comes quickest 
to the rhythm. Where we find that element alone, or in 
music where it predominates, there is an appeal to the physi- 
cal only. Whether this is harmful or inspiring depends upon 
the picture it brings to the individual, but the appeal is for 
action. The rhythmical beat of the drum will carry to their 
death, if need be, men trained in military service, because it 
is associated with honor and courageous deeds. 

To many the jazz music of the present time has been in- 
explicable. A writer of an article on Africa claims that it 
is an importation from that continent; that it is an adapta- 
tion of the music used at the orgies of African tribes to incite 
the baser passions. In it we find the three elements with 
rhythm strongly predominating. The melody, more or less 
incoherent, is allowed to penetrate occasionally the harmony, 
which rivals a barnyard medley. Undefined and senseless in 
melody and harmony, it is wild music for "wild" men and 
women, and a spontaneous response would be vulgar action. 
Whether or not the influence is baleful depends upon the in- 
dividual. It is lasting and positive either to fascinate or 
repel. On the other hand, a combination of the three ele- 
ments of music that impels graceful and rhythmical action 
from sheer enjoyment of motion to music always exerts a 
wholesome influence over the individual, whether it is used 
for dancing or physical training. 

The mythical Pied Piper of Hamelin Town knew the 

trick of combining a ravishingly beautiful melody with an 
alluring rhythm that carried dancing feet to the mountain- 
side. As narrated in Browning's legend the message through 
the melody was unmistakable, and the action impelled was 
like that of innocent childhood chasing butterflies in and out 
among flowers in a glorious sunlight. 

Harmony, in its appeal to the spiritual, holds and grips. 
With the full tones of a great organ in a chord passage, one 
may not catch the message through the melody; the rhythm 
may be unfelt; the spellbound attitude and the surging emo- 
tions, however, cannot be mistaken. 

Music through its different elements is infinite in variety. 
It can be made to express the whole gamut of human emo- 
tions and in its appeal it can reach all human beings. Its 
influence will be felt in different ways and degrees, for the 
response of the individual will be determined by his nature 
and training and the mood in which the appeal finds him as 
well as by the music chosen for presentation. 

As an art music aims to express and excite feeling. The 
play upon the emotions must influence one for good or evil. 
The greatest and most lasting good to the individual, how- 
ever, is through the self-expression of inspired feeling. Every 
being is longing for expression, and song is one of the most 
natural channels. There are few of us who have not voice 
enough to give expression in rhythmical melody to a feeling 
that might become repressed or find a less wholesome outlet. 

Community Singing 

Community singing under favorable conditions and proper 
direction can be made a most wholesome and enjoyable 
recreation. In matter of entertainment it can do the greatest 
amount of good to the greatest number of individuals. The 
acceptable rendition of a song or solo requires that the singer 
have more or less vocal training. Trio and quartette work 
requires a sound musicianship in addition to the vocal train- 
ing. For glee club work there must be a careful selection of 
voices which are coupled with some musical training, or an 
ability to qualify musically. In community singing where 
hundreds of voices mingle as one big instrument, no special 
vocal training is necessary. For smaller choruses of an insti- 
tution, church or school, however, some work in the way of 
breathing, placing tones and taking high notes will per- 
ceptibly improve the quality of the tone in general and insure 
truer pitch and better phrasing. 

The community chorus is the outgrowth of the old- 
fashioned "singing school." The singing class of our great- 
grandmother's time was instructive as well as recreational, 
probably because of the few opportunities for- the study of the 
science of music. As few villages could boast of a local con- 
ductor, these classes were usually taught and conducted by 
itinerant musicians who, carrying a violin, drove or walked 
from village to village, visiting each in turn. The foundation 
for our musical growth was thus laid, and the spirit of 
friendly emulation between small organizations or singing 
societies showed the influence of these in making a happy and 
united people. 

When we found ourselves plunged into the greatest war 
in history and faced social chaos, the separation of relatives 
and friends and the breaking up of homes, it was a singing, 
smiling and united people that met the obligations of those 
dark days. It was early recognized that there must be a 
strong force for inspiration to keep up the morale of the 
army. With one common impulse community choruses were 




April 22, 1922 

started all over the country. They became a part of camp 
and army life, and they were generally recognized as a 
national institution. Many musicians gave their services to 
further this work; others were paid by private individuals. 
Whatever the case, the work was well done, for the songs of 
our choruses here became an outburst of suppressed feeling 
that carried our boys over the top as they went singing to 
their destiny. What singing has done for the army and navy 
it can do for the community, the institution and the indi- 

Who shall say that music, from the songs of our choruses 
to the military music of our bands, was not a factor in win- 
ning the war ? The musician had his share in the great strug- 
gle. What greater patriot than that veteran band master and 
composer, John Philip Sousa? He knew the influence of his 
art and he understood the part he and his fellow musicians 
were to take. It was for them to arouse the enthusiasm of 
the people, to call forth the manhood in men as they followed 
the Stars and Stripes and to make hearts lighter, steps firmer 
and eyes brighter. Sousa's messages through his march music 
were always coherent. They were given out in pure melody 
in a swinging march rhythm which allowed neither sloven 
action nor slouch step. The spirit of such music is the em- 
bodiment of manliness and courage, and it excites these quali- 
ties in the individual. 

Institutional Music 

Thus having traced the influence of music through its dif- 
ferent elements, we may ask: What part should it fill in in- 
stitutions, and in what form may it become a vital part of 
the training given there? 

As I have observed girls and women of the wayward class 
and those of Bedford, I find a large per cent are psychopathic 
cases; these recognize no restraint; they have no self-control. 
Unstable and emotional, they seem to blow hither and yon 
following first this impulse and then another. They are look- 
ing for anything that will give them pleasure. These facts 
make them easy subjects for musical influence. The smaller 
proportion of these women appear crushed as those who have 
had few opportunities and have suffered abuse or injustice. 
To such, music comes as a boon, because it opens up a great 
well of feeling and causes a relaxation that brings relief to 
tense nerves that have reacted on the body. These women 
are to be reached in large numbers in the shortest length of 
time. Singing is the medium, the first wedge to be used in 
their social uplift. Songs for the religious service of their 
preference, Roman Catholic, Protestant or Jewish, patriotic 
songs, old and new home songs and the popular songs of the 
day should be sung by the big choruses. Smaller choruses 
should be organized for glee club work, and there should be 
individual vocal training where it seems advisable. I find 
many worth while voices; I find, too, many girls who should 
have individual work for other reasons. 

The community chorus of an institution should embrace all 
within reach. The singing should be considered recreational 
and made as enjoyable as circumstances will allow. Relaxa- 
tion there must be. With this class of women, however, this 
diversion should be so elastic that the strings may be tight- 
ened without a visible or perceptible force, when spontaniety 
and boisterousness show a tendency to border on rowdyism. 
To make music a successful agent in working for reformation 
two points must be considered; these are diametrically op- 
posed and lie in the hands of the director. Some music must 
be chosen for a natural outlet of high spirits and some for the 
exercise of a repression that is voluntary self-control. Work- 
ing in either direction a chorus must learn to give attention 
at a signal, to be alert and to make a concerted attack ; this 
will insure the ability to follow the baton for tempo and 
rhythm and to catch the cue for expression. The music must 
be chosen and given out so that the individual can make a 

mental picture of the situation she is to express. In this way 
the song and all that makes it beautiful is the result of volun- 
tary self-control which is exercised to conform to a picture 
the singer has in her mind. 

Every piece in the typed folder used for our popular songs 
at Bedford was a favorite. Sometimes it was the subject of 
the song, sometimes the text; more often it was the rhythm 
and melody that caused the response. In some selections I 
traced it to the combination. The choice of music made it 
easy to obtain a variety of effects. The following list will 
show that even in the choice of their music a refining influ- 
ence had reflected upon these natures. Possibly some inherent 
qualities had been brought to the surface. On examination, 
most of the numbers will be found to portray a wholesome 
sentiment, for the coarser style of popular music was volun- 
tarily ignored: Lullaby Time, Hiawatha's Melody of Love, 
That Old Irish Mother of Mine, My Isle of Golden 
Dreams, Patches, Hawaiian Bluebird, What a Wonderful 
Pal You Are, Down The Trail To Home Sweet Home, 
Love's Old Sweet Song, Look For the Silver Lining, Vene- 
tian Moon and A Perfect Day. We had a long list of pa- 
triotic pieces. Among these were Jordan's Native Land, Kip- 
ling's Recessional to the music by de Koven, Democracy, 
Keller's American Hymn and O Victory Bells, besides all 
the usual and better known songs of this class. The women 
knew the national anthems of the different countries. The 
beautiful Stephen Foster melodies had to be eliminated for a 
time on account of racial feeling that exhibited itself so 
strongly at the time of the riot in July, 1920. For the same 
reason I did not attempt to introduce any of the Spirituals. 

I could write a volume on the glee club, choir and indi- 
vidual singing. My glee club at its best did wonderful work ; 
it sang many of the best two-, three- and four-part songs 
written for women's voices. The girls admitted to this class 
were always of the better type and had qualities that made 
them eligible for the selected choruses. This work was very 
enjoyable to me and to my musical friends who assisted us in 
our concerts. Through the individual training I was able to 
obtain a hold on these girls that helped me in many a difficult 
situation. This feeling of a personal interest in them, with 
their perceptible improvement in singing and the influence of 
the beautiful, which I was able to adjust to the needs of the 
girl, was a triple force that aided many a weak will, brought 
a wholesome enjoyment hitherto unknown and opened up 
avenues of resourcefulness. 

What is " Popular " Music? 

I had very beautiful solo singing, but this necessitated a 
course in training. Several girls sang at different times 
Gounod's Ave Maria with violin obligato ; it was one of our 
most impressive religious numbers. Millard's Father of 
Mercies and Gounod's Adore and Be Still are other church 
solos we used. Smart's The Lord Is My Shepherd was a 
favorite duet number. At the last Jewish atonement service 
one of the Jewish girls with a big contralto voice sang an 
arrangement of that old Hebrew melody, Eli, Eli. We had 
concerts now and then, plays with interpolations of beautiful 
and appropriate music, and my Catholic girls have given the 
music for High Mass. In one play I used Habanera from the 
opera Carmen, Gypsy Love Song from Herbert's Fortune 
Teller, Home to Our Mountains from II Trovatore and I 
Dreamt I Dwelt In Marble Halls from Bohemian Girl ; at 
another time a glee club number was Mendelssohn's The 
Lord Is Mindful Of His Own. I found that all were fond 
of my violin; they would wait in quiet expectancy when they 
saw me reach for it. For this reason I wrote and arranged 
special parts for this instrument and used my violin in many 
of their songs and chorus numbers. The wonder of it is this: 
These girls, the majority of whom have frequented dance 
halls, cabarets and cheap shows where they hear little music 

April 22, 1922 



besides the jazz, recognize the beautiful in the best music an<jl 
sooner or later fall under its spell. They would listen some- 
times with jaws dropped and a far-away look in their eyes. 
I knew then that the musical atmosphere had worked a 

How are the girls prepared to accomplish all this? To the 
layman the work would appear impossible. Their voices are 
for the most part shrill or forced and throaty and have no 
resonance. Sometimes they are off pitch, singing sharp or flat. 
They possess all the faults of intolerable singing with slovenly 
rhythm and lagging tempo that remind me of their charac- 
teristic walk. The breathing, too, is almost always poor. Few 
have any knowledge of musical notation. They are not stu- 
dents; they lack the ability for concentrated thought. The 
result of a little training in tone production, proper breath- 
ing and conservation of breath or breath control, however, 
has been a revelation to me. These same voices have come out 
clear and beautiful, and they have given joy to the listeners. 
It is not usual to find a self-consciousness that mars. On the 
contrary, an audience in most cases seems to give inspiration. 
It is to be remarked that these girls show less self-conscious- 
ness than girls having more reserve. In singing as in every- 
thing else they fearlessly follow an impulse. A teacher cannot 
take too much credit for results obtained, for they seem to 
have latent talents that are awakened and glow by a touch. 

What is all this worth to the individual for whose recla- 
mation we are working? How deep does this influence 
strike root? How does it manifest itself? Hardly a week 
passed without some demonstration. I will give a few 
instances. In answer to my call for voice trial there came 
to me from the primary classroom a woman who until very 
recently could neither read nor write. I had previously been 
told that she was a wife and the mother of four children. 
Her hair was carelessly arranged and her dress torn and only 
partly fastened. She was marked a drug addict by the 
apathetic look in the eyes. After trying tones and showing 
her how to produce them and how to breathe properly, all 
the while getting very little response, I told her we would 
try a song. I played America and then repeated the words. 
When I began to sing, to my surprise she caught the words 
and sang with me. After we had finished, a wonderful look 
came into the dull eyes as she exclaimed with much feeling, 
" I am so happy. My children sing that song. Now I can 
sing it with them when I go back." When she left the 
room her shoulders were thrown back and her gait had lost 
some of its slouch. Her teacher told me she came back 
happy and that before the morning had passed she mended 
her dress and fixed the fasteners. She had evidently found 
new courage. 

The superintendent who engaged me for this work was 
known to believe in a rigid discipline and to enforce it. She 
told me, however, in an early conversation, that she expected 

me and the music to assist her in reducing the number of 
punishments. With this in mind I watched for difficult 
cases that I thought might be influenced by music. I found 
among the four hundred or more girls one who appeared 
highly psychopathic. The fine physique seemed ready to 
burst with conflicting emotions; her arms bore jagged scars 
which showed how she had attempted to destroy her life. 
She was one of the first sent to me. I found she possessed 
a beautiful voice, a lyric soprano of wonderful quality. For 
the remainder of her time at Bedford I watched her and 
worked with her to keep her under the influence of music 
which she loved. Her music arid her interest in her com- 
mercial class are known to have been the only means by 
which she was controlled. She repaid our efforts for her 
by her beautiful singing. While she was in the institution 
she wrote to me: 

I want to thank you for your kindness, but I do not suppose I 
can ever thank you enough. I thought that I could never sing 
again when I came up here, and for almost eight months I could 
not sing. I went to chapel but I could not sing. I have you to thank. 

Does such a woman forget? Here is an extract from a 
letter written by this girl when out on parole: 

O, how lonesome I have been for the wonderful hours that were 
spent in glee club and choir singing I Night and day I think of 
those happy hours. ... I am lonesome for our music. I long 
many times to return though I hate the place itself and what it 
reminds me of. Still I would have gone back many a dreary day 
when I have thought of my happy hours there. . . . God bless 
you and bring you all the success and happiness the world possesses 
for your kindness and the cheer you brought many a lonesome heart 
at Bedford. 

Here is an instance where a burst of gratitude came in 
the presence of girls. A broken parole girl of the Catholic 
chorus asked at the close of a rehearsal whether we were 
to have High Mass at Christmas. Moved by strong feeling 
she told in a few simple words how the memory of the 
service of the year before had come to her last Christmas 
when she was out on parole. She said she longed to be back 
where she could have a part in the service and hear again 
that beautiful music for the mass. She turned to the girls 
and what she said held them spellbound. She told them 
they did not appreciate what was done for them ; that when 
they left here they would know what she meant. She said 
she was careless, indifferent and unappreciative, but that her 
experience had made her a changed woman, and that her 
eyes had been opened to the kindness of the officers and the 
advantages of the place. 

Through music we can teach these women devotion to 
God and their country, if anything can reach them. We 
can awaken within them a longing for the beautiful and we 
can arouse ambition. Is the influence lasting? Who shall 
say? We have at least given them a beautiful memory that 
will follow them as long as reason lasts. What more can 
be done? 

The Quest 

By Samuel J. Looker 

I HAVE no part in this insurgent hour 
Of hurried wasted toil that men call life, 
Nor for their shows, or pomp, or crested power, 
I care in sooth, nor trouble in their strife; 
For I have loved far other things than these, 
Even from my earliest days a rebel, I 
Sought with a yearning heart and mind to seize 
The subtle shape of Beauty passing by. 
In youth I dreamed apart from all the world 
And questioned with a thousand things of earth, 
As joyous birds, a glowing rose, the skies empearled, 
These held for me the secrets of true mirth, 
And pondered long on that divine unrest, 
Which trembles in the heart, a welcome guest. 


Conducted by 

Engines of Progress 

IN the most verbal meaning of the word, it is engines 
for which the progress of many rural districts in Amer- 
ica is waiting today. If any one were to get up at 
a meeting to defend in a lengthy speech the thesis 
that social contacts make for progress and that people 
in out-of-the-way farms and homesteads are apt to be 
backward, his audience would yawn over such common- 
places. Yet it requires a lively imagination to visualize 
all the steps that are needed to bring about such con- 
tacts in the most effective and economical way. This 
is not a question only of cheapening flivvers, of im- 
proving roads, of installing party telephones. Clar- 
ence Arthur Perry, associate director of the Russell 
Sage Foundation Recreation Department, in a report to the 
American Country Life Association last fall, showed that 
the very planning of the farms and, to some extent, reor- 
ganization of farm management must be part of any scheme 
of rural socialization, or " communitization " as he calls 
it, that is to get the maximum benefit for the individual 
farmer or farm woman. His paper starts out with an accu- 
rate observation of the difference between the farm well 
served with means of coming and going and the farm that 
is not: 

While passing over a little-traveled back road in central New 
York some years ago, I was struck by the run-down appearance of 
the houses, the neglected yards and the rickety barns with their 
threadbare roofs. The farms lacked not only the things money can 
buy, but the trimness that requires merely a little labor at odd 
times. What showed was more a poverty of spirit than of purse. 
On the other hand, along the main road, not far distant — where 
the dust of continual traffic drew a smudgy line across the land- 
scape — the lawns were trim, the barns painted, and all the gate* 
hung upright and precise in their places. The workers were more 
visible, more alert and more enterprising. 

The differences which distinguished the people on the back road 
from those on the main road were due to a number of factors, 
among which, I have no doubt, fertility of soil, accessibility to 
market and the consequent settlement by abler and more successful 
families counted in favor of the inhabitants along the more trav- 
eled thoroughfare. At the same time, granting that there were in- 
tellectual differences in the classes which originally settled along 
these two roads, the point I want to make is that ever since their 
occupation they have been subject to differences of psychical environ- 
ment which in time would certainly produce intellectual inequali- 

ties, if they did not originally exist, and increase them since then if 
they did. 

Assuming agreement on the premises, then, what is to 
be done about it? Mr. Perry points out that the automo- 
bile or the two-seater does not ordinarily suffice to serve the 
needs of the whole family for conveyance. As a rule only 
one member of the family knows how to drive, and the rest 
cannot get around unless they take " father " or Bill along 
with them. In our cities public transportation systems have 
become so much a matter of course that it is difficult for 
city dwellers to put themselves in the place of people who 
have neither street car nor bus to take them into town or 
to a grocery store two miles away. Interurban lines and 
rural automobile buses — often used in connection with con- 
solidated school systems — have done not a little to over- 
come distances. But, Mr. Perry points out, homes are 
often so placed that it is impossible to make a bus route pay 
and to conduct it on a regular scbedule. So far as settled 
countrysides are concerned, this hindrance to a fuller sociali- 
zation cannot easily be overcome. But in farm districts to 
be newly developed there are possibilities of planning homes 
in relation not only to agricultural management but also to 
the demands for easy transit. 

The success of the California land settlement scheme and 
the development of farm lands on a large scale in certain 
parts of the South, says Mr. Perry, make this an opportune 
time to reconsider rural planning from the point of view 
of transportation. He therefore presents a number of sug- 
gestive lay-outs within the frame of the traditional Ameri- 
can land division which, of course, are not offered as com- 
plete solutions of the problem — too many topographical fac- 
tors necessarily enter into it to make any one plan practic- 
able everywhere — but which might well form the basis for 
such plans wherever new settlement areas are opened up. 

Of the two diagrams here reproduced, one represents a 
quarter of a lay-out for the development of ioo square miles, 
showing the division into farms mainly of 150 acres, and 
the railroad system that connects them with the central vil- 
lage; the other shows a quarter of a ioosquare mile de- 
velopment with farms mainly of 640 acres (a square mile) 















/\ % 

/ % \ 












* s£/»/ 



J* 1 



April 22, 1922 



each. A few of the farms in the diagram to the left are 
300 acres or more; the size decreases to that of truck gar- 
dens of 10 or 20 acres close to the village. The total num- 
ber of farms within the 100 square miles is 520; and they 
are served by 102.8 miles of railroad in eight systems. 
Counting five persons to a farm, the population served by 
this system outside the village would be 2,600 persons, 
tl The single railroad system in the diagram to the right 
o connects all the farms with the central village. Mr. Perry 
tl suggests a number of variations of this scheme, but the one 
h; reproduced gives a sufficient idea of the main trend of his 
as thought. With 47 farms in 20 square miles, again counting 
uj 5 persons to the farm, this railroad of 13^ miles would 
sv serve a population of 235 persons, not counting the residents 
in the village. 

Mr. Perry does not, of course, take it for granted that a 
railroad is the only form of transportation to be considered, 
but he argues at length for the light railway as the most 
suitable means of locomotion as against the automobile and 
the motor truck. Space does not permit us to follow in detail 
his calculations, as to the type of service the proposed rail- 
roads might render, the time occupied in travel and the 
economic advantages of such a system for the development, 
not only of agriculture and a better social life generally, but 
also of rural industries. He does, however, make very large 
claims for the light railway as a paying concern where other 
modes of locomotion would not pay. He says : 

From the standpoint of community resources as a whole, there 
would be less expenditure upon transportation because the waste 
which comes from idleness of the wagons and trucks of the different 
families would be largely eliminated. Each farmer would purchase 
only the amount of haulage he needed. There would be a salving 
of labor, since the farmer would not have to send a driver to 
town each time he sent a load. One engine driver would serve 
many families. 

Railway locomotives require fuel only when in operation, while 
horses consume fuel all the time, whether at work or not. Railway 
roadbeds can be kept in condition with less labor than the dirt 
roads used by vehicular traffic, since in the case of the railway the 
points of contact between the moving load and the ground are more 
effectively metalled and are therefore more durable and require less 
labor for up-keep. Railroads can be more easily kept open during 
winter seasons because of the snow-removing machinery which is 
available, and under regular community operation such roads would 
ordinarily be kept open more continuously than dirt roads usually 
are during the winter months in the northern regions. 

Mr. Perry continues to describe the narrow gauge type of 
railroad which has done so much to develop densely settled 
agricultural regions in Europe — especially in Belgium — and 
which he considers the most suitable for this service. His 
own experience with this type, during the war, has been 
shared by many Americans who speak of it with enthusiasm. 

The experience of the United States army with narrow gauge 
railways in France was so satisfactory that the engineer branch 
of the army prepared full specifications for the installation of light 
railway systems in the national army cantonments, to take the place 
of motor truck transportation. The engineers computed that, using 
soldier labor and figuring on the basis of the average cantonment, 
the haulage (which amounted to about 20 tons per 1,000 men daily) 
with the motor truck, cost eleven cents per ton mile, and with the 
light railway only two cents per ton mile. 

Whether in this comparison sufficient allowance was made 
for the special difficulties of road transportation in war time, 
when there is often neither time nor labor to improve a road 
system and the wear on trucks is exceptional in consequence, 
may be open to question. Indeed, the financial pro and 
con, as between railway and truck haulage, has never been 
weighed with sufficient accuracy to make any statement con- 
cerning the superiority of the one over the other altogether 
trustworthy. Automobile interests, for instance, frequently 
publish figures intended to demonstrate the cheapness of road 
transportation which make little or no allowance for the cost 
of road up-keep which happens to fall not on road users but 
on the whole community and which, moreover, cannot be 
measured with any completeness. The relative cheapness of 

gasoline and other fuels, the existing road systems, the geo- 
logical and topographical nature of the ground, the amount 
of traffic and the probable speed of land and industrial de- 
velopments are other factors that enter into the calculation 
and make no two cases alike. 

Mr. Perry's scheme, however, has this important advan- 
tage in comparison with which many other differences be- 
come insignificant, that if undertaken on a community basis, 
the beneficial effect on land values would directly benefit 
those who owned and operated the system. In other words, 
the cost of construction and operation would be met by the 
enhanced value the system gives ^to the farms. In the past 
nearly every project for light railway promotion has been se- 
verely handicapped by the inability of the promotors to se- 
cure toward the cost of the undertaking the unearned in- 
crement added to the lands benefited. Under Mr. Perry's 
scheme this give and take would act automatically. 

Not only that — and we are here enumerating only the 
advantages of his proposed scheme, aware, as he is, that on 
the other side there is also much to be said for the freedom 
of operation which individual ownership of means of trans- 
portation gives to the farmer — -but by a planning of home- 
steads which includes the all-important factor of transit 
social life in the country can be firmly established on a sound 
economic basis. He says : 

The promoting body could offer farms on an entirely new basis. 
Each farmer would have to provide himself only with the machinery 
and motor power required to work his own farm and haul his 
produce to the railway platform on his own land. . . . Under 
the new system, a farmer would not at first be able to go anywhere 
at any time, but He would be able to go with greater regularity and 
with less trouble to the place where it was most important for him 
to go. 

The village center of the plan would of necessity become a 
real community center where, in addition to facilities for buy- 
ing and purchasing, the farmer would find, grouped around 
the village green, school and community hall, his church and 
his bank, the post office and any other public building or co- 
operative establishment for the use of all. The village itself, 
by careful and artistic planning, could be made more attrac- 
tive and inspiring as a nucleus of social life than the average 
country town that has grown up anyhow without provision 
for either the present or the future needs of the countryside 
it serves. 

Where Working Women Live 

IT has long been pointed out that the social evil has a di- 
rect relation not only to low wages and long, exhausting 
hours of work, but also to the surroundings in which the 
self-supporting woman spends her leisure hours. It is not sur- 
prising, therefore, that the Bureau of Social Hygiene, of 
New York, after previous exhaustive studies of prostitution 
and the white slave traffic and of the occupational conditions 
that make for sexual laxity, has come to regard the housing 
conditions of women and girls as a subject deserving equally 
penetrating investigation. Under the guidance of its experi- 
enced general secretary, Katherine Bement Davis, the bureau 
has just completed a study of Housing Conditions of Em- 
ployed Women in the Borough of Manhattan and issued a 
full report on it which can be obtained from the bureau at 
370 Seventh Avenue, New York. By personal visits and in- 
quiry, an earlier inquiry made by the Y. W. C. A. was 
brought up to date; the principal rooms registries which se- 
cure lodgings for women were interviewed; and selected 
groups of employed women were asked to answer a ques- 
tionnaire relating not only to their actual housing but also 
to their preferences, salaries, cost of living, age and depend- 
ents. Nearly ten thousand fairly full replies were received, 
coming from women in factories, stores, offices, shops, schools, 
libraries and other places. A special study was made of em- 
ployed colored women; and suggestive experiments in the 



April 22, 1922 

provision of homes, both self-supporting and assisted, were 
fully investigated. Some of the main findings may here be 
briefly summarized: 

The increase in the number and accommodation of non-commercial 
organized homes for women in Manhattan has not kept pace with 
the demand since 1915, and all of them have long waiting lists. 
Only 1 per cent of the women who replied to the question of their 
present housing lived in such homes; while 19 per cent of those 
who stated their preferences would like to live in them. 

During 1920, over 19,000 women applied to the three largest 
rooms registries in the city, more than three-quarters of them to 
the branches of the Y. W. C. A. The average price paid for room 
by those placed by the central branch was $7.46, the most frequent 
$7. The average rent paid by applicants to the Young Women's 
Hebrew Association was only $6.25, $5 the most frequent. In both 
cases, the figures are less than the corresponding figures for all 
women employed in stores, offices and factories, including those who 
found rooms by other means, the mode for which is the astonishingly 
high figure of $10 (explained in part by the fact that they include 
more rooms temporarily occupied by girls recently come to New 

One-half of the women, although employed in Manhattan, lived 
outside the borough. 

One-half of them reported having dependents. Sixty-nine per cent 
lived with their families. (Of 5,293 women working in fifteen 
department stores, 79 per cent lived with their families.) Nineteen 
per cent of those not living with their families lived in housekeeping 
apartments; and 63 per cent of those who did not would prefer to 
do so if they could afford it. 

The most frequent rent paid by teachers and professional women 
was the same as that paid by workers in shops, offices and factories, 
namely $10, but the average was nearly $4 higher. 

Colored women on an average pay $2 a week less than white 
working women; nearly one-half of those studied were transients. 
The percentage of them having dependents is the same. 

Many other interesting results are stated in tabular and 
statistical form or are presented in terse paragraphs with- 
out any attempt at picturing what they mean in physical com- 
fort and influences on the emotional life of these important 
groups of workers. A few conclusions, however, stand out 
which may best be given in the words of the report : 

Notwithstanding the admirable and at this time undoubtedly 
necessary work done by Organized and subsidized homes, this method 
of caring for employed girls is economically unsound. Even were 
it desirable to meet the housing situation in this way, it would be 
absolutely impossible to secure benefactions adequate to the needs. 

Rooms registries are a most important agency in making available 
to the employed woman clean, comfortable and safe quarters. They 
likewise serve a useful purpose in bringing respectable lodgers to 
householders who are in a position to rent one or more rooms as 
well as valuable to professional rooming-house keepers. They are 
as yet in no case even approximately self-supporting. They need 
further standardization, cooperation and, above all, publicity. Many 
a girl who has been led by newspaper advertisements to take a room, 
undesirable from considerations of both health and morals, has not 
known of the existence of such a helpful agency. 

Undoubtedly further development will lead to reduction of costs, 
but for the immediate future they must be supported largely by 
private contributions. 

The great desire on the part of the majority of employed women 
is a home of their own. This was shown in every group studied. 

Thus the study of housing for self-supporting women, and 
incidentally of social morality in which it is such a vital fac- 
tor, is brought back to economic foundations. A room with 
bath and kitchenette somehow does not seem an outrageous 
demand for a school teacher, a store clerk or even a girl in 
less ambitious employment. It would be difficult to trace how 
many girls of a given number " go wrong " because they have 
nothing they can call a home to which to retire when they 
are out of sorts. Even more difficult though probably far 
more significant would it be to trace the number of marriages 
entered into hastily and half-heartedly, as the result of cheer- 
less evenings and boring Sundays spent in lonely hall-bed- 
rooms or in the company of uncongenial girl mates — mar- 
riages which in their turn produce our ever-growing annual 
crop of divorces and nervous disorders. The experiments in 
the housing of working women reviewed in this report sug- 
gest that even with limited means it is possible to provide all 
that is necessary in comfort, safety and a minimum of beauty. 

But such homes cannot be built now in numbers adequate to 
meet the demand. There are no signs of changes in the build- 
ing situation — either in New York or other cities — that 
promise a sufficient commercial return for investment of capi- 
tal in dwellings if they are let at rents which persons work- 
ing for their living can afford to pay. 

The Atlanta Zoning Plan 

THE zone plan recently prepared for Atlanta, Georgia, 
by Robert Whitten, of Cleveland, perhaps the most 
influential zoning adviser in the United States, has met with 
relatively little opposition compared with that experienced 
in other cities. In addition to the usual height, area and 
use districts, it is the first to embody in an outspoken form 
segregation along the line of social composition of the popu- 
lation. When it was pointed out in these pages and else- 
where [see more especially the Survey for March 6 and 
May 22, 1920] that zoning regulation in this country had a 
tendency to set up class divisions between different areas 
marked for residential use, this interpretation was hotly re- 
sented by some of the men responsible for drafting them. 
The zone plan for Atlanta is a logical outcome of that ten- 
dency. It subdivides residential districts into three race dis- 
tricts, white, colored and undetermined. No colored family 
may move into the select areas reserved for whites; similarly 
in the colored section no house not already occupied by whites 
may hereafter be thus occupied. Servants' quarters, how- 
ever, in either case, are permitted to be inhabited by those 
of the other race if they are on the same lot as the residence 
of the employer. The report containing this proposal adds: 

It is essential in the interest of the public peace, order and security 
and will promote the welfare and prosperity of both the white and 
colored races. Care has been taken to prevent discrimination and 
to provide adequate space for the expansion of the housing areas 
of each race without encroaching on the areas now occupied by 
the other. 

Such opposition as there was during the hearings on the 
ordinance seems to have come chiefly from real estate men 
who saw themselves threatened by it in their private inter- 
ests. Exceptional in this respect was the attack by Judge 
E. C. Kontz who in several speeches denounced the ordi- 
nance as " monstrous and unsound in principle." At a hear- 
ing he said : 

I see the commission has made numerous modifications and amend- 
ments, since public criticisms were offered. And I want to say here 
that I appreciate the fair and impartial way in which Mr. Whitten, 
the commission's expert, handles the complaints made to him. He 
is showing the kind of spirit that made Atlanta, and we wish he 
would move here and become one of us. 

But I am still opposed to the proposal to zone our city, and the 
hundreds of citizens who will be stripped of their legal rights by 
such a measure are going to fight it to a finish. 

He then attacked the state legislature for passing the act 
giving Atlanta such wide powers, and more particularly for 
giving it the right to segregate the races, " even though the 
highest courts have decided against it, making this issue a 
closed book." 

Mr. Whitten, in introducing this measure of race segrega- 
tion in his zoning plan, is acting in accordance with a con- 
viction that has grown upon him in the course of his experi- 
ence. In conversation with the present writer he stated re- 
cently that he was opposed to any zoning that would favor 
a mixture of residences for families of different economic 
status. In his opinion it is more desirable that bankers and 
the leading business men should live in one part of town, 
storekeepers, clerks and technicians in another, and working 
people in yet others where they would enjoy the association 
with neighbors more or less of their own kind. Nothing 
is to be gained, he thinks, by trying to promote a better 
mutual acquaintance of different groups by arranging for 
residential use areas that leave open the erection of homes 

April 22, 1922 



of unlimited variety as to type of occupation. An entirely 
'ogical application of this viewpoint by a minute differentia- 
tion of restrictions for residential areas according to the cost 
of homes is, of course, impossible and has nowhere been 
attempted, except by private restriction. The Atlanta plan 
is the first which makes a distinction concerning type of resi- 
dents as well as type of residence. To judge from the sup- 
port it has received from the local newspapers and organiza- 
tions of citizens, it seems to answer the prevailing desire 
of the white Atlantans — the more so since the emphasis in 
the commission's report and in the publicity supporting it 
has been laid entirely on the protection of property values 
as the main purpose of zoning. But as a precedent it opens 
up the possibility of new zoning ordinances embodying re- 
strictions against immigrants, or immigrants of certain races, 
against persons of certain occupations, political or religious 
affiliations, or modes of life. As such it deserves very serious 
consideration by all students of city development. 

Municipal Rest Rooms 

MANY towns have found it profitable to establish and 
maintain rest rooms for the use of their citizens and 
for women from the surrounding country in town on busi- 
ness. In Western towns the rest rooms reach their widest 
usefulness. Distances are great, and when the country peo- 
ple drive into town it often requires the best part of a day to 
transact the accumulated business. Sometimes long waits 
occur between appointments. In the treeless areas, when the 
sun is especially hot, the farmer often waits until the cool of 
the day in order to make the long drive home easier for his 
horses as well as for himself and his wife. Visitors to the 
reclamation projects in the midst of the great deserts are not 
surprised to find that if the project town is not awake to the 
need, usually the organized women throughout the irrigated 
oasis make it their goal to create this facility, and Western 
women know how to organize. Grand Valley has led the 
way; Yuma, Arizona, has a popular reading and rest room 
for men and women from city and country; Newlands, 
Nevada, and many other projects have similar work in vary- 
ing stages of progress. 

It has been found that the greatest use is made of such a 
room when it is located in a public building to which all cit- 
izens feel a certain right. For this reason, if the town is a 
county seat, a room in the courthouse seems to appeal most 
readily to the country people. Norwalk, Ohio, after wit- 
nessing the efforts of local women's clubs to maintain a 
ented rest room, arranged with Huron County to have a 

Values of neiqhbo 
mq residences have 
,Jbeen cut in half by 
*this store 

These homes 
have been 
blanketed by 
iqh walls of 

The high Apartment Houses built out to the sidewalk line cut 
off liqht and view from neiqhborinq buildinqs. 

When the entire block is built up with similar Apartments 
there will be no room for lawn or trees — nothinq but 
pavement and bare brick walls. 



Admirably illustrated in the report of the Atlanta City 
Planning Commission 

room set aside for this purpose when the plans for a county 
courthouse were drawn. The county further appropriated 
$100 to be used toward furnishings and equipment. This 
was before the war, when such an amount went a long way. 
The county commissioners of Logan County, Oklahoma, 
devoted a room in its courthouse at Guthrie for use as a rest 

In larger towns the place where town and country meet is 
likely to be at the market. The civic league of Knoxville, 
Tennessee, was instrumental in securing a rest room, on the 
second floor of the public market building. Center Market, 
Washington, D. C, then municipally owned though pri- 
vately operated removed two stalls and built a balcony over 
this space for a rest room, furnished it attractively, provided 
a matron for eight hours of the day, and gave free telephone 
service to all departments of the market. Detroit has just 
made large improvements in its Eastern Municipal Market 
which include a newly built woman's rest room equipped 
with couch, library table and half a dozen comfortable rock- 
ers. It is connected with a comfort station and lavatories 
with hot and cold water, mirrors and other conveniences. 

County agents and chambers of commerce often take a 
leading part in establishing rest rooms or meeting places, and 
sometimes provide the room. Civic leagues and women's 
organizations sometimes awaken initial interest in this en- 
terprise and aid in furnishing and equipping the room. They 
are especally valuable in oversight during maintenance and 
often take a keen interest in seeing to it that the room and the 
surroundings are clean, convenient and attractive. 

One of the best examples of team work among all of these 
agencies is found at Grand Junction, Colorado. Mesa 
County and the city of Grand Junction appropriated equal 
amounts of money from the county and town funds to pay 
for the rent and heat of a convenient, first-floor room since 
no space was available in a public building. Several rural 
women's clubs in outlying regions of the Grand Valley were 
so federated that they were able to secure the necessary funds 
for furniture and upkeep from among their members and 
from merchants in the town. This enterprise also serves as 
an excellent illustration of the development of other activities 
in connection with the rest room. While many rooms may 
be found with one or more affiliated undertakings, the one at 
Grand Junction seems to combine them all. With an in- 
dustrious and missionary-minded matron in charge, who is 
chosen from the membership of the federated rural clubs, a 
loan library has been developed; hot lunches are served to 
school children from the outlying ranches ; smaller children 
are cared for on much the same lines as in a day nursery; 



April 22, 1922 

space has been sublet for aiwoman's exchange ; and a restau- 
rant has recently been developed both as a service and as a 
means of profit for this community business. 

Every large department store in every large city finds it 
desirable and presumably profitable to provide a rest and 
waiting room for its patrons. Why then should not every 
growing town, not yet supplied with mercantile establish- 
ments of such size but desirous of building up patronage from 
the surrounding country, find profit in a similar investment? 
And the resultant relationship between urban and rural cit- 
izen is as great a benefit as any purely economic return. 

Caroline B. Sherman. 
Assistant in Market Information, 
U. S. Department of Agriculture. 

Civic News 

WITH the approval of a bond issue for two and a half 
million dollars, the citizens of Milwaukee have taken 
a further big step in the advancement of their ambitious city 
planning project. This money will be spent on the creation 
of a large artery through the center of the city and is part 
of the scheme for an imposing civic center. The vote was 
supported by both parties. 

A CHARTER has been secured for the incorporation of the 
Farm Cities Corporation of America, an organization for 
the promotion of a pioneer community in some of its aims 
similar to the English garden city but planned to meet the 
needs primarily of a rural rather than an industrial popula- 
tion. An imposing list of experts and other prominent per- 
sons are associated with the venture, including F. H. Newell, 
former chief of the United States Reclamation Service, John 
Nolen, Thomas Adams, Hugh MacRae, J. A. Bonsteel, soil 
expert, George H. Bell, Harrington Emerson, George E. 
Roberts. In the words of its prospectus, the corporation in- 
tends to make " actual working : demonstrations of attractive 
and remunerative country-life." 

It is believed that this purpose can be accomplished by the 
establishment, under certain conditions, of communities which shall 
be essentially agricultural in nature, but which shall also contain 
certain industries supplemental to agricultural activities. 

In other words, a " well balanced economic life " is aimed 
for; and the means to this are to be careful selection of a 
healthful location suitable for the experiment; scientific city 
management ; ample provision for intellectual and social de- 
velopment ; the devotion of all revenue beyond the return on 
capital to the welfare of the community; ultimate transfer of 
all rights and properties to the inhabitants for a fair consid- 
eration; democratic organization. A pioneer company with 
an authorized capital of $50,000 has been formed and is en- 
gaged in preliminary studies for the selection of a site of 
about 10,000 acres of fertile and suitable land and the plan- 
ning of the lay-out of the community. Subdivision and sep- 
arate sale of the farm land in small holdings to carefully se- 
lected holders under restrictions that will enable the corpo- 
ration to control the development of the community is the 
economic plan which, therefore, departs radically from that 
of the English garden cities which are based on permanent 
common ownership of the land. A training farm and center 
of agricultural cooperation, a town center for the develop- 
ment of industries and the provision of educational and so- 
cial facilities are other features of the project. 

WATER supply and conservation play an important part in 
the planning project of Los Angeles county, California. Two 
conferences have so far been held, one in January and one 
this month, for the discussion not only of broad principles but 
also of practical details. Since the flood of 191 3, the county 
has spent some five million dollars on stream control. But, 
says the first report, the county will not be safe from storm- 

water damage until the whole of the watershed of the moun- 
tains that overtop the county has been impounded. Another 
necessity is the re-afforestation of the San Gabriel Moun- 
tains whose denudation by fire is a constant danger of floods ; 
but this it will take forty years to accomplish, and in the 
meantime the Los Angeles valleys must be protected. Other 
strong bonds between the cooperating communities are their 
common need for better inter-communication and transporta- 
tion, for uniform zoning, for parks and pleasure roads, for 
more effective sewage disposal and sanitation, and for finan- 
cial economy. 

AFTER accepting a tentative zoning plan last year, the City 
Planning Commission of Akron, Ohio, has now issued a re- 
port on the limitation of heights of building. In it occurs 
this interesting, and probably to many surprising, statement : 
There is little if any relation between property values and heights 
of buildings. In retail business districts the frontage value is 
dependent upon the rental returns from the first floor. The rentals 
from the floors above the first floor will not more than pay a fair 
interest return on the cost of the structure. If a 10-story building 
will not pay on a lot of high value, a 12- or 15-story building will 
be unprofitable. In St. Louis and Newark, N. J., where heights 
are limited to ISO feet, land values are as high as $15,000 per 
front foot. 

PHILADELPHIA'S first comprehensive exhibition of folk 
art has recently closed. It was organized by the Art Alliance 
at its home on Rittenhouse Square and included both ex- 
amples of foreign folk-arts and of crafts practiced, under the 
guidance of various organizations, by immigrants in America. 
The general impression made by the exhibition is described 
by a visitor as follows: 

In the mingling of many different types of ornamentation and 
design from various localities, placed in close proximity, there was 
a certain harmony: all were the expression of the art instinct of 
the peoples who for centuries have dwelt upon a soil where art 
was not a cultivated or exotic product but a natural inheritance, 
handed down from generation to generation — sometimes with roots 
far back in the great days of antiquity. And while this peasant 
art is primitive, in a sense, it is not so in the sense of a barbaric 
isolation, as in the case of South Sea Island productions or those 
of our own Indian tribes. 

The* holding of this exhibition and that of similar ones in 
recent years elsewhere are evidence not only of a more en- 
lightened effort at " Americanization " that no longer seeks 
to throw all inherited talents into a common melting pot but 
also of a new desire on the part of the younger generation to 
salvage something of the art of their forefathers and to find 
outlets for a creative instinct that is not satisfied with the me- 
chanical processes of shop and office. There is greater demand 
for instruction in design and handicrafts; and for the organ- 
ization of markets through which individuals may make their 
handiwork not only enjoyable but at the same time profitable. 
Mary MacAlister, of Philadelphia, describes how ineffective 
the unaided efforts of the foreign-born in this direction as 
yet often are: 

Foreign handicrafts must be adapted to meet American condi- 
tions in order to make them salable. The materials used must be 
better than the workers left to themselves could afford. It does 
not pay, for instance, to lavish skilled embroidery on a poor basis. 
There was an example of this in a Czecho-SIovakian apron 
in the exhibition which, in spite of being made of the cheapest 
black "paper muslin,'' was greatly admired. For, the embroiderv 
was of such unusually beautiful design, color and execution that if 
done on suitable material, for a less humble sort of garment, it 
would command a "high price. The Russian cross stitch, originally 
done in elaborate patterns on coarse materials, is adaptable for 
crepe de chine blouses as well as for good weaves of linen and 
some fine upholstery stuffs for curtains. 

BUILDING COSTS, according to a carefully prepared 
report of the Chemical National Bank, New York, have 
remained almost stationary since last September, in spite 
of a reduction in labor costs. The cost of a two-story frame 
house of seven rooms, in March, was still 171 per cent 
above the cost of erecting the same structure in 1914: .1 
drastic decline in cost is not considered probable. 


Conducted by 

A Great Judge 

FRANKFORT-ON-THE-MAIN has the best juv- 
enile court in Germany, perhaps on the continent. 
This is true not only in respect to organization but 
more particularly as regards the personality of the 
judge. K. Allmenroeder is a " born " juvenile court judge; 
and the fame of the juvenile court in Frankfort is entirely 
owing to him. He has recognized the essential character 
of his task — that a juvenile court has real justification only 
when the judge tries to enter the mental life of the juvenile 
delinquent, to sense the underlying tendencies that lead to 
crime, to enter into so intimate a relationship to the boy 
or girl as to secure confidence; for only such a contact makes 
it possible to exercise an educational influence. 

During a session of Allmenroeder's court the impression 
grows on the observer that this judge enters each case with 
a clear plan, that he is always conscious of the fact that he 
has before him a child who can be influenced in one way or 
another, and that it is his task to discover the right way. 
This is the more important because the German juvenile 
judge deals only with delinquents between twelve and 
eighteen years of age; that is with children during the period 
of most definitive mental growth. 

In the center of the proceedings, for this reason, is always 
the child himself. And the main aim is to secure his full, 
open confession. This confession is for Allmenroeder proof 
that he has gained the confidence of the child. Witnesses 
and evidence play a secondary part, and the judge uses them 
only for purposes of corroboration. Only rarely, when he 
does not succeed in bringing the child to a full confession, 
does he convict on such evidence. But in his eyes that resort 
is proof of his own failure. How much he dislikes to use 
that means and how much he tries to remove all obstacles be- 
tween himself and the juvenile delinquent is shown by the 
fact that he does not mind the amount of time consumed. 
Not infrequently he spends a full two hours in argument 
over a case; and the sessions of his court often last, without 
interruption from nine o'clock until two or three. Since 
Judge Allmenroeder disdains all use of pressure, such as 
threats, his difficulties often are very great. For, among 
these juvenile miscreants there are many who have never 
learned to obey except when forced and who will employ any 
means that promises escape from that force. And how could 
they think or act otherwise, when they have seen grown up 
people behave in that way every day, when perhaps never in 
their lives have they got a real conception of what truthful- 
ness means, when they do not know that there are laws bind- 
ing humanity that must not be violated. Such laws, as All- 
menroeder believes, are not those of the criminal code but 
those inherent in any human community, laws of truthful- 
ness and mutual trust. 

To demonstrate these laws to children might seem an im- 
possible task if it were not for Allmenroeder's ability to make 
the proceedings of the juvenile court so impressive an experi- 
ence in the life of the child that few to whom it comes will 
ever forget it. Judge Allmenroeder has developed into a 
high art the creation of an atmosphere during every session 
of the court which varies with the mentality of each boy or 
girl before him. Fear and timidity are inhibitions; hence 
Allmenroeder smiles and raises smiles so that the boy before^ 
the railing is astonished to find himself in the presence not 
of a " stern judge " but a fellow human being to whom he 
can tell everything quite simply and exactly as it happened. 
Or perhaps a boy comes in who has been accustomed to be 
regarded and treated by everybody as a " bad boy." What 
does it matter whether he lies or speaks the truth ! But, 

curiously, here in court that man in the black robe talks to 
him quietly and earnestly. He even begins by saying: " I 
know you are a good and honest fellow," and says it in such 
a way one cannot doubt he really means it. Why tell lies 
to him ? In this way, Judge Allmenroeder nearly always hits 
exactly the right tone ; indeed, it is often amazing to watch 
with what ease and how as a matter of course he finds for 
every child exactly the language he x can understand. All- 
menroeder's secret, in part at least, surely is that he is not 
as a rule seriously concerned with the misdeed that has been 
committed but very seriously with the defendant as a human 
being, and therefore always appeals to whatever he finds of 
good in him. 

Proceedings of this character are more difficult for a Ger- 
man juvenile court judge than they would be for an Ameri- 
can; for, the juvenile court in Germany is yet a division of 
the criminal court, and the judge has to follow the rulings 
of the criminal code. But Allmenroeder does not permit 
these rulings to bind him down completely. If in a given 
case they become a serious obstacle, he is prepared — fully 
conscious of his responsibility — to overlook them for the sake 
of his young friend. Such cases, however, are rare. Yet, 
Allmenroeder has sometimes been attacked on their account. 

Two cases may serve further to illustrate Judge Allmen- 
roeder's conception of his task and his method : 

A BOY of medium height, sixteen years old, walks to the railing 
with lively and self-possessed step. His intelligent face and 
bright eyes indicate mental capacity above the average. He is ac- 
cused of having stolen a considerable amount of money. The evi- 
dence of the state attorney is faulty, and all endeavors on his part to 
get the boy to confess have failed. Allmenroeder has at once noticed 
the bright nature of the boy. For several seconds he quietly regards 
him, then he rapidly goes through the papers, and is ready for action. 
After reading the formal charge, he says to the boy: 

" This document which I have in my hands, as you have heard, 
charges you with theft. Quite a heap of papers are attached to it 
which try to prove your guilt. Among them there are also a few 
which speak in your favor, which say, for example, that you are 
a clever boy and on the whole of good behavior. But I can see 
for myself that you are an intelligent fellow and therefore I will 
talk with you quite openly. I do not know for certain whether you 
have done what you are accused of doing. No one can prove it, 
and everything that has been brought up against you, does not suffice 
for me to convict you. Therefore, if you continue before this court 
to affirm that you have not stolen, you will go home unpunished, 
and no one will be able to say anything against you. If, however, 
you do admit the act, I shall be obliged to punish you and you will 
have a police record. That is as the matter stands looked at from 
the outside. But regarded in another way, it looks quite different. 
If you really have committed the theft, I should feel certain that 
you are already quite determined never again to do anything like 
it. Otherwise you could not come before me so self-possessed and 
look me so freely in the eye. As I know you, you have already 
realized that you have done wrong and are determined to get back 
on the right path. But have you given thought to the fact that it 
is impossible to start an upright life with a lie? That only an 
open confession of the truth can lead to real liberty? That no one 
has the superhuman power of climbing the steep path of goodness 
laden with a lie? And do you not know that when one has done 
something wrong one must bear the consequences? That to make 
inward progress one must have the courage to admit one's failings? 
You stand today at the crossing where the paths of good and evil 
separate. If you really have stolen, that may not be so bad, for 
perhaps you did not at that moment fully realize the consequences 
of your action. The matter becomes serious for you if today, fully 
conscious of what you are doing, you violate your soul that wants 
to be pure — if while you look at me with your bright, intelligent 
eyes, your mouth utters a lie and you misuse my confidence. I say 
this now to you while there is yet time so that you should realize all 
the consequences, and I give you time for thought." 

While Allmenroeder talked in this way, his eyes always upon 
those of the youth, there was deep silence in the court. As he 




April 22, 1922I 

finished, the boy let hang his head as one entering upon deep medita- 
tion. All in the room felt the gravity of the decision; and I do 
not believe that there was one in these moments that seemed an 
eternity who did not suffer in the battle of the boy for his own 
soul. Again Allmenroeder spoke. "You need not answer me now," 
he said, " whether you have done it or not. First I will ask you 
whether you are ready and want to talk with me." Slowly the boy 
raised his head, lifted his eyes to meet those of the judge and said 
in a low but firm voice: "Yes, I have done it." 

CHEERFULLY the rays of the sun, one February day, quivered 
through the modestly furnished court room, glided over the 
heads of the people and played upon the green table, the odd figures 
of the judges. They failed to lighten the gloomy looks of the boy 
who stood before the railing. A big, broad-shouldered lad of seven- 
teen years he was. The strength of his physique was heightened 
by the defiance which spoke from his posture. He knew he had 
nothing pleasant to expect from this court; for, he had broken the 
trust placed in him, had three times wantonly thrown away the 
chances that had been given him to make good. For the fourth time 
he had been brought before the railing on a charge of theft, a theft 
carried through with the refinement of one who is becoming an 
habitual criminal. He had chosen his way and for him there was 
no return. Let the black gents behind the green table do with him 
as they please. To him it made no difference. So thought this boy 
of seventeen. Allmenroeder read it all in fiis face and at once 
grasped the seriousness of the situation. Here was a human being 
to be saved only if he succeeded in breaking down his defiance. 
Should he fail, the boy was lost for the rest of his life. And All- 
menroeder knew that the bastion of obstinacy upon which this boy 
stood could be shattered only by his own recognition of where he 
stood. He did not plague him with many questions and a long 
examination. The facts were soon established, and the court retired 
for consultation. 

Half an hour of anxious waiting ended with high suspense as 
Allmenroeder, followed by the two deputies, reentered the room and 
standing — contrary to his custom — gave judgment in the following 
words : 

" We have sentenced you to ten months of imprisonment, to begin 
immediately. It has not been easy for us to impose this sentence 
and in a long discussion we have amply considered everything for 
and against it. Rarely do we decide on so severe a punishment. 
But it is you who have forced us to go so far. Three times we 
have given you the opportunity to show that you wish to take a 
different course. You have not done so. So we are obliged this 
time to set up a milestone so that you may recognize that this road 
may not be your road. The severity of the prison will show you 
that you must go back. And you know that there still is a return 
for you." So far Allmenroeder had not succeeded in moving the 
soul of this youth. Then in a curiously earnest tone he continued: 
"Are you aware what this means — ten months in prison? Have 
you fully grasped it? The next time that you will see the sunshine 
it will again be winter — there will be behind you a whole long 
summer of your young life — a whole long summer during which 
you will not once have enjoyed the golden rays of heaven in free- 
dom!" The boy stretched forth his hand to the judge and tears 
shone in his eyes. 

This brief sketch is not intended for those who hunger for 
sensations. It is intended rather to report to those who are 
engaged in similar work the ways of a juvenile court judge 
who does not " deal with cases " but knows how to grasp and 
save young souls through his sincerity and through dedicating 
the whole power of his personality to this task. 

Hans Weiss. 

Boy and Girl Marriage 

MARY PICKFORD said recently that as soon as she 
lost her youthful appeal she would retire from the 
movies. The industry has grown a whole crop of similar 
actors who 'play the part of youth. In these films the char- 
acters make love and get married before they are 
scarcely out of their teens. The moving picture producers 
evidently know what the public want. 

The extreme youth of so many married people in Amer- 
ica forcibly strikes the foreigner, declares Muriel Harris 
in the Manchester Guardian for April 11. American boys 
and girls, states this writer whose accurate observations of 
American home life have for some time been a weekly fea- 
ture in that paper, grow up with the idea of early marriage. 
In her analysis of the situation she puts her finger on eco- 
nomic factors as the nub of the question. In older countries, 

she points out, only the very rich or the very poor marry 
young. The middle class waits for an income. In America, 
on the other hand, it is easier to earn an income when one is 
young than when old. She says : 

American sentiment is all with youth. For one thing, it likes a 
gamble, and you can gamble on the capacities of a young man, 
whereas you know definitely the limitations of the older man. Again, 
American life actually demands the youthful qualities of energy 
and enthusiasm and daring. This desire for youth on the part 
of the business men makes the pay of the young middle-class man 
comparatively high. 

She is also of the opinion that the American youth of the 
middle class does not face the same risks as does the man of 
older countries. In America there is nothing alarming 
about the loss of a job as is true in European countries. 

If you are tired of your bank, you turn to the advertising depart- 
ment of a theatrical magazine. If this fails you, you can probably 
make a good income by selling patent toasters on commission to 
the big hotels. 

So far as the American girl is concerned, Miss Harris 
states that it is not a question of her being able to marry. 
If she remains single she does so from choice. The American 
girl is a domestic creature, according to the writer. She 
learns to cook and to market as a tot. She shows " extraor- 
dinary cleverness " in making her own clothes. "Thus," 
Miss Harris adds, " both boys and girls have a certain pre- 
cocity in early youth, which culminates in the early mar- 

On the whole, Miss Harris believes that such early mar- 
riages have proven an excellent thing in America. It means 
a camaraderie between parents and children, making for 
close ties between the two generations, and breaking down 
the traditional barriers between them. She is also impressed 
with the number of extremely young grandparents in 
America : 

In some ways they strike one as being a little attenuated by having 
had all their important experiences so young. There has not been 
very much time, for instance, for making a background of culture 
and interests which shall serve them in good stead later on. 

A Danish Child Welfare Bill 

THE Danish ministry of justice in 191 8 appointed a 
commission to revise the laws on dependent children 
of 1895 and 1905. This commission reported in 1920, and 
a bill is now before the legislature embodying its proposals 
for the amendment of the existing law. Many of its provi- 
sions merely define more clearly the present law concern- 
ing commitment, the authority and responsibility for insti- 
tutional provision and the relation of different authorities 
to each other. One clause is interesting. It stipulates that 
if bad economic conditions are responsible for the neglect 
of a child, or if the parents are in receipt of public out-re- 
lief, the council of guardians (which has many of the func- 
tions relegated in America to the juvenile court) may 
deprive the parents of their guardianship and vest it in the 
authority responsible for the relief of the family and the 
improvement of its domestic circumstances. In its inves- 
tigations, the council has power to command the services 
of other local authorities that might contribute informa- 
tion, but of the police authorities only if information can- 
not be obtained in any other way. The guardianship of 
a child may also be conferred upon one of the parents if, 
on inquiry, the other has been found guilty of abuse of his 
or her parental power. The council has power to commit 
a child whose school attendance has been bad or whose 
behavior is faulty for periods not exceeding one year with- 
out permanently relieving the parents of their responsibility. 
In the boarding out of children, the rule is laid down 
that there shall not be more than three children of school 
age already in the home and that, except in the case of 
brothers and sisters, not more than two shall be placed in 

April 22, 1922 



the same home. The council is empowered to grant imme- 
diate relief to a family if by that means its economic cir- 
cumstances can be so improved as to render unnecessary the 
commitment of its children. Another clause places the 
duty upon every citizen, and especially upon every public 
employe, to acquaint the council with cases of cruelty, 
neglect or bad moral influences which have come to his 
knowledge and in his judgment might call for interference. 
Readers of the appalling conditions revealed some time ago 
in Chicago in connection with the demoralizing effects of 
the junk trade on children will be especially interested in 
a clause which prohibits street venders and persons who 
trade in old books, old metal, rags, bones and other old 
things from purchasing from, and pawn brokers from issuing 
loans on pawns to children under fifteen years of age. Sale 
of alcoholic liquors and tobacco in any form to children 
under fourteen is prohibited. Children under sixteen must 
not be served with alcoholic drinks in licensed places nor 
given drinks served to adults. 

A Child in Distress 

A LITTLE girl with her mates was playing about a 
street hydrant from which the cap had been removed. 
In the spirit of childish fun she thrust her hand into the 
opening. She was then unable to withdraw it. Her 
screams brought a policeman. All his pulling and tugging 
didn't free her hand. Other policemen came. A crowd 
gathered which overflowed the curb and blocked the street. 
A chemical engine with its men was called. With care they 
burned off that part of the hydrant which held the child's 

William H. Matthews, director of the Family Welfare 
Department of the New York Association for Improving the 
Conditions of the Poor, takes this story as a text for a com- 
munication which has been given considerable space in the 
New York newspapers. " No one thought of this as un- 
usual," he says, " this hurrying of a community's protec- 
tive forces to rescue this little child. The cry, the sight of 
the child in distress was enough." 

There are thousands of men in the city, he continues, hon- 
est, industrious, who feel the responsibilities for providing 
for their children. In these families children are suffering, 
" suffering because they are not sufficiently fed, not properly 
clothed." Then he clinches the point: 

But we don't see them as the crowd saw the little child caught 
in the hydrant; they are hidden away in the tenements; they do 
not cry out as did she. The out-of-work situation, which means 
suffering and deprivation for these children, has been with us for 
well over a year. It is as bad — a little worse, some think — today 
as at any other time. How much are we concerned about it? Must 
we actually see the suffering of children before we become greatly 
concerned, before we begin seriously and with all the forces at our 
command to go to their rescue? 

Notes and News 

KING VICTOR EMMANUEL is too reticent and 
keeps himself too much in the background, says Pro- 
fessor Herron in his new book on The Revival of Italy. But 
they do some pretty " tall " things by " royal decree " in 
that country which a republican state would shy at a good 
many times before admitting them to the statute book. Ac- 
cording to a recent such decree, every school child in Italy 
must be examined every month in order that no tubercular 
germ may live and grow in him without being discovered. 
The establishment of special classes for those excluded from 
regular school work because of such contagious diseases as 
tuberculosis, trachoma, pediculosis, certain forms of catarrh, 
syphillis and skin diseases is made mandatory, as is also the 
creation of open-air schools, preventoria, seaside and moun- 
tain resorts and similar institutions for children with a ten- 
dency to tuberculosis. 

The Tragedy of a Bell 

A Fable 

ONCE, many Summers and Winters ago, there was a Happy 
Family who lived in a Flat in a Very Big City in the 
U. S. A. 

There were Father and Mother and Two Boys, Tom and 
Jerry — but not the kind you are thinking about. 

Tom was Five and Jerry Seven when Father Failed to 
come home from the Rolling Mills and Mother went with 
the Sergeant from the Station House and identified the Re- 
mains at the Morgue. 

Mother tried hard to make a Living for Herself and her 
Cubs, but after a Year, she found she couldn't " make the 
grade." The Doctor said it was "Heart Failure." The Neigh- 
bors in the Tenement below said she had "Starved to Death." 

Kind Friends had her Buried Decently with Seven Car- 
riages. They hadn't learned in the Tenements then that it 
was an Economic Sin to have a Big Funeral. It was Their 
way of Expressing Respect for the Dead. 

They took the Poor Little Orphans and Placed them in an 

There the Kiddies learned many Useful Things. They 
learned that "God is Love;" that "God loveth a cheerful 
Giver;" that the Ten Commandments are in the Twentieth 
Chapter of Exodus; that there are Four Gospels; and they 
learned to Wash Dishes and to march single file and " two 
and two." 

But mostly they learned to get up by a Bell, to march into 
a dining room by the Bell, to sit down by a Bell, to begin 
eating by a Bell, to stop by a Bell, to get up by a Bell; to 
play by the Bell, and come in by a Bell, to go to Bed by a 
Bell, in fact to do Everything by a Bell. That was very 
Useful Knowledge. 

After a time, That Bell got on Tom's nerves. He evaded 
the Eagle Eye of the Matron, took his Departure and Went. 
Being a Regular Boy, he had to have Freedom. He had to 
have a chance to Exercise his Faculties. 

So the Kid "bummed" a jit and invested it in " news- 
poipers." That was a Start. He soon learned the gentle 
Art of scalping Transfers which added much to his Wealth 
and injured the Street Car Company not at all. 

When Tom had just passed his Eighth Birthday (though 
he didn't know it by that or any other name), he attracted 
the attention of a Benevolent Individual who had Some Sense. 

The B. I. induced Tom to go with him to the Children's 
Home and Aid Society. The officers of the Society found Tom 
a Home with a Daddy and a Mother, who adopted him, edu- 
cated him and gave him a Real Start in Life. He lost no 
time in passing from a Rising Young Attorney to a Corpora- 
tion Lawyer, and then the President of the United States of 
America, by and with the consent of the Senate, made him 
Governor of one of the Country's Richest Territories. 

Coming down the gang plank from a steamer at the dock 
in Seattle one day just after the close of his first administra- 
tion, Tom ran smack into Jerry who had a Job as a Ship's 
Stoker, still living by the Bell. 

Moral: ALMOST any kind of a Family is better than 
any kind of an Institution. 

H. Wirt Steele. 

From Five Fables and One Other, which were part of a pub- 
licity campaign preparatory to an appeal for funds to meet the 
budget of the Texas Children's Home and Aid Society. • 

FOR a long time the National Committee for Mental 
Hygiene has sought some means of proving to the 
public that the traditional attitude of society toward the 
juvenile delinquent has been wrong, and " that a more log- 
ical and humane one has been worked out, merely awaiting 
mass application for success." The committee has finally de- 
cided to undertake such " a mass application " to prove to 
the public that many children who habitually lie, steal, run 
away, or become immoral, do so, not through sheer " 'cussed- 
ness,' but because their acts and ways of thinking are con- 
trolled by twisted and peculiar minds, and that they often 
need, not punishment, but to be understood." It has ap- 
pointed Dr. V. V. Anderson director of a division on pre- 
vention of delinquency to take charge of such a demonstra- 
tion. The work will be financed by the Commonwealth 
Fund. Under the plan a series of clinical teams consisting 



April 22, 1922 

of three specialists in different phases of mental hygiene, will 
be formed. The service of these teams will be furnished free 
or at cost to a limited number of juvenile courts. Accord- 
ing to the bulletin of the Massachusetts Society for Mental 
Hygiene, each team will spend from six to ten months in a 
community. Its aim will be to " show what can be done in 
the way of treatment and social adjustment of each child." 
The choice of cities for these clinics will be largely based 
upon interest shown in the work and the assurances that the 
clinic will be continued at community expense. 

The first team which has been chosen is now doing some 
special, preliminary work with Dr. William Healy of the 
Judge Baker Foundation, in Boston. St. Louis has been se- 
lected as the first city for the demonstration. The clinic will 
be established there in the near future. 

A CHANGE has come over Chicago's worst neighborhood, 
states the Christian Science Monitor for April 5. The fact 
that the breakage of street lights has fallen off 50 per cent 
in twelve months is given as an indication of this change. 
In the other parts of the city boys are smashing street lamps 
as usual. The cause of this change, states the Monitor, has 
been the establishment of a boys' club in the neighborhood 
by the Union League Club. The members bought a notor- 
ious dance hall in the section and remodeled it for the boys 
at a cost of $12,000. They are now spending $25,000 more 
upon the building. They have installed a large swimming 
pool. They have added vocational work for spare hours. 
They have put in club rooms. Victor P. Arnold, judge of the 
juvenile court, is quoted to the effect that the total number 
of children in the district investigated by the court dropped 
from 1,344 i° J 9 X 9 to 592 last year. 

' THE Child is the Future " is the title of a two column 
editorial in a recent issue of the Philadelphia North Ameri- 
can. It declares that the average citizen is dangerously ig- 
norant of the actual facts of child life in his city. In Phila- 
delphia last year, states the editorial, more than seven mil- 
lion dollars were spent on babies and children by more than 
one hundred philanthropic and charitable agencies. Then, in 
homely language a picture is given of the annual meeting of 
the Children's Bureau of Philadelphia and the far-reaching 
effects of its work. To quote: 

The salient feature of that meeting was not any of the reports 
read, though these reflected progressive results in many directions. 
It centered in one of the photographs thrown on the screen. Around 
a real, old-fashioned, elongated dining-room table were seated, elbow 
to elbow, eight "stepladder" brothers and sisters — a family that might 
have treasured an autograph letter from Theodore Roosevelt had 
it come on the stage of life somewhat earlier. The room was not 
very neat — tidiness and double quartets of juveniles never yet have 
mixed well — and the table not only looked like a miniature battle- 
field, but revealed no excess of victuals. But the eight appeared to 
be fairly well fed and supremely happy. 

" One might hesitate to refer to this as a model home," said 
J. Prentice Murphy, executive secretary of the bureau, " but the 
scene does present unmistakable evidence of the wisdom of keeping 
families together whenever such a course is at all possible; of look- 
ing to and counting upon the home as the real source of salvation 
in this warfare against human waste, which is the actuating purpose 
in all work of this nature." 

This note, says the editorial, is one too rarely found in 
the usual practice of philanthropy, namely one for " home 
care first." Mr. Murphy stated at this meeting " if one-half 
the money spent on foster home care in Philadelphia were 
spent on care of children with their own parents, under good 
supervision, there would be a very appreciable elevation of 
the standards of our communal life." 

A HANDY pocket size manual of Illinois laws affecting 
women and children has recently been issued by the Juvenile 
Protective Association of Chicago. It is thoroughly indexed. 

Since the text is largely a condensed statement of the laws, 
marginal references are given to indicate where the full law 
in each instance may be found. It is the purpose of the com- 
pilers of the manual to make it of service to women's clubs 
and citizenship classes as well as to social workers. 

THE Juvenile Protective Association of Milwaukee has, 
during the past seven years, dealt with 3,294 families and 
more than 13,000 children. In 1,449 0I these families the 
children were neglected, in 210 they were under unfit guard- 
ianship, in 657 of illegitimate birth, in 595 mentally defec- 
tive. The children were the offenders or were offended 
against in 226 families. In 157 homes there was a wide va- 
riety of causes which brought the family to the attention of 
the association. Nearly one-third of the children were 
boarded by the organization in other homes than their own, 
while a satisfactory adjustment was made in 20 per cent of 
the families. 

IN collaboration with the Federal Board for Vocational Ed- 
ucation, the United States Children's Bureau has issued an 
outline study dealing with child mentality and management. 
The handbook also gives information on the agencies work- 
ing with children and of source material in this special field. 
Detailed outlines for group discussion by teachers, club 
women, etc., with reading references are included. 

THE Iowa Child Welfare Research Station of the Uni- 
versity of Iowa has from time to time published the results 
of investigations conducted by the staff, such as Selective 
Migration as a Factor in Child Welfare in the United 
States by Hornell Hart. It is one of the prime purposes of 
the station to help reduce the social and economic waste of 
the " increasing numbers of defectives, delinquents, degener- 
ates, derelicts and social misfits " in Iowa. To that end the 
station is, among other things, developing " practical meth- 
ods of child rearing modified to suit the varied needs of 
child life." 

MATERNITY and child care were the subjects of a study 
made in the " hill " country of northern Mississippi by the 
United States Children's Bureau, the most recent one in the 
bureau's series covering different rural sections of the United 
States. Although information was secured from the county 
health officer, the county superintendent of schools, the home 
demonstration agent and others, the most pertinent informa- 
tion was obtained through the investigators' personal inter- 
views with individual mothers. The county covered 
was almost entirely a farming one. Over one-half of 
the population was colored. Three-fourths of the farm- 
ers visited were tenants. Most of the houses were 
poorly constructed, with little provision for comfort 
In fact, about 40 per cent of the families were found 
to be living two or more persons to a room. Only about 
1 1 per cent of the houses were screened against flies and 
mosquitoes. There was no trained nurse working regularly 
in the county, and only fourteen physicians were in active 
practice. The nearest hospital was one hundred miles away. 
Of the one hundred midwives practicing in the section many 
were " untrained, ignorant and careless." The low stand- 
ards of maternity care, investigation showed, " were due in 
large measure to ignorance of the need for it, to the scarcity 
of physicians and nurses, and to poverty." Only 116 of the 
675 mothers studied had seen a doctor or received domestic 
help in the weeks before the child was born. In confinement 
the mother usually found great difficulty in getting anyone 
to do the necessary nursing or to help with the housework. 
Helen M. Dart, who supervised the study, recommends: 

The employment of a public health nurse for the county, and a 
county or district health officer on full time; the establishment of a 
county hospital, with free care available for those unable to pay; 
provision for the training and supervision of midwives; and the 
enforcement of the birth and death registration laws. 


By William L. Chenery. Macmillan Co. 183 pp. Price, 
$1.75; with postage from the SURVEY, $1.95. 
Mr. Chenery's book is a compact survey of the effects of 
■ modern industry on the welfare of the workers. It is largely 
a historical sketch showing the early expectations regarding 
machinery and the later changes of opinion, as a result of more 
exact knowledge. The book is a most useful aid in furnishing 
a historical background and the most salient facts for all per- 
sons interested in legislation affecting child labor, minimum 
wages, hours of labor, accidents, health, fatigue, regularity of 
employment, public employment offices, unemployment insurance 
and the participation of labor in the management of industry. 
University of Wisconsin. John R. Commons. 


By the Reverend Donald A. McLean. P. J. Kenedy & 

Sons. 196 pp. Price, $1.75; with postage from the Survey, 

Father McLean's attempt to lay down a code of morals for 
strikers has led to some very interesting observations which 
give evidence of the author's sympathetic insight with respect 
to industrial relations. The book, however, is less of a guide to 
an established rule of conduct than a propounder of unanswer- 
able questions. 

In a search for authority the author discovers that there 
exists no ecclesiastical pronouncement on the subject, from 
which he reasons, negatively, that the strike is not immoral in 
itself. If immoral, therefore, it must be on account of immoral 
objectives or the use of immoral or unjustifiable means. Only 
two objectives are mentioned as positively immoral: the over- 
throw of the state, and the abolition of private property. Sym- 
pathetic strikes are apt to be without justification, especially if 
against an employer who has no interest in the original con- 
troversy, although under certain circumstances they may be 
justifiable. Violence is pretty sure to be without justification, 
but this is because of the consequences of violence, and the 
question to be determined is whether the social good to be 
secured is greater than the evil resulting. Public inconvenience 
is no reason for condemning a strike, for the public has obliga- 
tions as well as rights and workers are not required to starve 
in the public interest. The government has a right to suppress 
disorder and even to prevent strikes for an unjust purpose, but 
compulsory arbitration is not desirable. The author prefers 
compulsory investigation after the manner of the Canadian In- 
dustrial Disputes Act. 

The basic conclusion of the author is that strikes are moral 
when they are in a just cause. Contracts are to be faithfully 
observed, but it is moral to strike in violation of a contract if 
it is an unjust one. When the strikers have a "just" cause they 
may try to prevent others from working. They may use all 
means that are "justifiable." When the employer denies "just 
terms" to his workers and when they ask for a "just share," no 
one can consider it reprehensible in them to strike and picket. 

"There is a just wage," the author tells us, and "conditions of 
labor, hours, etc., which are just," but "as yet these have not 
been definitely determined. . . . We cannot as yet point out 
definitely at what particular point injustice begins." There will 
be few to disagree with the latter, but that is exactly the fact 
which extracts significance from the author's conclusions. 
Strikes to be moral must be just. But what is justice? 

John A. Fitch. 


By M. D. Stocks. Labor Publishing Co., London. 4.5pp. 

Price, is. 
In a book of less than fifty pages one way out of the dilemma 
of the family under the wage system is detailed with clarity 
and conviction. When the family was dependent largely upon 
the land for its support, an increase in its size was accom- 
panied ultimately by an increase in its productive capacity. Un- 
der the wage system children are a liability; only rarely (and 
then for only short periods) are they assets. In view of this, 
the tendency of industry to discourage men' and women from 
early marriage, to keep both in gainful occupation away from 
home, to prevent the birth of children or to decrease their 
number is recognized by one school of sociologists as an evil 

to be combated. If under the increased economic and social 
difficulty of marriage and having children a selective process 
were put in operation by which only the stronger and better 
fitted men and women would undertake the responsibility of 
parenthood, the challenge would ultimately result in benefit to 
the race. Those who back the project of family endowment 
evidently believe that no such selective process is at work and 
that probably the very qualities which make for excellency in 
an industrial society, such as prudence and thrift, may actu- 
ally tend to decrease the birth rate among the more desirable. 

The book discussed two methods of family endowment: out 
and out maternity insurance by which the state itself assumes 
responsibility for the support of children; and the more con- 
servative method by which industry pays to its workers a wage 
in reference to the size of their families rather than the skill 
of their tasks. The former method has been agitated in Eng- 
land and France and the latter is in operation in certain of the 
Australian countries. 

The economic pitfall in a plan of this sort is that pay is 
given to a family either in the form of a state pension or in 
the form of wages not on the basis of the value of a worker's 
productive efforts but in accordance with the needs of his family. 
In this respect, the state endownment is somewhat better than 
the wage bonus, but ultimately it also rests on the fact of the 
man's work. It is contrary to sound industrial and economic 
theory to base a wage on need rather than on service. The so- 
cial disadvantage of such a plan of wages is that the basic wage 
and probably all bonus additions will tend to descend to the 
level of the minimum rather than be maintained at high stand- 
ards. While for some workers this will be an increase in real 
wages as well as in actual wages, it will act as a dead weight 
against a rise of wages much above the subsistence level. The 
only analogy to a state endowment which we have had in gen- 
eral practice has been the allowances paid to families of en- 
listed men in the last war, and these in all countries were ad- 
mittedly below the subsistence level. 

Can industry pay an adequate wage to all its workers — 
adequate in the sense that those who marry and have children 
may be able to support their families in decency ? Can industry 
maintain the standard of equal pay for equal work and at the 
same time maintain this high level ? The writer of this 
pamphlet says that it cannot, and that some other plan must be 
devised to give the wage-earning father a greater income than 
that secured by his fellow workman who happens not to be 
a father. Frank Bruno. 

Secretary, Associated Charities of Minneapolis. 


By J adunath Sarkar. Longmans, Green & Co. 376 pp. Price, 

$2.75; with postage from the Survey, $2.90. 
This volume by a distinguished historian is a descriptive ac- 
count of the land and people of India, from the side of eco- 
nomics. It is quietly and patiently written — without effort at 
rhetorical effect, and is throughout non-partisan and uncon- 
troversial. It is the record of a vast, unenterprising, docile, 
agricultural population, well meaning for the most part, unused 
to intensive effort, either mental or physical, unduly influenced 
by tradition and superstition, burdened by a multitude of semi- 
sacred idlers, and unprofitably divided among themselves by 
bars of caste. 

In addition to the evils of heat and congestion with the 
accompanying spread of infection, India has its struggles with 
irregularities of water. In vast districts the rainfall is barely 
adequate to mature the crops, and any deficiency at once means 
famine, for there are no saved up resources. Elsewhere great 
rivers, descending from the highest mountains on earth, flood 
their deltas with rich silt, at times, however, wantonly leaving 
their courses to tear out new ones, abandoning villages and 
towns to isolated and malarial fate. The aim of the author is 
throughout to present clearly conditions as they are without 
complaint against Fate, Great Britain or any other agency 
which has disturbed the ancient current of events. 

Of the various topics treated I have space to notice but two 
or three. The account of the caste system in its economic 
significance is instructive. Certain advantages are enumerated : 
It insures the passing on from generation to generation of 




April 22, 1922 

hereditary skill, trade methods and secrets; it acts as a trade 
guild and mutual benefit society; it regulates wages and secures 
division of labor; it supplies courts of arbitration; it keeps up 
a standard of morality and promotes social feeling within the 
group; it has saved the purer races from intermarriage with 
those intrinsically inferior. 

Professor Sarkar admits that these advantages disappear as 
India becomes modernized, their influence in Bengal and in the 
capitals and ports being reduced to the limitation of marriage 
and to social dinners and gatherings. Their economic effective- 
ness has been broken down by the introduction of machinery. 
The drawbacks of the caste system lie mainly in its interfer- 
ence with better and more modern methods. The fixed occu- 
pation prevents migration and limits adaptation. It effaces per- 
sonality and discourages invention and originality. Each man 
holds the status of his caste, many of them "depressed and un- 
touchable." The caste excludes fresh blood and all self-extrica- 
tion. "Once a carpenter always a carpenter," with no oppor- 
tunity for change except in war. Caste causes enormous eco- 
nomic waste. "No non-Brahman will eat food cooked by any 
non-Brahman caste except his own. . . . The economic waste 
is as great as if a master-sculptor were to spend three hours 
daily sweeping his own grounds. . . . The rule of marriage 
with one's own sub-caste (endogamy) also drags down the best 
members of each caste to the low level of the average." The 
"joint family system" also contributes to the suppression of the 
individual. "As the few bread-winners of the family feed all 
its members the drones are not roused from their laziness." 

The effect of British rule with its "Pax Britannica" is dis- 
passionately treated. It has brought absolute internal peace 
among warring tribes and races. It has made foreign invasion 
impossible. It has made life and property secure through sup- 
pression of thugs and dacoits or organized bandits. It has made 
possible a vastly increased population, and thereby a great ex- 
pansion of agriculture and internal commerce, with corre- 
sponding rise in land values and decrease in the cost of produc- 
tion. Men can labor unafraid, without armed guards, even 
outside the ancient walled cities. Peace has destroyed the 
"shyness of Indian capital" because it has made investments 
safe, and thus lowered rates of interest. British rule has made 
the use of foreign experts practicable and at fair wages. 

Recognized drawbacks are these: Under security, the popu- 
lation is outrunning its means of support, and while new con- 
ditions alleviate, they do not prevent famine. The knowledge 
and practice in sanitation by no means keeps pace with the ad- 
vance in external security. Foreign machine-made goods have 
killed the native handicrafts and every year skilled Indian 
workmen "defeated in competition swell the ranks of poor 
landless laborers." "They sink to a lower stratum of society 
and increase the pressure on land." "The growth of modern 
industries is the only possible salvation of the surplus popula- 

Foreign capital, while increasing the range of industry and 
the development of natural resources, has crowded out "the 
belated Indian capitalists." 

Education, especially technical, moves slowly in India, be- 
cause, according to Sir T. Holland, as quoted by Professor 
Sarkar, "of the wide gap between industry and education in 
this country when practical men are uneducated and educated 
men are impractical." In other words, the man who works 
with his hands cares nothing for brain knowledge, and the 
philosopher or clerk has no interest in entering industry. This 
phase of the caste system, affecting for evil hand workers and 
brain workers alike, lies at the heart of the relative powerless- 
ness of India. Her philosophy, divorced from actuality, has its 
roots in the air and leads nowhere, while her industries except 
under outside stimulus have not yet risen from the ground. 

Stanford University. David Starr Jordan. 


By H. B. Anderson. Citizens' Medical Reference Bureau. 

New York. 115 pp. Price, $1.50 cloth, $1.00 paper; with 

postage from the Survey, $1.55, $1.05. 
There is a good deal of sound and wholesome stuff in this 
" analysis of erroneous principles of public health policy." Of 
course, it is not " scientific" — no book criticizing medical theory 
or practice in terms other than those of professional jargon ever 
is. But the question of vaccination apart which can be decided 
only on the ground of prejudice anyhow — since undigested fact 

material is all the argument which either side lays before the 
layman — there is no reason in the world why Mr. Average 
Citizen should hold the word of his family doctor more sacred 
than that of his minister, lawyer or financial broker. Mr. 
Anderson attacks the fallacy that public health work is chiefly 
a medical problem; in this his contention is probably not as 
original as he thinks it is, since even the most autocratic public 
health administrators surround themselves more and more with 
non-medical helpers and agencies of every kind. 

In his attack on state compulsion he makes no distinction be- 
tween compulsory health measures and compulsory insurance 
which may or may not be connected with compulsory features 
of medical treatment. He argues that reliance on serums and 
vaccines retards the progress of effective sanitation, and that 
much health legislation is based on a germ theory which even 
the medical profession no longer endorses. His criticism of 
medical examination of school children as ineffective is supported 
by much evidence available to everybody. 

The book contains a great deal more of a medical-legal nature 
in which the reader will believe or not believe, according to 
personal experience and temperament rather than because the 
arguments advanced are conclusive. Suffice it to say, that, what- 
ever the necessary demerits of a book covering so much ground, 
Mr. Anderson offers a valuable mental exercise to those who 
too lightly assume" that the present dicta of medical science are 
final and irrefutable. B. L. 


By Edward T. Devine; Macmillan Co. 352 pp. Price, $3.00; 

with postage from the Survey, $3.20. 
Dr. Devine has again made a distinct contribution to the pro- 
fession which he has so ably served, in his new book, Social 
Work. The writer says it is intended for the classroom and 
the general reader, and that it contains no direct or indirect 
propaganda. Here then is a book written by a scholarly man, 
and from the vantage point of long executive experience in one 
of the largest agencies in the largest city in the country, and 
backed further by contact and service with other local organiza- 
tions, as well as with state and national bodies, frequently dur- 
ing great disasters, and World War service. 

It means something to have a book written from the vantage 
point of this experience, and particularly from this point of 
view, as expressed by the author: " I am wholly untrammelled 
by any conscious limitations imposed by past or prospective in- 
stitutional connections. This freedom leads inevitably to a 
certain revaluation of values. . . . Nevertheless there is 
some satisfaction, and there may be perhaps some advantage to 
students and the public, in an attempt to look at charity and 
correction, at social work, public and voluntary, from a de- 
tached point of view; with sympathy and understanding, but 
with a more critical and more inclusive vision." 

The standard of life, poverty, disease and disability, crime, 
and the general improvement of conditions are discussed in 
various chapters in a clear, direct fashion, and with the courage 
and freedom from bias that Dr. Devine indicates in his intro 

The book is full of such pointed sentences as " Social 
economics may be described as community housekeeping; social 
work to follow the analogy is its salvage and repair service." 
Speaking on the question of technique: " The technique . . . 
which the latter acquire should become familiar to the larg- 
est possible number of people, and the common sense and 
knowledge of ordinary affairs which plain people display in their 
relations with one another should permeate social work, to dis- 
infect and correct what Bishop Brent calls 'the crippling conceit 
of undue specialism.' " 

This book will be a distinct contribution to the classroom, 
social workers, volunteers — indeed to the whole reading public 
that is concerned with a better understanding and coordination 
and mobilization of our social forces. 

Social work is up in a rather peculiar was for. review and 
evaluation by the American people, and Dr. Devine's book should 
be broadly helpful in this reconstruction period when people are 
anew trying to establish their loyalties, their responsibilities 
and the degree to which they should commit themselves. 

It is commended to all those who feel in need of getting on a 
surer ground, and of thinking themselves into a clearer and 
surer footed course. Sherman C. Kingsley. 

Secretary, If'clfare Federation of Philadelphia. 

April 22, 1922 




By Delos F. Wilcox. Published by the Author, 73 Gleane 

Street, Elmhurst, L. I. 789 pp. 
" It is generally agreed that if credit cannot be restored under 
private ownership and operation it is inevitable that public 
ownership and public operation, one or both, will have to 

This is not the snap judgment of an ill-informed propa- 
gandist, but the cautious conclusion of a public utility expert, 
with a background of many years of experience in public utility 
regulation in the service of the state and city of New York. 
It is a judgment based indirectly perhaps on this background 
and directly on a careful study of the facts brought out in the 
course of the hearings before the Federal Electric Railways 

This presidential commission, Dr. Wilcox says in his preface, 
was sought by the utilities themselves " to serve as a sort of 
national sounding-board before which they could beat the tom- 
tom and attract public attention everywhere to their financial 
distress and to the inadequacy of the five-cent fare." 

Two important considerations in the opinion of Dr. Wilcox 
darken the prospect of the public of obtaining necessary street 
railway service at reasonable rates under private ownership. 
One is the difficulty of restoring credit; the other is the diffi- 
culty of insuring uninterrupted and efficient service from em- 
ployes as long as a private company with private interests is 
allowed to come between the public and those who serve it as 
street railway employes. 

It would be a Herculean task, according to Dr. Wilcox, to 
restore credit under private ownership except at unreasonable 
and unjustifiable cost to the public. The present breakdown 
of credit has fundamental caused which extend far back of the 
present depression. They are found in initial over-capitaliza- 
tion, in over-building, in absentee ownership and the formation 
of holding companies and in the failure of state and municipal 
regulatory bodies to demand safe and conservative financing. 
These regulatory bodies permitted corporations to continue 
their over-capitalization, to pay out all the profits to the stock- 
holders without maintaining proper funds for depreciation. 
They permitted them to maintain a straight five-cent fare even 
though that yielded unnecessarily large dividends — a policy 
which developed a five-cent fare habit difficult to break now 
and which engendered public distrust of the regulating bodies 
as well as suspicion and dislike of the corporation. They gave 
no protection to the employes against the low wages, long hours 
and bad working conditions which many of the corporations 
saw fit to mete out. 

Now, added to the public resentment and hostility, which 
have slowly accumulated, are rising cost of materials, increas- 
ing competition from automobiles, private and public, loss of 
confidence of investors, and a growing restlessness and dis- 
satisfaction on the part of labor. 

"Hitherto the public has had no direct relation with the 
men, leaving them to be employed and discharged by the com- 
panies, without any public interference. But the recognized 
necessity for continuous service has brought things, during the 
war period, to a pass where it is seen to be essential that the 
employes of the street railway companies acquire a full sense 
of public responsibility and get away from the position of mere 
wage earners in private employment, with no concern as to 
the relations between their employers and the general public." 

" With the establishment of direct relations between the 
public and labor the responsibility of capital for management 
is undermined and its motive for efficiency in management 
weakened if not destroyed. With the assumption of direct 
public responsibility for wages, hours, and conditions of work, 
and for the enforcement of continuity of service, the next step, 
which is both logical and necessary, is the assumption by the 
public of complete responsibility for management an<J the limi- 
tation of capital to its true function of supplying funds in aid 
of public credit for a fixed return determined by the security 
it enjoys." 

The way out of the labor difficulties is also the way out 
of credit difficulties. To pay the high interest rates now 
necessary under private ownership without government guaran- 
tees, high fares are necessary. But high fares may defeat the 
purposes of giving necessary service to the public. To secure 
low fares and low interest rates would require rigid regulation 
in the interest of both the investor and the public. It would 

involve all the difficulties of public ownership and more. 

Dr. Wilcox does not gloss over the greatest obstacles to pub- 
lic ownership — "the shrinking of public men from the burdens 
of constructive responsibility for the performance of public 
work, and the willingness of private men to assume respon- 
sibility for public work in the hope and expectation of being 
able to exploit the public need for private gain." 

The book is neither a piece of breezy propaganda nor merely 
eight hundred pages of dry statistical study. It is a well or- 
ganized, thorough and vivid presentation of facts and figures 
relating to street railways, presented in such a way that the 
ordinary reader can understand and use them. In the treat- 
ment of the problems of capitalization, building, taxation, state 
and local regulations, valuation and industrial relations, the 
psychological factors are carefuly considered — the psychology 
of the investor, of labor, of the riding public and of the busi- 
ness public. Jennie McMullin Turner. 


By John A. Lapp. Century Co. 366 pp. Illustrated. Price, $1.73 ; 
with postage from the Survey, $1.90. 

This is a first attempt at a textbook in economics sufficiently 
simple and interesting to make possible the introduction of that 
study in the lower high school grades. The different themes, 
ranging from the elements of exchange to banking and insur- 
ance, from relations between employers and employes to inter- 
national trade and social control, are treated concretely and 
with a view to forming the basis for the gathering of data by 
the students in their own community. The photographic illus- 
trations and diagrams are not merely ornamental — as is some- 
times the case in such texts — but helpful to an understanding 
of the matter in hand. The bibliographical references through- 
out are up-to-date and to reliable authorities. 

By Luther Allan Weigle. Pilgrim Press, Boston. 224 pp. Price, 
$1.50 ; with postage from the Survey, $1.60. 

The author is the Horace Bushnell Professor of Christian 
Nurture at Yale University. He declares that the children of 
today need a new set of parents, for the fundamental source of 
education which has been failing is the home. The book sets 
forth problems in a form that is useful for parents' and teachers' 


By Alexander Irvine. Charles Scribner's Sons. 247 pp. Price, 
$1.50 icith postage from the Survey, $1.60. 

A life of Christ written by a man with an amazing life's course 
that has made him the companion of newsboys, day laborers, 
miners, soldiers, Oxford and Yale students, publishers, min- 
isters, labor leaders, psychologists and journalists. He has 
been all these things, and his book reads like the easy, earnest 
conversation of a man who knows all sorts of people and con- 
ditions and understands them. 

By Frazier Hunt. Bobbs-Merrill Co. 248 pp. Price, $2.50 ; ivith 
postage from the Survey, $2.65. 

The author says, "I have called this book The Rising Temper 
of the East because in it I have attempted to show not only the 
awakening of a billion backward peoples of the Old World but 
to sound a note of warning to the white Christian East." The 
book is written with the snap of a famous journalist. 


By William James Mutch. Doran Co. Book I, 161 pp., Book II, 177 
pp. Price, $1.25 each; with postage from the Survey, $1.35 each. 

Stories, pictures, suggestions and questions that the teacher of 
young children from five to ten years old may find helpful. 
Things already familiar to the child are appealed to and the 
stories are told simply. 


By Robert Dell. Thomas Seltzer. 160 pp. Price, $1.75 ; with post- 
age from the Survey, $1.85. 

Discusses various kinds of socialism, Marxist, Libertarian, 
Democratic, the dictatorial socialism of the proletariat, and 
various spurious socialisms, showing that socialism is not in- 
compatible with personal freedom. 



April 22, 1922 


By Edward Huntington Williams, M.D. The Maomillan Co. 194 pp. 
Price, $1.75 ; with postage from the Survey, $1.85. 

This book discusses clinic treatment and suggests that perhaps 
the best control of the narcotic situation could be effected by 
placing the problem in the hands of the United States Public 
Health Service. 


By John E. Grant. George Allen cf Unwin, London. 384 pp. Price, 

12s. 6<J. 
The purpose of the book is to demolish the fatalistic doctrine 
that war is inherent in human nature and offer* a solution de- 
pendent in part on the public control of all land so that private 
individuals may not dispose of land for their own profit. 

By Hugh P. Vowles. George Allen <t Unwin, London. 192 pp. Price, 

The author is general manager and chief engineer to a large 
industrial concern. He calls this a book for business men and 
others, offering them an analysis of the political and industrial 
disease and a suggestion for its remedy. 


By Ann Cobb. Houghton Mifflin Co. 82 pp. Price, $1.50 ; with 
postage from the Survey, $1.60. 

Fifty Kentucky mountain rhymes written in dialect with a sim- 
plicity and directness that make them very vivid. There is 
nothing commonplace or sentimental about these poems. 


By George D. Herron, George Allen £ Unwin. 128 pp. Price, 5sh. 
A new renaissance is taking place in Italian art, politics and 
schools. Will this revival spread abroad and inspire a new 


By Norah March. E. P. Dutton. 104 pp. Price, $1.25 ; with postage 
from the Survey, $1.35. 

By the author of Toward Racial Health. 

KARL MARX, An Essay. 

By Harold J. Laski. Fabian Society, Westminster, England. Paper 

bound. 46 pp. Price, Is. 

By Vivian MacMunn. George Allen & Unwin, London. 94 pp. Price, 

3s. Cd. 

By Robert Sencourt. George Allen <£ Unwin, London. 250 pp. Price, 

Is. M. 

Edited by Richard Le Gallienne. Boni & Livertght. 560 pp. Price, 

$3.50 ; wiih postage from the Survey. $3.65. 

By Frank T. Stockton. John Hopkins Presx. 222 pp. Paper bound. 

Price, $1.50 ; with postage from the Survey, $1.55. 

By the Rev. J. Paterson Smyth. Doran Co. 196 pp. Price, $1.25 ; 

with postage from the Survey, $1.35. 

By Bruce Smith. Longmans, Green if Co. 255 pp. Price, $2.60 ; 

toith postage from the Survey, $2.70. 


While Yet Able to See 

To the Editor: Every nation but the United States has 
now granted a general amnesty to its political offenders, i. e., to 
all who were sent to prison on the charge of hindering the war. 
In this country we are no longer keeping anyone in prison for 
an overt act. We have let out all the German spies, and even 
men who hid bombs on American vessels to explode at sea. But 
we are still holding in prison 113 men who were sentenced under 
the Espionage Act for expressions of opinion. The object of 
this letter is to urge the readers of the Survey to join in asking 
the release of one of these, for whom executive clemency must 
come soon or it will be too late. 

Ricardo Flores Magon is a Mexican who was editing a paper 
in Spanish in Los Angeles during the war. He is now in the 
Leavenworth penitentiary under a twenty-year sentence for 
publishing a radical manifesto in his paper and failing to file a 
translation of it in English, as required by law. 

Magon is an idealist and a dreamer. He holds opinions that 

I regard as impracticable. But he is a man of high character, 
and of a beautiful spirit. He is much beloved in his own 
country and was lately voted a pension by the Mexican Chamber 
of Deputies. He showed his disinterestedness by declining it. 

His health is rapidly failing and he is going blind. 

An earnest effort is now being made to secure his release and 
restore him to his wife and family while he is still able to see 
their faces. Those interested are urged to write to President 
Harding or Attorney General H. M. Daugherty, asking a par- 
don for him and for Rivera. Alice Stone Blackwell. 

Dorchester, Mass. 

Rays to the Rescue 

To the Editor: Our village is situated in the mountai 
of Eastern Kentucky, away from railroads or other good roads 
that would give us access to outside communication. We are 
farming people but have poor facilities, as most of our lands 
are hills, and rough at that. We have no marketable products, 
as most every one barely raises enough farm products for home 
consumption. We have reasonably good schools and a good 
community house, but no churches. Once in a while a minister 
visits our locality and delivers a sermon, but this does not 
happen oftener than about three or four times a year. 

In our neighborhood, covering a radius of not more than 
three miles, live about three hundred people. They are inter- 
ested in sacred worship and when an opportunity is afforded 
they flock in to take part, but, as I have said, ministers do not 
come this way often and we are not able to employ a regular 
minister. I, being a community worker, have taken the matter 
up with them of installing ai radiophone in our community 
house, that we may meet often and hear the Word of God as 
it is delivered by some able minister in some other part of the 
country, and they are very enthusiastic about it. We have 
raised $25 of a necessary sum of $250 for the purpose of pur- 
chasing a receiving apparatus, but being a poor people we are 
obliged to call upon those better situated to come to our rescue. 
Arrangements have been made for the purchase and installation 
of the equipment, and we lack only the necessary money with 
which to make it effective. If not sufficient donations are re- 
ceived to carry out the plans all sums will be returned, as will 
all over-contributions. Parnell Crum. 

Treasurer, Davella Community Organization, 

Martin County, Ay. 

Wages at Swift's 

To the Editor: The letter from David J. Saposs, pub- 
lished in the Survey of March 11, under the heading Profits 
at Swifts, refers to " starvation wages " and to profits of Swift 
& Company as though they had been unduly large. 

If the 1921 loss of eight million dollars (3.4 per cent on in- 
vestment) had been included by Mr. Saposs, the average profit 
for eight years would have been only 10.3 per cent instead of 
12.2 per cent as shown in the letter. This hardly seems ex- 
tortionate, especially when dividends have had to be paid there- 

As for " starvation wages," during the period reviewed by 
Mr. Saposs the hourly wage for common labor in the packing 
industry increased to over three times the pre-war rate; this 
meant that the daily wage after the change to an eight-hour 
day was about two and one-half times the pre-war wage. Thcsr 
figures do not include bonus payments which were made tor 
several months. True, wages were very low before the war. 
but no lower than in other industries using the same class of 
labor. Even so, the war increase was much more rapid than 
occurred in the cost of living, and after two necessary reduc- 
tions the hourly rate for common labor is more than twice 
high as before the war. We are paying today much more than 
many of our competitors in the meat industry. 

Mr. Saposs urges that recent losses should be charged off 
against surplus instead of against current business. This is ex- 
actly what was done, even though it was first figured in deter- 
mining the operating deficit for the year. In 192 1 we had to 
draw 0:1 surplus to the extent of about twentv million doll 

L.'D. H. Weld. 

Manager, Commercial Research Department, 
Swift & Company. 

Jpril 22, 1922 



The Week End at Connellsville 

(Continued from page 107) 

a garden and use the haymows for storing furniture in case 
they were evicted. The hand-hewn beams of the old barn, 
the dusky shadows under the gables, the intent faces of the 
men, the bandaged head of a foreign-speaking laborer who 
claimed to have been assaulted as he left his house for the 
church to go to confession before Easter — all made a scene 
reminiscent of knots of non-conformists throughout the 
long human struggle. 

AT Star Junction, ten miles from Brownsville over the 
hills that were feeling the pulse of spring and past 
bits of wood where violets and hepaticas were lifting their 
heads, is an unkempt, mine-scarred valley where the men 
of the Washington mine were out. A mile beyond was 
the Slavic hall. Up until Wednesday the mine had been 

That night a dozen of the men had attended a meeting 
in the hall of the men of a neighboring mine that was 
out. The next night when Fred Gullick, of Ellsworth, 
Washington County, district board member from Sub- 
District 3 of District 5, came through, some eighty of 
them followed on after him to the hall and were initiated 
into the union. Today he had come back and they reported 
that but 16 men had gone to work at the mine that 
day. The rest crowded the bare Slavic hall with its par- 
allel bars, its immigrant posters, its starred war-time flag 
showing the men who had gone to the front from here. 
For a while he held a levee at one side of the hall, answering 
the questions that were poured at him in English, his asso- 
ciate taking care of those in a half score of mid-European 
vernaculars. Gullick came originally from the mines of 
the West of England where he had worked in a nine-inch 
seam, bringing with him to this country the scar of the 
rope that wore into his naked waist as he worked in the 
pits. He is in his sixties, a prophet of America and of liv- 
ing the American life, with strongly marked face and a 
thumb that runs slowly over line and paragraph of the 
Mine Workers' Agreement as he answered questions. "Son," 
he would say, " I'll make that plain to you." The ques- 
tion may be that of an electrician who wants to know if 
he can stay at work to tend the power. " You- ask that 
question of me when the meeting's on and I give you the 
answer, so everybody will understand when you stay at 
work. We play this game fair." And then he would turn 
to the passage that provides for the upkeep of necessary work 
while a strike is on, and read it with the intonation of a 
reading of the psalms. " I guess they have a Presbyterian 
church at Ellsworth," my companion ventured. " Yes," 
came back, " and I am elder there." 

The meeting at the large Slavic hall at Connellsville 
reached to a new scale in size but had the same spirit. There 
were stories afloat of efforts made to induce the manager to 
rescind the renting of the hall and stories of wire barricades 
going up outside the mine villages. A score or more of 
white-collared office men, foremen, bookkeepers and the like 
took place toward the back of the hall. They got up and 
went out noisily after an hour or more of the spe>chmaking. 
Perhaps they were trying the miners' game of starting a walk 
out. Perhaps they were bored. Perhaps they were un- 
familiar with trade union procedure. At any rate, they came 
trooping back in with a rush when the business had been done CDC A VTDC 
and rows of solemn men, hands raised, were growling out, Ji1jA1\IjKj* 
phrase after phrase, the oath of the Mine Workers. " We 
want to see who's joining," said one of them as he pushed 
his way in past me. 


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This question Is discussed and answered In a new and original 
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April 22, 1922 

DR. HANS WEISS, author of the sketch of 
Frankfort's remarkable juvenile court judge 
in this issue, is a graduate of the Zurich 
law school and has recently come to America 
to examine at first hand the constitution and 
procedure of American institutions for child 
welfare. Switzerland which, as yet, has a 
somewhat old fashioned method of caring 
for dependent and abnormal children, is in 
the throes of a recodification of her laws 
affecting them, and some of its progressive 
citizens are anxious to learn from the ex- 
ample of foreign countries. Dr. Weiss, after 
spending some weeks in consulting special- 
ists in this field, decided that to form his 
judgment of the effectiveness of American 
methods he must seek intimate personal con- 
tact with their working, and entered a New 
Jersey state institution as a regular officer. 

THOMAS T. READ, chairman of a sub- 
committee on Mental Factors in Industry of 
the American Institute of Mining and Met- 
allurgical Engineers, in a recent report to 
the society points to the fear of unemploy- 
ment as an important mental problem of in- 
dustry, a problem of such difficulty, how- 
ever, he says, that " it is altogether unlikely 
that any simple or immediate solution will 
be found." He refers to the fact that during 
the year the Shell Petroleum Company of 
California placed its employment depart- 
ment under the supervision of am industrial 
physician who is a psychiatrist, Dr. J. D. 

A WELL known sociologist who prides him- 
self on his versatility in practical matters, 
assisted in moving his college office to an- 
other room The workmen were fussing 
around fixing up the plumbing and other 
things. One man in jeans was tinkering 
with the thermostat. " Do you reckon," 
asked the professor, " that you can make it 
work?" "Yes," replied the man, tartly, 
"if them fool professors will leave it alone." 

AN AUSTRIAN who has been working 
with the American Red Cross and the Junior 
Red Cross writes that a subscription to the 
Survey which he has become accustomed to 
read would at the present rate of exchange 
absorb about one-half of his monthly earn- 
ings. He has a wife and child to support, 
but he would like to remain in contact 
" with the American language, the Ameri- 
can nation and especially with American 
public opinion." The Survey receives many 
letters of that kind, but is too poor to re- 
spond to their appeal. Will any reader 
send $5.65 to subscribe for this "neighbor"— 
or preferably a larger amount which would 
bring the Survey to several of them, includ- 
ing some important libraries in the impov- 
erished countries of Europe? 

HAVE you ever heard Samuel Gompers talk 
about "social uplifters"? Well, there's not 
much left of them when he has finished. 
And the feeling of other trade union officials 
for social workers is not always — shall we 
say cordial? — either. Rightly or wrongly, 
mostly wrongly, they believe that persons 
who do not work for their living with their 
hands, even though their intentions may be 
good, can have no right understanding of 
the more fundamentaT economic problems 
that beset labor. Luckily, this distrust is 
gradually vanishing. Here, for instance, is 
a testimonial got up not long ago by the 
famous Typographical Union Number Six, 
in New York, for John Lovejoy Elliott, the 

headworker of the Hudson Guild. Pointing 
out that prior to 1912, when Elliott started 
his now well known apprenticeship school 
for the printing trade, neither union nor em- 
ployers had provided adequate training 
whereby the apprentice might develop into 
a qualified craftsman, they dwell on the 
" gratifying success " of that school from its 
beginning and through the ten years of its 
existence during which it became " the finest 
school of its kind in the country." The reso- 
lution enrolls the name of John Lovejoy 
Elliott in the union's list of those who have 
" rendered great service to our craft " — a 
list headed by Horace Greeley — and declares 
the gratitude to him not only of the appren- 
tices whose interests he has primarily had 
at heart but of the whole trade. 

JOSEPHINE BUTLER, whose life and 
work for social purity is told in an interest- 
ing new biography by L. Hay-Cooper (So- 
ciety for Promoting Christian Knowledge), 
was a woman of unusual courage and re- 
sourcefulness. At the second congress of the 
International Federation for the Abolition 
of the State Regulation of Vice, held in 
Geneva in 1877, she had great difficulty in 
getting the representatives of a dozen na- 
tions to arrive at a unanimous expression of 
international opinion on the subject that lay 
closest to her heart, the abolition of segre- 
gated districts. When it came to a vote on 
the major resolution, late one night after 
a week's exhaustive discussion, there was 
" a long row of ladies all sound asleep " 
who had appointed a watcher to give them 
the signal when the voting would begin; 
and " a sort of stampede seized some of the 
German and Swiss members, and they made 
for the door." " Half the meeting would 
have gone out and so damaged the worth 
of the voting. So I ventured to shut the 
door and set my back against it, declaring 
that no one should have any food till he had 
voted. This half startled, half amused the 
assembly, and they all sat down again obe- 
diently." Needless to say, her resolution 
was passed unanimously and sent to every 
government and city council in Europe. 


THE hospitals of the country will observe 
a National Hospital Day on May 12, the 
birthday of Florence Nightingale. The pur- 
pose of this day which was established last 
year is to focus public attention upon hos- 
pitals and hospital service. Many hospitals 
will keep open house in order that the pub- 
lic may learn at first hand the problems in 
their management. 

IN MASSACHUSETTS last year 43,024 
children between fourteen and sixteen years 
of age left school to go to work. The Mas- 
sachusetts Child Labor Committee reports 
that in spite of the unemployment situation 
" the amount of child labor in cities and 
towns large enough to have continuation 
schools was approximately the same as in 
1920." The bill proposed in the Massachu- 
setts legislature to increase the compulsory 
school age from fourteen to sixteen has been 
unfavorably reported by the committee on 

chanical presentation of the world's social 
reform movements, the first number of which 
has been published by Perpetual Record Ser- 
vice, 150 W. 18th Street, New York, while 
it cannot follow the news as rapidly as a 
weekly publication, seems admirably suited 
to the needs of those who wish to keep for 
ready reference a continuous record of bare 
facts on social activity. The first instalment 
of 26 items deals with labor and cooperative 
developments, in countries as diverse as 
Denmark and India, with racial and polit- 
ical movements, educational activities of co- 
operatives in two countries, journalism, lit- 
erature and art. An abbreviated and ex- 
ceedingly simple plan of classification is 
used. The sources of information are evi- 
dently in the main the organs of labor, so- 
cialist and cooperative organizations the 
world over. 

FIFTY years ago today the first Arbor Day 
was celebrated in the United States — signifi- 
cantly in one of the states most in need of 
conservation of its natural treasury of 
trees, Nebraska. More than a million 
trees were planted in the state on that 
occasion ; nearly a billion trees since that 
date. The Forestry Service of the fed- 
eral government today has under way 
in Nebraska the largest afforestation project 
ever undertaken in this country, covering 
some five thousand acres, mostly of sand 
hills, on which pines are planted. Many 
other countries, including Great Britain and 
some of its colonies, France, Norway, Rus- 
sia, Japan and China, have since adopted 
the Arbor Day idea; and for the first time, 
all American states this year are celebrating 
the occasion on the same day. 

After a long fight, the American Birth 
Control League has secured a charter in 
New York State for the exercise of its legiti- 
mate educational work. Some eminent law- 
yers are among the incorporators because of 
their interest in the maintenance of freedom 
of teaching. Supreme Court Justice Nathan 
Bijur, who signed the charter, enumerated a 
number of precedents to show that a charter 
could not be withheld from an organization 
merely because it advocated changes in the 
law, or even in the constitution of the state 
and the nation. 

FARM labor conditions this year seem to 
be very different from those of the years im- 
mediately following the war, the ratio of 
supply to demand reported by the United 
States Department of Agriculture on April 
1 being 111.4, as compared with 68.8 in 
1920. This is in spite of the fact that the 
demand for farm labor has substantially 
increased — owing, in the main, to diminished 
wage rates since the days of after-war boom 
in industry. 

THERE is only one fault I can find with 
the Survey, an enthusiastic reader recently 
said. It is printed on both sides of the paper, 
and, unable to afford two subscriptions, I 
can keep only half the items I should like 
to in my scrapbook. A new loose leaf rac- 

A RULING of the Industrial Board of 
Pennsylvania prohibiting the employment of 
minors under sixteen years of age on coal 
dredges was adopted in March and be- 
came effective on April 14. This board also 
has had under consideration the employment 
of minors in home work and in theatrical 
performances, and, after recent hearings on 
rulings tentatively drafted by the board, the 
commissioner has appointed committees from 
among those who attended to present defi- 
nite recommendations. 

IN CLARENCE STEIN'S article on the 
housing shortage last week, the sentence, 
" Even those who try cannot agree on a so- 
lution " belonged to a paragraph which, ow- 
ing to the Survey's chronic " housing short- 
age " for contributed articles, was omitted. 
It does not belong to its present context. 

April 22, 1922 




RATES: Display advertisements, 25 cents per agate line, 14 lines to the inch. 
Want advertisements, 8 cents per word or initial, including the address or box 
number, for each insertion, minimum charge, $1.50. Discounts on three or more 
consecutive insertions. Cash with orders. 

Addreaa Advertising 


112 East 19th Street 
New York City 



WANTED: A Woman as the working 
head of a pastry department in a large 
New York Residential Hotel. Must be ex- 
pert in making of highest class " home- 
made " breads, pastry, puddings, sauces, 
etc. Separate kitchen provided. Address 
in confidence, giving fullest information 
covering experience and state approximate 
salary desired. 4163 Survey. 

DISTRICT WORKER wanted for Jew- 
ish Family Care Agency. 4154 Survey. 

WANTED: In Richmond, Virginia, a 
trained social worker as matron, Home for 
Girls (ages five to eighteen). Good salary 
and comfortable home. Apply for further 
information with references to Mrs. Fred- 
erick H. Scott, 909 West Franklin Street, 
Richmond, Virginia. 

GRADUATE NURSES, dietitians, labora- 
tory technicians for excellent hospital posi- 
tions everywhere. Write for free book now. 
Aznoe's Central Registry for Nurses, 30 
N. Mich. Ave., Chicago, Illinois. 

SUPERVISOR wanted for Jewish Family 
Care Agency. Must be trained case 
worker with supervisory experience. Also 
trained Home Economics Worker. Must 
speak Yiddish. 4153 Survey. 

HOSPITALS, Industrials, communities, 
needing social workers, dietitians, house- 
keepers, secretaries, address Miss Richards, 
Providence, R. I., Box 5, East Side. Boston 
Office, Trinity Court, 16 Jackson Hall. Fri- 
days 11 to 1. Address Providence. 

WANTED: Immediately, family case 
worker. Salary $1800. New York. Apply 
box 4168 Survey. 

WANTED: Worker capable of supervis- 
ing Case Work. Salary from $1,500 to 
$1,800. State experience, age, and religious 
affiliations. 4171 Survey. 

WANTED: Matron for Girls' School. 
Must be trained and experienced. Address 
Elmwood School for Girls, Girard, Pa. 
Erie Co. 

WANTED : Middle aged Jewish couple 
to assume charge of the Orthodox Old 
People's Home in Chicago. Institutional ex- 
perience essential. Applicants must have 
sympathetic understanding of old orthodox 
men and women. Apply giving full par- 
ticulars to Paul N. Lackritz, 1314 Milwaukee 
Avenue, Chicago, 111. 

WANTED : A case worker of experience 
and training for a position in a large South- 
ern city. Address Charlotte Whiting, 221 
Governor St., Richmond, Va. 

WANTED : By Jewish Social Service Bu- 
reau of Chicago, man to take charge of In- 
dustrial Shops for Handicapped. Excellent 
opportunity for developing comprehensive 
program. Please apply to Superintendent, 
1800 Selden Street, stating age, education, 
training, experience and salary expected to 

THE Orthodox Old People's Home of Chi- 
cago wants reliable competent woman to 
act as housekeeper. Must be able to take 
full charge of help. Must be familiar with 
dietary laws. Apply giving full particulars 
to Paul N. Lackritz, 1314 Milwaukee Ave- 
nue, Chicago, 111. 


TEACHERS wanted for public and private 
schools, colleges and universities. Education 
Service, Southern Building, Washington. 


WANTED: Position in Social Service 
Work by trained and experienced worker. 
Graduate of National Service School, Wash- 
ington, D. C References. 4150 Survey. 

EXPERIENCED woman camp director 
and executive wants position with reliable 
organization; has installed cafeterias; col- 
lege graduate ; holds First Aid certificate ; 
understands wholesale purchasing; now in 
position to secure best available assistants. 
State salary, number in camp and location 
of camp in first letter. 4172 Survey. 



with permanent occupancy by shareholders in 
the Club, the profits to be devoted to educating 
children in free activities — all further coopera- 
tion voluntary-is the basis of a COUNTRY HOME 
CLUB BEING ORGANIZED. The land is an hour from 

New York. References, particulars about avocations and 
vocation and stamped addressed envelope should accom- 
pany all inquiries. Country Home Club 4164, Survey. 




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Is a 100-pp. 111. handbook — it's FREE. 
Home study Domestic Science courses, 
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Am. School of Home Economics, 519 W. 69th St.. Chicago 

It Cannot Be Done Heret Surprise your- 
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it. Read A Plea and a Plan for the effective 
(Part I, 30c; Part II, 35c. ppd.) Help to 
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The Social Opportunity op the Churchman 
By Cliarles K. Gilbert and Charles N. Lathrop. 
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How John and Mart Live and Save on $35 a 
Week — a weekly budget plan. Records kept in 
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Ten Cent Meals, by Florence Nesbitt. Minimum 
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Credit Union. Complete free information on re- 
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Boston, Mass. 

Fall In. Call of Christian ministry written by 
four recent college graduates of Hartford Theo- 
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nominations. Hartford Seminary Press, Hart- 
ford, Conn. 

Thh Sword or the Cross, by Klrby Page. An 
examination of war in the light of Jesus' Way 
of Life. Highly commended by the Nation, the 
World Tomorrow, the Christian Century, Harrv 
Emerson Fosdlck, Bishop McConnell, Johii 
Haynes Holmes, Norman Thomas and others. 
Regular edition, $1.20. Special paper edition, 
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Three Shifts in Steel and the Way Out. The 
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articles by Whiting Williams and John A. Fitch. 
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How to Meet Hard Times. Edited by Bruno 
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25 cents a copy, postpaid. The Survey, 112 
East 19 St., New York. 


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contains main articles on social problems by 
authorities from all parts of the United 
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notes and other features. Editor, Emory S. 
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Please mention Thd Survey, when writing to advertisers 



said Mr. Jones to the social worker, 
" I've been in this work for forty years 
and have never cooperated with anybody 
yet and I'm not going to begin now." 

Maybe things weren't so complex forty 
years ago when Mr. Jones began, and 
one could successfully play a " lone 
hand " in social work, but to-day if you 
refuse to consult others who are inter- 
ested in the families under your care you 
do them an injustice, thwart your own 
ends, and worst of all, injure the families. 

How? Well, what if you were Mrs. 
B. and the settlement urged you to move, 
the school to stay, the hospital to 
temporarily break up the home and enter 
for treatment, and the church said " Go 
live with your relatives"? 

Is the one who shouts the loudest going 
to win, or what's the answer? You say 
you didn't know all those agencies knew 
Mrs. B? You could have known with 
little effort by consulting your Social 
Service Exchange. Then all of you 
might have worked out one plan for Mrs. 
B. and pulled together on it. 

The Exchange cannot tell you what 
anyone knows about a family, but simply 
informs you who is interested. The rest 
is up to you. 

This is not 1882! Lack of cooperation 
to-day is injuring the cause of social work 
and those whom we would help. 

If you register the families with whom 
you are working you will learn who their 
other friends are besides yourself. Then 
you can all harness your ideas and 
strength together and pull toward a com- 
mon goal. 

Almost every city in the U. S. A. has 
a Social Service Exchange. 

Don't play a lone hand! 
If you are in New York use the 






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me saww 



APRIL 29, 1922 



m f MS 


3 W 



How the California 
Indians have waited 
seventy years 
for their day 
in court 

Six Indian 

Portraits by 

W. Langdon 




TEREVIO GOUNAE, a former Indian governor. By W. Langdon Kihn 

s - FUr^W" ra-vsV-T Es>\\.."T,^A'v?.XaV^x.77,5r'NV-T.F/ 1 












Health Workers and Health Associations 



*^T4 ^d+* *\+ * < 



®h? ¥ 

m ianmlpm 



> *lj at 







faces us once more and 
with it comes the train of 



diseases this pest scatters 



about, especially among 



babies and children. 



Now is the time to start a 



campaign against this dis- 



ease carrier. Urge your 
people to screen their win- 



dows, to cover their food, 



especially baby's milk, and 



the garbage can. If you 


can use our 






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poster, ask the nearest Me- 
tropolitan District Mana- 



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The Company can now send you 


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For these and other welfare booklets write to 



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i Madison Avenue 



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An illustrated magazine ot social 
exploration, reaching out to 
wherever the tides of a generous 
progress are astir Subscription, 

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A |ournal of social, civic and 
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No. 5 

\/jR. ELLERBE was for years 
-•■'•^chief examiner of the Denver 
Naturalization District, and for 
several months assistant chief of 
the Americanization section of the 
Council of National Defense. He 
helped Mr. Gavit in the prepara- 
tion of his book now in press, 
Americans by Choice, of which a 
section appeared in the March 
Graphic. Through the courtesy of 
the Americanization Studies of the 
Carnegie Foundation and Harper 
Brothers, the publishers, the find- 
ings as to naturalization procedure 
are here presented for the first 

The dismissal of MR WALNUT 
as special assistant United States 
attorney for the Eastern District 
of Pennsylvania came on March 
15. He had served notice on his 
superior that if he were not fired 
before the closing session of the 
Grand Jury he would start his 
long deferred case against the 
state director of prohibition. Dis- 
missed, he set out at once to force 
the district attorney to make a 
clean sweep by carrying his case 
to the public. The indictments fol- 

MR. GESSLER, during his re- 
cent student days at the University 
of Wisconsin, distinguished the 
Wisconsin Literary Magazine by 
excellent poetry. At present he is 
in Hawaii on the staff of the 
Honolulu Advertiser. 

MR. BAGGER'S article, when 
we first read it, seemed "important 
if true." It turned out to be both 
important and true. So says Tom 
Wallace of the Louisville Courier- 
Journal^ so says James Rodgers 
Haworth of the Huntington, (W. 
Va.) Herald-Dispatch; so says the 
head of Berea College ; so says a firm 
of investment brokers in Cincin- 

MR. DERIEUX, a native of South 
Carolina, is today real estate editor 
of the New York Globe. In the 
course of his newspaper work in the 
South there was a time when at the 
cost of his own job he broke with 
the mill interests and refused to 

Saturday, April 29, 1922 


Cover design from a drawing owned by Mrs. W. Murray Crane 



UNDELIVERED POTTAGE . Frederick Q. Collett 135 

ORGANIZED STITCHING . . S. Adele Shaw 140 
Etchings by Norah Hamilton 

HIMLER OF HIMLERVILLE . Eugene S. Bagger 146 


Drawings by Stuart Hay T. Henry Walnut 151 

PRONOUNS— A Poem . . Karle Wilson Baker 155 

RED, WHITE AND BLUE TAPE Paul Lee Ellerbe 156 
Cartoon by Cesare 


Clifford Franklin Qessler 162 

PUEBLOS AND BLACKFEET . W. Langdon Kihn 163 
Indian Portraits 

BONES OF CONTENTION . William Z. Ripley 169 

INHERITANCE . . . . Dorothy Canfield 173 


Drawings by C. W. David James C. Derieux 175 



A Back Porch Department 


Robert J. Harris 184 

SOCIAL STUDIES Joseph K. Hart 186 

Arthur P. Kellogg, Business Manager 

John D. Kenderdine, Assistant Business Manager 

Mary R. Anderson, Advertising 

Published weekly and copvright 1922 by Survey Associates, 
Inc., 112 East 19th Street, New York. 

Price: This issue, 30 cents a copy; $5 a year; foreign and 
Canada postage, 65 cents. Changes of address should be mailed 
us ten days in advance. When payment is by check a receipt will 
be sent only upon request. 

Entered as second-class matter, March 25, 1909, at the post- 
office, New York. N. Y., under the act of March 3, J879. Accept- 
ance for mailing at a special rate of postage provided for in 
Section 1103. Act of October 3, 1917, authorised on June 26, 1918. 

line up in opposition to a child 
labor law. 

The inside story of the most 
extraordinary strike settlement in 
New York is told for the first time 
vard, in the second of his series 
of reminiscences. 

MR. KIHN is a young American 
artist who has been living among 
the Indian tribes of the Middle 
West and Southwest for the past 
year and a half. 

trenchant satire on one of our 
conceptions will find an amused 
and sympathetic audience. The 
author of the Bent Twig and the 
Brimming Cup lives in Vermont, 
but she has lived many years 
abroad and therefore lets her sar- 
casm play not upon Inheritance as 
a parochial sin, but as a general 
modern one. "I am rather wryly 
amused," writes Mrs. Fisher, "at 
your asking if other magazines 
have had a chance at this manu- 
script and refused it because of 
its upsetting quality. You'd just 
better believe they have! It has 
been cast back with a horrified 
haste from all of them, as are all 
of my things that are upsetting to 
their ideas ! 

MR. COLLETT is now in Wash- 
ington directing the efforts of the 
Indian delegation in pressing their 
claims on Congress. 

MRS. BAKER is a contributor to 
many magazines. 

Stitch. Sweat. Strike. That has 
been the record of the needle trades 
since the days of Thomas Hood 
and his Song of the Shirt. It is, 
therefore, altogether revolutionary 
and refreshing to have MISS 
SHAW'S staff article, which gives 
both the romance and the practical 
realities of the scheme of industrial 
government which for a decade 
now in Chicago has weathered 
alike boom times and deflation. 

MR. HARRIS, Scotch by birth, is 
now living in New York. 

illustrations for Miss Addams' 
Twenty Years in Hull House. 

Said of the Coal Number of Survey Graphic 

<J "I think you are to be commended and congratulated upon 
your enterprise in getting out such an issue at such a time." — 
C. E. Lesher, editor, Coal Age. 

<J "Your coal edition Is certainly fine and I wish that everyone 
interested in this subject could read it." : — James J. Davis, 
secretary United States Department of Lahor. 

<] "Remarkable . . . deserves the widest circulation .... a 
vivid picture of the basic industry upcm which our whole in- 
dustrial civilization depends."- — The Nation. 

<J "As President of the National Retail Coal Merchants' Asso 
ciation I have arranged to have a copy of your Coal Graphic 
issue sent to each officer and director."— Roderick Stephens. 

<J "I certainly congratulate you upon the enterprise and thor- 
oughness with which you seem to have handled the matters 
connected with the present day crisis in coal." — William C. 
Sproul, governor of Pennsylvania. 

(\ '1 wish to congratulate you on the excellence of your sym- 
posium on the subject of coal. You have rendered a public 
service In the issue of this number of the Survey Graphic." — 
George Otis Smith, director, United States Geological Survey. 

<J "This number Is a wonder because of the Immense amount 
of Information which it contains and I think that it ought to 
be very hel/pful to miners in the fearful struggle through which 
they are presently passing." — Robert Smillie, former president 
of the Miners' Federation of Great Britain. 

<J "The Coal Number of the Graphic Is one of the finest exam- 
ples of magazine editing I have ever seen. The photographs 
are masterpieces — in fact, 1 am being made conscious that 
someone in your organization can see beauty in something other 
than a woman's leg." — William Feather, publisher, Cleveland, 

<J "Tonight I looked into your coal issue and I am compelled 
to send a word of congratulation. Sometime, if I ever teach 
young undergraduates again, I'll know where to hunt for sup- 
plementary readings that will teach them what's what, instead 
of the metaphysics masquerading as economics they now get." — 
Leo Wolman, New School for Social Research. 

<J "I wish to congratulate you on the excellence of this Coal 
issue of your magazine. ... I feel that you have not only pro- 
duced a very interesting and many sided survey of our parti- 
cular industry, but that your presentation has been eminently 
fair and just to both sides." — William J. Weir, district manager 
of a large eastern coal mining company. 

<J "I have never seen a finer piece of work of this sort. You 
have given a most admirably proportioned representation, — 
with expert and human considerations excellently balanced. 
You have rendered a distinct public service. And the issue is 
mightily interesting!" — Bishop Francis J. McDonnell, Pitts- 
burgh [Chairman of the Commission to Investigate the Steel 
Strike of 1918, Inter-church World Movement] 

<| "I have read with great interest the April, 1922, number of 
Survey Graphic and have been particularly interested in the 
fundamental soundness of the article therein by William Hard 
entitled The Public .Stake in the Coal Industry. I am very 
anxious to get this article before the members of the retail coal 
trade of eastern Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland and New- 
Jersey." — Wellington M. Bertolet, secretary - , Pennsylvania 
Retail Coal Merchants' Association. 

<] "The fact is that we are within a few days of a great strike, 
and we have been left practically without reliable information, 
largely because the press is, on the one hand, interested in ab- 
normal agitation, and. on the other, is determined to so shape 
information and conclusions as to protect the general public 
from indiscreet conclusions. Only the other day I was re- 
marking on this situation, admitting to myself that I really 
have not had placed before me the information necessary to an 
intelligent conclusion. I hailed your publication with very 
great satisfaction for that reason, and only regret that it can- 
not be more generally read." — Charles Nagel, former Secretary 
of Commerce and Labor. 

<J "A comprehensive view of every aspect of the industry." — 
The New York Call. 

<J "The complex and distressing situation in the bituminous 
fields is summed up for The Survey in a special number on 
coal." — The Literary Digest. 

<J "I have read your coal number with the deepest interest end 
I congratulate you upon your production and also upon your 
vision in taking up the subject in such a broad spirit." — David 
E. Smiley, editor Philadelphia Evening Ledger. 

<J "It will pay you to read The Coming of Coal by Robert 
Bruere (Survey, March 25). This is the leading article in a 
group of fifteen [dealing] . . . with the whole coal situation 
from all sides." — The Congregationalist, Boston, Mass. 

<J '11 desire to take advantage of this opportunity to extend my 
sincere congratulations for the splendid service which you have 
done in getting out the Survey Graphic issue on coal." — 
Senator Robert M. La Follette. 

<J "The last copy of the Survey Graphic gave a splendid ac- 
count of the Coal Problem, — the most exhaustive and at the 
game time comprehensive statement regarding that problem 
that I have ever seen." — 'Rev. Andrew D. Stowe, chairman 
Transportation Bureau, Protestant Episcopal Church. 

<j "I want to congratulate you on the splendid performance of 
the Survey Graphic on coal. It is a notable piece of work. 
I have read several of the articles with interest and am keeping 
it as a sort of storehouse of material about the coal question. 
As you know, we have already referred to it in The Outlook 
and I hope to make some quotation from it in the next issue." — 
R. D. Townsend, managing editor The Outlook. 

*J "The Survey Graphic Number for March 25 (which appears 
also as the monthly Survey Graphic for April), contains de- 
tailed information on many of the matters treated in this 
number of the Service. It covers the more important problems 
of the industry so thoroughly that it lends itself readily to the 
needs of ministers and leaders of discussion groups in churches 
and Christian Associations." — Information Service, Federal 
Council of the Churches of Christ in America. 

€J "It is a most marvellously attractive accomplishment. On 
looking the pages over a reader feels that he is going to learn 
a lot. I most heartily and enthusiastically congratulate you 
on it. As for Hine's pictures, they are, as usual, simply in a 
class by themselves. They are condensations of types and at 
the very same time they display in each case a perfectly aston- 
ishing development of the charaoter of the individual. I may 
seem to be speaking extravagantly but really 1 have seldom 
seen a magazine issue that made me so enthusiastic as my firet 
inspection of this one of yours does." — William Hard. 

<J "The assumption that there is something wrong with the 
prevailing conduct of the coal business is gradually becoming 
the major premise in popular discussions of the subject. The 
issue dealing with the mining of coal which the Survey 
Graphic has recently published is strengthening this assump- 
tion. The analyses and description of the coal industry which 
it contains have placed at the disposal of the newspapers and 
public opinion a fair, a comprehensive and an illuminating ac- 
count of the existing disorganization of the business and its 
relation to the present strike." — The New Republic. 

CJ "I want to write and tell you what a fine thing you did for 
the public in devoting the April number of the Survey Graphic 
to the subject of coal. As chairman of the Professional Divi- 
sion on Fuels of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 
I feel that this edition places more valuable material con- 
cerning the true state of the fuel industry before the public in 
readable shape than they have ever had before. The work of 
Mr. Tryon is full of interest to all readers and I could also say 
as much of other articles in the issue. I particularly enjoyed 
Mr. Bruere' s article The Coming of Coal illustrated by Mr 
Van Loon. The pictures are great. Again I congratulate you." 
— L. P. Breckenridge. professor of Mechanical Engineering. 
Sheffield Scientific School, Yale University. 

COAL: Mines, Miners, Public-SuRVEY Graphic: April 



HAT is America going to do about the education of democracy? 
There is more demand for education to-day then ever before in 
the United States; there is more dissatisfaction than ever before 
with the results achieved in the schools. What to do about it will be dis- 
cussed in the June SURVEY GRAPHIC : 

American schools are not alone at the cross- 
roads. We have neighbors groping along the 
way of learning. Leaders among them who can 
guide us better, sometimes, than the signposts. 


Pioneer and prophet of the adult education 
movement in England. He is now lecturing in 
America and will tell himself of the latest 
phases of the English development. 


How the greatest ot French naturalists made 
use of the nature that luxuriated in a back- 
yard that had run wild will be told by Charles 
Buxton Going. Such a laboratory is open to 
almost any school. 


How much of the old Germany of Goethe 
and Kant has outlived the ravages of war. 
Prof. H. W. Puckett tells of one great German 
teacher, whose spiritual ancestry antedates Bis- 
marck and Prussianism. Natorp's grandfather 
was an associate of Pestallozzi, and his own life 
has drawn its nourishment from those same 
far off springs. Though almost seventy, Natorp 
is still the friend of youth and one of the 
guides of the great Jugendbewegung. 


What has been the educational story of Russia 
in these revolutionary years ? Lunacharsky has 
been the leader and statesman. But who is 
Lunacharsky ? Moisseye Olgin will tell of his 
friend and interpret his leadership. 

Su Hu 

Shall we say that China is in for a great new 
renaissance, or for a disintegrating decay ? Ta 
Chen, student at Columbia, attache of the 
Chinese delegation to the Washington Confer- 
ence, will write of this outstanding figure. 

Who are the leaders in American educational 
development to be ranked with these men ? 
Horace Mann? Colonel Parker? John Dewey? 
Yes. But, if we are to deal with that man whose 
influence has been most widely diffused in terms 
of students and actual accomplishments, we must 
name G. Stanley Hall, president emeritus of 
Clark University. His influence will be appraised 
by Frank Manny. 

The Freshman Flood, by Max McConn 

Mr. McConn, who was for a dozen years 
registrar of the University of Illinois, writes 
about this inundation of our American cam- 
puses. The freshmen are coming in numbers 
such as never were known before the war. He 
suggests that if our big universities are not to 
break down, they must break up, — they must 
decentralize, until once again teachers can be- 
come acquainted with their students. 

The Nation's Need and the School, by William 
Mather Lewis 

During the past year Mr. Lewis, chief of the 
Education Service in the Civic Development 
Bureau of the United States Chamber of Com- 
merce, has been making a study of the educa- 
tional situation throughout the whole country. 
His is a distinctly conservative view of the 
whole situation ; yet, his survey will leave very 
few complacent in mind. 

Space will be found for treating in lighter 
vein some of the current questions at this 
commencement time ; to wit, 

A Modest Proposal for Doing Away with Female 
Teachers, by One of Them 

The replies of thirty colleges to an inquirer isoho 
wanted to book his brother on the football team 

Commencement Day Orations, by Robert C. Bench- 
ley, of Life 


Survey Associates, Inc., 

112 East 19th St., New York 


I enclose $3 for a year's subscription to SURVEY 
GRAPHIC — twelve illustrated monthly numbers. 

I enclose $5 for a year's subscription to THE SURVEY, 
weekly, including the twelve Graphic numbers. 



(In answering this advertisement please mention The Survey. It helps us, it identifies you.) 


Photo bv United States Fish and Came Commission 


And as he is no longer. Now he is reduced from the barbaric magnificence of an owner of great lands to the 

footing of an cvifted tenant 




April 29, 

Volume XLVIII 
No. 5 

Undelivered Pottage 


IKE wraiths invoked out of the past, had dropped out of sight, and an extended search for 

the Lost Treaties emerged from the original documents, first through the Department 

over half a century of oblivion, of State, then the Department of War, then the 

There are eighteen of them, still to Department of the Interior, found them at last 

be reckoned with by the Congress of pigeonholed in the archives of the Senate. A special 

the United States in this day of open agent of the Department of the Interior was ap- 

covenants and high engagements be- 
tween peoples. By these treaties the California 
Indians ceded to the United States, in the early 
fifties, their immemorial domain from the Sierras to 
the western sea. This they ceded in exchange for di- 
minished lands and for the goods and teachings that 
would help them to live in the white man's way. 
Theirs is the old story of a birthright for a mess of 
pottage and the pottage never delivered. It is the 
dark chapter behind the brilliant romance of the 
gold rush and the adventurings of the Argonauts 
that give glamour to the early history of California. 
At the time, the Senate rejected the treaties and 
ordered them returned to the President.. Consi- 
dered, as are all treaties, in executive session of the 
Senate, they were kept under injunction of secrecy 
until the injunc- 
tion should be re- 
moved. In 1906 
the assertion of 
the California 
Indians and of 
friends of the 
Indians that the 
non-fulfillment of 
those treaties had 
a distinct bearing 
upon their de- 
plorable condi- 
tion caused the 
Senate to remove 
the injunction of 
secrecy. The 
treaties meantime 

pointed to make an investigation of the Indian's 
situation. There followed appropriations of gratui- 
ties, niggardly enough — and the purchase of a little 
land for them, much of it worthless, but the real 
responsibility toward them was ignored. In 1910 
thelndianBoard of Cooperation began its voluntary 
work for the California Indians, giving careful scru- 
tiny to state and federal laws and to the gaining of 
remedial legislation, and appropriations from the 
state and federal governments. In 1920 after a 
study of the treaties we decided that the mere grant- 
ing of aid in gratuities was an insufficient discharge 
of the government's duty. 

Today there are nine Indian delegates at Wash- 
ington, representing the twenty thousand California 
Indians. They are asking Congress to pass a Court 

of Claims bill to 
permit their peo- 
ple to bring a suit 
against the gov- 
ernment and pres- 
ent their case be- 
fore the Court of 
Claims for adju- 
dication. The bill 
was passed by the 
Senate of the Six- 
ty-sixth Congress, 
and re-introduced 
in the House and 
Senate of the 
present Congress. 
Through this bill 

The Indian must accept the white man's mode of life. This jamily from 
Dixie Valley has done it with a 'vengeance 


the Indians do 



not ask the return of the 7,500,000 acres of land were the days when the slogan was "the only good 

promised to their sires, nor to disturb titles. They 
ask only a money compensation on the valuation of 
the lands in the fifties at the time the treaties were 
made, and this is stipulated in the bill at "not more 
than $1.25 an acre." 

At the time California was ceded by Mexico to 
the United States, there were, according to the most 
conservative and relia- 
ble estimate, 210,000 
Indians there, scatter- 
ed in many tribes and 
bands, enjoying life, 
liberty and the pursuit 
of happiness in their 
own way. Game and 
fish were plentiful and 
in that salubrious cli- 
mate they managed 
by themselves to do 
pretty well. 

Then gold was dis- 
covered, and the rush 
followed. The Indians 
at first welcomed the 
white man. but later 
they came into clash. 
As a result of mis- 
understandings and of 
fears grown out of 
the experiences of the 
immigrant trains, the 
Indians became a 
formidable obstacle to 

*ifty years. Below, a good home on Hat Creek 

-p., , , T ,. ' Above, a ramshackle home at Day} where the family has lived for 

1 he northern Indians, 

who had not come un- 
der the influence of the Franciscan fathers, were a 
warlike, courageous people: and the Indians of the 
South, although won to friendliness by the Francis- 
cans, clung to their native notions of self-determina- 
tion and were not eager to give way. So alarming be- 
came the record of fights, massacres and atrocities 
that a federal commission was authorized to make 
treaties with the Indians to yield their lands and to 
keep the peace. In 1 851-1852 this federal commis- 
sion made the eighteen treaties by which the Indians California and knew practically nothing about pres- 

Indian is a dead Indian" — seemed to the eager for- 
tune hunters wanton waste, a deliberate flying in 
the face of fortune. The gold-seekers hurried a 
resourceful ambassador to Washington to protect 
their interests. There was an executive session of 
the Senate. The treaties were considered and failed 
of ratification. The gold lands were saved to the 

white man, and the 
eighteen treaties the 
Indians had signed 
and were keeping be- 
came to the Indians 
the Lost Treaties. 
Year in and year out 
they waited for their 
fulfillment. As to how 
they felt one old chief 
expressed the Indian 
attitude, "Seventy 
years white man make 
promise, no keep 'em, 
hope all gone." 

But the Indian pa- 
tience is enduring, the 
Indian memory long. 
Not an item nor an 
article of those prom- 
ises were forgotten by 
the Indians — not a 
steer, nor a plow, 
nor a needle, nor a 
yard of calico. By 
word of mouth they 
handed down those 
promises from gener- 
ation to generation. 
Dying — and they died fast and numerously of "evic- 
tion, starvation and disease," as it is officially ad- 
mitted — they impressed on their next in line to hold 
the white man to his promises, unable to believe that 
the powerful and superior people, grown so rich on 
the lands taken away from them, would in the end 
brand themselves liars and cheats. 

It was more by accident than design that I came 
to know of all this. I had spent less than a year in 

— .-* .— • 


were promised explicitly defined areas, comprising 
7,500,000 acres, upon which it was agreed they 
would live in peace and friendship with the whites 
and among themselves. Also they were promised 
about $1,800,000 worth of goods — cattle, imple- 
ments and clothing. They were promised teachers 
of agriculture and handicrafts for themselves, and 
school houses, school equipment and teachers for 
their children. These treaties were signed by the 
thumb mark and cross of four hundred chiefs and 
head men of tribes and bands who faithfully kept 
them. They were signed by the duly accredited com- 
missioners of our government — and broken bv us. 
For to sign away, deliberately to throw away 
7,500,000 acres, any one of which might have gold 
in it, to a lot of good-for-nothing Indians — those 

ent-day Indians, when my first interest was aroused 
by the story of Chief Thomas Odock of Colusa 
County, told at the meeting of a ministerial confer- 
ence in the Santa Cruz mountains. He told it in 
the laconic Indian way: 

I was here last year. I come too late. I here now to tell 
you what I been up to since I been gone. I go build me 
school house. I get some money from friends. Then I get 
teacher. Teacher she teaches my chilluns. Then she go 
way and say she soon come back. By-um-by she write me ; 
write me send her things. She go fly de coop. I no more 
get teacher. I sleep in scboolhouse to keep it going. If I 
could know I have teacher, somebody help my people, I be 
so happy I almost jump off train before I get there. 

This appeal made its indelible impression. Then 



Chosen and financed by their own people, these Calijornia Indians are now atthe national capital working for their Court of Claims Bill. From left to 
right, they are: front row — Stephen Knight, farmer ; AlfredGillis, leader of the group, a tailor by trade ; Harrison Diaz, rancher and printer; A.J. 
Hogan, rancher; back row — Frank Isles, fisherman; Albert Wilder, miner; William Fuller, farmer; and Thomas W. Billings, miner and mine oimner 

and there his hearers came to the help of the chief, rounded with gardens and orchards. Their respon- 
Sixty dollars a month for six months to pay a teacher siveness to encouragement was our greatest incentive, 
was provided by volunteer contributions within a and in one instance deeply touching. This was when 
few moments. Although we had other plans, Mrs. Mrs. Collett and I found ourselves at the end of 
Collett and I found ourselves drafted to help the our financial resources; the sixty dollars a month 
chief in his desire for a regular school. On reach- contributed all gone. We called the Indians to- 
ing the rancheria — forty acres on the Sacramento gether, told them of the situation, explained that 
River six miles north of Colusa — we were con- we would continue to live with them, keep the school 
fronted by a barren waste with six little homes upon going and do the best we could without money: 
it. They had one room each, of eight by twelve or but that we would have to work together. W